19th-century Dashavatara painting (from left): Matsya, Kurma, Varaha, Narasimha, Vamana, Parashurama, Rama, Krishna, Buddha and Kalki.

Articles about Buddhism

Common concepts in Indian religions

Reincarnation is a central tenet of Indian religions (Indian Philosophy).

Yoga (here Hanumanasana) is permitted in Malaysia as long as it does not contain religious elements

Yoga (here Hanumanasana) is permitted in Malaysia as long as it does not contain religious elements.

The Buddha

Branches of Buddhism

Buddhism Worldwide

Buddhist scriptures

Theravada texts

Mahayana texts

Vajrayana texts

Doctrines of Buddhism

Buddhist practices

Moral discipline and precepts 

Buddhist meditation


Buddhist cosmology

Buddhist philosophy

Buddhist culture

Comparative Buddhism

Topics related to Buddhism

Mandala Lotus Flower Decorative Ornamental

Mandala Lotus Flower Decorative Ornamental

A Navayana Buddhist shrine with B. R. Ambedkar portrait and The Buddha and His Dhamma book. The photograph is event of 50th Dhammachakra Pravartan Day.


Navayana Navayana (नवयान, Navayāna) means “new vehicle” and refers to the re-interpretation of Buddhism by B. R. Ambedkar. Ambedkar was born in a Dalit (untouchable) family during the colonial era of India, studied abroad, became a Dalit leader, and announced in 1935 his intent to convert from Hinduism to Buddhism. Thereafter Ambedkar studied...

Gandhara birchbark scroll fragments (c. 1st century)

Pre-sectarian Buddhism

Pre-sectarian Buddhism Pre-sectarian Buddhism, also called early Buddhism, the earliest Buddhism, and original Buddhism, is Buddhism as theorized to have existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being. The contents and teachings of this pre-sectarian Buddhism must be deduced or re-constructed from the earliest Buddhist texts, which by themselves are already sectarian....

Theravada Buddhism Himalaya Retreat Annapurna Range monk

Early Buddhism

Early Buddhism The term Early Buddhism can refer to two distinct periods, both of which are covered in a separate article: Pre-sectarian Buddhism, which refers to the teachings and monastic organization and structure, founded by Gautama Buddha. Lambert Schmithausen (1987): “the canonical period prior to the development of different schools with their different positions.”...

Chöd ritual, note the use of Damaru drum and hand-bell, as well as the Kangling (thighbone trumpet).


Vajrayana Vajrayāna, Vajrayana, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tibetan Buddhism, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are terms referring to the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and “Secret Mantra“, which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet, Bhutan, and East Asia. In Tibet, Buddhist Tantra is termed Vajrayāna, while in China it is generally known as Tángmì Hanmi (“Chinese Esotericism”) or Mìzōng (“Esoteric Sect”), in Pali it is...

Left: 19th century roundel of four-headed Brahma as a red-complexioned aged man, holding manuscript (Vedas), a ladle and a lotus; Right: 6th century Brahma in Badami cave temples holding a writing equipment, ladle, and mala.

Brahma in Buddhism

Brahma in Buddhism Brahmā or Brahma is a leading god (deva) and heavenly king in Buddhism. He was adopted from other Indian religions such as Hinduism that considered him a protector of teachings (dharmapala), and he is never depicted in early Buddhist texts as a creator god. In Buddhist tradition, it was the deity...

Buddha India Spirit Prayer Concept Buddhist


Brahmavihara The brahmavihāras or Brahmavihara (sublime attitudes, lit. “abodes of brahma“) are a series of four Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices made to cultivate them. They are also known as the four immeasurables (apramāṇa, appamaññā). The Brahma-viharas are: loving-kindness or benevolence (metta) compassion (karuna) empathetic joy (mudita) equanimity (upekkha) According to the Metta Sutta, cultivation of the four...

Gautama Buddha delivering his first sermon in the deer park at Sarnath, Varanasi with his right hand turning the Dharmachakra, resting on the Triratna symbol flanked on either side by a deer. Statue on display at the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya in Mumbai.

Refuge in Buddhism

Refuge in Buddhism Buddhists take refuge in the Three Jewels or Triple Gem (also known as the “Three Refuges”). The Three Jewels are: the Buddha, the fully enlightened one the Dharma, the teachings expounded by the Buddha the Sangha, the monastic order of Buddhism that practice the Dharma Refuge is common to all major...

Buddha Buddhism Statue Religion Asia Spiritual


Vipassanā Vipassanā or vipaśyanā (विपश्यना), “insight,” in the Buddhist tradition is insight into the true nature of reality, defined as dukkha (suffering or unsatisfactoriness), anatta (non-self), and anicca (impermanence), the three marks of existence in the Theravada tradition, and as sunyata and Buddha-nature in the Mahayana traditions. Meditation practice in the Theravada tradition ended in the 10th century, but was re-introduced...

Avalanche Liberation Disaster Snow Cold Winter

Buddhist Paths to Liberation

Buddhist Paths to Liberation The Buddhist tradition gives a wide variety of descriptions of the Buddhist path liberation. The classical description is the Noble Eightfold Path, described in the Sutta Pitaka. This description is preceded by even older descriptions in the Sutta Pitaka, and elaborated in the various Buddhist traditions. A number...

Upāsakas and Upāsikās performing a short chanting ceremony at Three Ancestors Temple, Anhui, China


Sangha Sangha is a Pali/Magadhi Prakrit word used in many Indian languages, meaning “association”, “assembly”, “company” or “community”. It was historically used in a political context to denote a governing assembly in a republic or a kingdom. It is used in modern times by groups such as the political party...

Meditation Buddhism Monk Temple Panorama Buddhist

Dhyana in Buddhism

Dhyana in Buddhism In the oldest texts of Buddhism, dhyāna, dhyana or jhāna is the training of the mind, commonly translated as meditation, to withdraw the mind from the automatic responses to sense-impressions, and leading to a “state of perfect equanimity and awareness (upekkhā-sati-parisuddhi).” Dhyāna may have been the core practice of pre-sectarian Buddhism, in combination with several related...

Fantasy Landscape Monumental Statue Suffering


Dukkha Dukkha (duḥkha) is an important Buddhist concept, commonly translated as “suffering“, “pain”, “unsatisfactoriness” or “stress”. It refers to the fundamental unsatisfactoriness and painfulness of mundane life. It is the first of the Four Noble Truths and it is one of the three marks of existence. The term is also found in scriptures...

The main stupa at Kagyu Samye Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre, Scotland.

Buddhism in The West

Buddhism in The West The Buddhism in the West (or more narrowly Western Buddhism) broadly encompasses the knowledge and practice of Buddhism outside of Asia in the Western world. Occasional intersections between Western civilization and the Buddhist world have been occurring for thousands of years. The first Westerners to become Buddhists were...

Mandala Lotus Flower Decorative Ornamental

Secular Buddhism

Secular Buddhism Secular Buddhism—sometimes also referred to as agnostic Buddhism, Buddhist agnosticism, ignostic Buddhism, atheistic Buddhism, pragmatic Buddhism, Buddhist atheism, or Buddhist secularism—is a broad term for an emerging form of Buddhism and secular spirituality that is based on humanist, skeptical, and/or agnostic values, as well as pragmatism and (often) naturalism, rather than religious (or more specifically supernatural or paranormal)...

Statue of B.R.Ambedkar inside Ambedkar Park, Lucknow

Dalit Buddhist Movement

Dalit Buddhist Movement The Dalit Buddhist movement (also known as the Neo-Buddhist movement) is a religious as well as a socio-political movement among Dalits in India which was started by B. R. Ambedkar. It radically re-interpreted Buddhism and created a new school of Buddhism called Navayana. The movement has sought to be a socially and politically engaged form of Buddhism. The...

A vegetarian dinner at a Korean Buddhist restaurant.

Buddhist Vegetarianism

Buddhist Vegetarianism Buddhist vegetarianism is the belief in following a vegetarian diet is implied in the Buddha‘s teaching. In Buddhism, however, the views on vegetarianism vary between different schools of thought. The Mahayana schools generally recommend a vegetarian diet; according to some sutras the Buddha himself insisted that his followers should not eat the flesh of any sentient being. Early...

The Sendai Daikannon is the largest statue of a woman in the world.

Buddhist Deities

Buddhist Deities Buddhist deities includes a wide array of divine beings that are venerated in various ritual and popular contexts. Initially they included mainly Indian figures such as vedic devas and yakshas, but later came to include other Asian spirits and local gods. Buddhist deities range from enlightened Buddhas to regional spirits adopted by Buddhists...

Devas in Heaven

Deva in Buddhism

Deva in Buddhism A deva (देव, Mongolian tenger (тэнгэр)) in Buddhism is one of many different types of non-human beings who share the godlike characteristics of being more powerful, longer-lived, and, in general, much happier than humans, although the same level of veneration is not paid to them as to buddhas. The concept of devas was...

Zen Scriptures

Zen Scriptures

Zen Scriptures Though Zen is said to be based on a “special transmission outside scriptures” which “did not stand upon words”, the Zen-tradition has a rich doctrinal and textual background. It has been influenced by sutras such as the Lankavatara Sutra, the Vimalakirti Sutra, the Avatamsaka Sutra, and the Lotus Sutra. Subsequently, the Zen tradition produced...

Jogyesa Temple Seon temple in Seoul, South Korea

Korean Seon

Korean Seon Seon, or Seon Buddhism or Sŏn Buddhism (Korean: 선, 禪) is the Korean name for Chan Buddhism, a branch of Mahāyāna Buddhism commonly known in English as Zen Buddhism. Seon is the Sino-Korean pronunciation of Chan (Chinese: 禪; pinyin: chán) an abbreviation of 禪那 (chánnà), which is a Chinese transliteration of the Sanskrit word of dhyāna (“meditation“). Seon...

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