Signing the Mayflower Compact 1620, a painting by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris 1899

Protestant Culture

Protestant Culture Although the Reformation was a religious movement, Protestant culture also had a strong impact on all other aspects of life: marriage and family, education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy, and the arts. Protestant culture is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the...

Germantown Mennonite Meetinghouse, built 1770

Mennonites

Mennonites The Mennonites are members of certain Christian groups belonging to the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons (1496–1561) of Friesland. Through his writings, Simons articulated and formalized the teachings of earlier Swiss founders. The early teachings of the Mennonites were founded on the belief in both the mission and ministry of Jesus, which the...

A map of the worldwide scope of the Church of the Brethren

Church of the Brethren

Church of the Brethren The Church of the Brethren is a Christian denomination with origins in the Schwarzenau Brethren (“Schwarzenau New Baptists”) that was organized in 1708 by Alexander Mack in Schwarzenau, Germany, as a melding of the Radical Pietist and Anabaptist movements. The denomination holds the New Testament as its only creed. Historically, the church has taken a strong stance for nonresistance or pacifism—it is one of the...

Peace Graffiti Street Art Art Children War

Peace Churches

Peace Churches Peace churches are Christian churches, groups or communities advocating Christian pacifism or Biblical nonresistance. The term historic peace churches refers specifically only to three church groups among pacifist churches—Church of the Brethren; Religious Society of Friends (Quakers); and Mennonites, including the Amish, Old Order Mennonite, and Conservative Mennonites—and has been used since the first conference of the peace churches in...

Hannah Cohoon, Tree of Life or Blazing Tree, 1845

Shakers

Shakers: Who are They? The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing, more commonly known as the Shakers, are a millenarian nontrinitarian restorationist Christian sect founded circa 1747 in England and then organized in the United States in the 1780s. They were initially known as “Shaking Quakers” because of their ecstatic behavior during worship services. Espousing...

Amish Persons Man Women People Amish Gathering

Amish

Amish The Amish (Amisch or Amische) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) known for their plain dress and avoidance of modern conveniences such as cars, zippers and electricity. The Amish separate themselves from mainstream society for religious reasons. They do not join the military, apply for Social Security...

Peak of the Reformation & beginning of the Counter-Reformation (1545–1620)

Counter-Reformation

Counter-Reformation The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence that was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation. It began with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and largely ended with the conclusion of the European wars of religion in 1648. Initiated to address the effects...

Rorate Mass in Prague Cathedral, Czech Republic

Advent

Advent Advent is a season of the liturgical year observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for both the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas and the return of Jesus at the Second Coming. Advent is the beginning of the Western liturgical year. The term “Advent” is also used in Eastern Orthodoxy for the 40-day Nativity...

The adventist church of Karjasilta, Oulu, Finland

Adventism

Adventism Adventism is a branch of Protestant Christianity that believes in the imminent Second Coming (or “Second Advent“) of Jesus Christ. It originated in the 1830s in the United States during the Second Great Awakening when Baptist preacher William Miller first publicly shared his belief that the Second Coming would occur at some...

Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.

Calvinism

Calvinism Calvinism (the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, and the use of...

Christian revival

Second Great Awakening

Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. The Second Great Awakening, which spread religion through revivals and emotional preaching, sparked a number of reform movements. Revivals were a key part of the movement and attracted hundreds of converts to...

Fausto Sozzini was an Italian theologian who helped define Unitarianism and also served the Polish Brethren church

Socinianism

Socinianism Socinianism is a system of Christian doctrine named for Italians Lelio Sozzini (Latin: Laelius Socinus) and Fausto Sozzini (Latin: Faustus Socinus), uncle and nephew, respectively, which was developed among the Polish Brethren in the Minor Reformed Church of Poland during the 16th and 17th centuries and embraced by the Unitarian Church of Transylvania during the same period. It is most...

Dirk Willems saves his pursuer. This act of mercy led to his recapture, after which he was burned at the stake. Luyken, Jan (1685), Dirk Willems (picture).

Anabaptism

Anabaptism Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- “re-” and βαπτισμός “baptism“,) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation. The movement is generally seen as an offshoot of Protestantism, although this view has been challenged by some Anabaptists. Approximately 4 million Anabaptists live in the world today with adherents scattered...

Cuban River Baptism

Baptists

Baptists Baptists form a major branch of Protestantism distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer’s baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or aspersion). Baptist churches also generally subscribe to the doctrines of soul competency (the responsibility and accountability of every person before God), sola fide (salvation by faith alone), sola scriptura (scripture alone as the rule...

Luther Martin Luther Wittenberg Reformation

Reformation

Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a movement within Western Christianity in the sixteenth-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Roman Catholic Church and papal authority in particular. Although the Reformation is usually considered to have started with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Martin Luther in 1517, there was no schism between the Catholic Church...

Congreso Nacional Juvenil de las Asambleas de Dios efectuado el 15 de Julio de 2010 en Cancún, Q. Roo, México.

Pentecostalism

Pentecostalism Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a Protestant Christian movement that emphasises direct personal experience of God through baptism with the Holy Spirit. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek name for the Jewish Feast of Weeks. For Christians, this event commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the followers of Jesus Christ, as described in the second...

The traditional story of William Penn’s peaceful treaty with the Lenape is depicted in this Currier & Ives lithograph based on the painting Penn’s Treaty with the Indians, by Benjamin West. (Library Company of Philadelphia)

Quakers

Quakers Quakers, also called Friends, are a historically Christian denomination whose formal name is the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all generally united by their belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access the light within, or “that of God in every one”. Some...

An 1843 prophetic chart illustrating multiple interpretations of prophecy yielding the year 1843.

Great Disappointment

Great Disappointment The Great Disappointment in the Millerite movement was the reaction that followed Baptist preacher William Miller‘s proclamations that Jesus Christ would return to the Earth by 1844, what he called the Advent. His study of the Daniel 8 prophecy during the Second Great Awakening led him to the conclusion that Daniel’s “cleansing of the sanctuary”...

A Dutch crescent-shaped Geuzen medal at the time of the anti-Spanish Dutch Revolt, with the slogan "Liver Turcx dan Paus" ("Rather Turkish than Pope (i.e. Papist)"), 1570.

Protestantism and Islam

Protestantism and Islam Protestantism and Islam entered into contact during the 16th century when Calvinist Protestants in present-day Hungary and Transylvania first coincided with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans. As both were in conflict with the Austrian Holy Roman Emperor and his Roman Catholic allies, numerous...

George Whitefield George Whitefield preaching to a crowd. Photos.com/Thinkstock

Great Awakening

Great Awakening The Great Awakening refers to a number of periods of religious revival in American Christian history. Historians and theologians identify three, or sometimes four, waves of increased religious enthusiasm between the early 18th century and the late 20th century. Each of these “Great Awakenings” was characterized by widespread revivals led by evangelical Protestant...

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