The redemption of Christians enslaved by Arabs by Catholic monks in the Barbary states.

Persecution of Traditional African Religion

Persecution of Traditional African Religion Traditional African religions have faced persecution from the proponents of different ideologies. Adherents of these religions have been forcefully converted to Islam and Christianity, demonized and marginalized. The atrocities include killings, waging war, destroying of sacred places, and other atrocious actions. By Muslims See also: Persecution of Muslims, Religious persecution § Persecution of Serers, Religious persecution § Persecution of...

Petroforms in Whiteshell Provincial Park

Manitou

Manitou Manitou, akin to the Iroquois orenda, is the spiritual and fundamental life force among Algonquian groups in the Native American theology. It is omnipresent and manifests everywhere: organisms, the environment, events, etc. Aashaa monetoo means “good spirit“, while otshee monetoo means “bad spirit“. When the world was created, the Great Spirit, Aasha Monetoo, gave the land to the indigenous...

Amatciems, a settlement of Ringing Cedars' Anastasians in Drabeši Parish, Latvia. Anastasianism is a Russian-originated modern Pagan movement that sacralises environmental and human nativity (Rod), and is therefore regarded as a "nature religion".

Nature Religion

Nature Religion A nature religion is a religious movement that believes nature and the natural world is an embodiment of divinity, sacredness or spiritual power. Nature religions include indigenous religions practiced in various parts of the world by cultures who consider the environment to be imbued with spirits and other sacred entities. It also includes contemporary Pagan faiths which are...

Totem Pole Indian Native Culture Symbol Wood

Totemism

Totemism Totemism is an aspect of religious belief centered upon the veneration of sacred objects called totems. Totemism is derived from the term “ototeman” in the Ojibwe language, meaning “brother-sister kin”.  A totem is any animal, plant, or other object, natural or supernatural, which provides deeply symbolic meaning for a person...

Autel animiste. Village Bozo, Mopti, Mali. Date du cliché 25-12-1972

Animism

Animism Animism (from the Latin: animus or anima, meaning mind or soul) refers to a belief in numerous personalized, supernatural beings endowed with reason, intelligence and/or volition, that inhabit both objects and living beings and govern their existences. More simply, it is the belief that “everything is conscious” or that “everything has a soul.” The term has been further extended...

Cancun Pyramid Maya Temple Mayan Mexico Ancient

Indigenous Religions

Indigenous Religions Indigenous religions that consist of the traditional customs and beliefs (Paganism, Animism, Totemism, Shamanism) of particular ethnic groups, refined and expanded upon for thousands of years, often lacking formal doctrine. Indigenous religions, formerly found on every continent, but now marginalized by the major organized faiths. Despite this, they...

Australia Ayers Rock Northern Territory Outback Red

Australian Aboriginal Religion and Mythology

Australian Aboriginal Religion and Mythology Australian Aboriginal religion and mythology are the beliefs represented in the stories performed by Aboriginal Australians within each of the language groups across Australia in their ceremonies. Aboriginal spirituality includes the Dreamtime (the Dreaming), songlines, and Aboriginal oral literature. Aboriginal spirituality often conveys descriptions of each group’s local cultural landscape, adding meaning to the...

WELEGARA VILLAGE OF THE SERER PEOPLE

Serer Religion

Serer Religion The Serer religion, or a ƭat Roog (“the way of the Divine”), is the original religious beliefs, practices, and teachings of the Serer people of Senegal in West Africa. The Serer religion believes in a universal supreme deity called Roog (or Rog). In the Cangin languages, Roog is referred to as Koox (or Kooh), Kopé...

African divination the "bone thrower" reading the bones Credit: Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images images@wellcome.ac.uk http://wellcomeimages.org African divination the "bone thrower" reading the bones, South Africa Published: - Copyrighted work available under Creative Commons Attribution only licence CC BY 4.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

African Divination

African Divination African divination is divination practiced by cultures of Africa. Divination is an attempt to form, and possess, an understanding of reality in the present and additionally, to predict events and reality of a future time. Cultures of Africa to the year circa C.E. 1991 were still performing and using divination, both within the urban...

Bakongo masks from the Kongo Central

Traditional African Religions

Traditional African Religions The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions. Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural, include belief in a supreme creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional African medicine. The role of humanity is...

Stonehenge Monument Prehistoric Salisbury Britain

Paganism

Paganism Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning “a country dweller or rustic”) is a term that has been used from antiquity to derogatorily denote polytheistic faiths. Since the term was typically used as a blanket statement to circumscribe all non-Christian (or, more broadly, non-monotheistic) faiths, it served the same pejorative purpose as the Jewish term gentile, the...

Xuanyuan Temple in Huangling, Shaanxi, dedicated to the worship of the Yellow Emperor.

Chinese Folk Religion

Chinese Folk Religion Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion or traditional Chinese religion) or Han folk religion or Shenism is the religious tradition of the Han Chinese, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human...

Example of Louisiana Voodoo altar inside a temple in New Orleans.

Afro-American Religion

Afro-American Religion Afro-American religion (also known as African diasporic religions) are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas in various nations of Latin America, the Caribbean, and the southern United States. They derive from traditional African religions with some influence from other religious traditions, notably Christianity. Characteristics Afro-American religions involve veneration of the dead, and include a creator deity along with a pantheon of...

Tengri in Old Turkic script

Tengrism

What is Tengrism? Tengrism, also known as Tengriism, Tenggerism, or Tengrianism, is a Central Asian religion characterized by shamanism, animism, totemism, polytheism, and monotheism, and ancestor worship. It was the prevailing religion of the Turks, Mongols, Hungarians, Bulgars, Xiongnu, and, possibly, the Huns, and the religion of the several medieval states: Göktürk Khaganate, Western Turkic...

Shamanism Spirituality Shaman Baikal Russia Winter

Shamanism

Shamanism Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world. A shaman is someone who is regarded as having access to, and influence in, the world...

A Cheyenne Sun Dance gathering, c. 1909.

Native American Religions

Native American Religions Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. This article focuses on Native North Americans. Traditional Native American ceremonial ways can vary widely and are based on the differing histories and beliefs of individual tribes, clans, and bands. Early European explorers describe individual Native...

Botánicas such as this one in Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, USA, sell religious goods such as statues of saints and candles decorated with prayers alongside folk medicine and amulets.

Folk Religion

Folk Religion In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion. The precise definition of folk religion varies among scholars. Sometimes also termed popular belief, it consists of ethnic or regional religious customs under the umbrella of...

Inti Raymi, Saksaywaman, Cusco

Inca Religion

Inca Religion the Inca religion was a large melting pot of beliefs. Since the Sapa Inca was a god, religion and government were in many ways intertwined. In the heterogeneous Inca Empire, polytheistic religions were practiced. Some deities, such as Inti, Pachamama and Viracocha, were known throughout the empire, while...

Maya Ceremony Offering Ceremony Culture

Maya Religion

Maya Religion The traditional Maya religion of the extant Maya peoples of Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and the Tabasco, Chiapas, and Yucatán states of Mexico is part of the wider frame of Mesoamerican religion. As is the case with many other contemporary Mesoamerican religions, it results from centuries of symbiosis with Roman Catholicism. When its pre-Spanish antecedents are taken into account,...

Gitchie Manitou State Preserve

Gitche Manitou

Gitche Manitou Gitche Manitou (Gitchi Manitou, Kitchi Manitou, etc.) means “Great Spirit” in several Algonquian languages. Christian missionaries have translated God as Gitche Manitou in scriptures and prayers in the Algonquian languages. Manitou is a common Algonquian term for spirit, mystery, or deity. Native American Churches in Mexico, United States and Canada often use this...

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