Confucianism

Confucius, Mencius and Xun-zi

Confucius, Mencius and Xun-zi Shang, Zhou and the Classics As education and literacy spread in China and scholars became influential as ministers of rulers, philosophers also began to flourish. In the late sixth century BC two of the greatest philosophers of all time emerged in China – Lao-zi, the founder...

Sagely Wisdom in Confucianism

“Sagely Wisdom in Confucianism” I. Introduction Though Westerners may count Chinese Confucianism as a religion, some are skeptical that Confucianism is indeed religious, while others see in Confucianism a kind of ethical humanism. Huston Smith noted the Chinese proverb that as a people the Chinese admit to being extraordinarily flatfooted,1...

New Confucianism

What Is New Confucianism? New Confucianism (新儒家; xīn rú jiā) is an intellectual movement of Confucianism that began in the early 20th century in Republican China, and further developed in post-Mao era contemporary China. It is deeply influenced by, but not identical with, the neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming dynasties. It...

The Analects

The Analects The Analects (論語; Lúnyǔ; literally “Selected Sayings”[1], also known as the Analects of Confucius, is an ancient Chinese book composed of a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been compiled and written by Confucius’s followers. It is believed to have been written...

Neo-Confucianism

What Is Neo-Confucianism? Neo-Confucianism (宋明理學; Sòng-Míng lǐxué, often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties. Neo-Confucianism could have been an attempt to create...

Li (Confucianism)

Li in Confucianism Li (礼, 禮, lǐ) is a classical Chinese word which is commonly used in Chinese philosophy, particularly within Confucianism. Li does not encompass a definitive object but rather a somewhat abstract idea and, as such, is translated in a number of different ways. Wing-tsit Chan explains that li originally meant...

Ren (Confucianism)

Ren (Confucianism) Ren (仁) is the Confucian virtue denoting the good feeling a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic. Ren is exemplified by a normal adult’s protective feelings for children. It is considered the outward expression of Confucian ideals. Yan Hui, one of the Four Sages, once asked his master to describe the rules of ren. Confucius replied,...

Confucianism

What Is Confucianism? Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.[1]Confucianism developed from what was later called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BCE), who considered himself a...

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