Forms of Belief

Attitudes to other religions

Faith & Belief in religions











Epistemological validity

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What Is Fate?

What Is Fate? Fate or Destiny refers to a predetermined course of events, which may be conceived as affecting the world in general or a specific individual. It is a concept based on the belief that there is a fixed order to the universe. That order can be seen as the product of...

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Free Will Explained

Free Will Explained The question of free will, moral liberty, or the liberum arbitrium of the Schoolmen, ranks amongst the three or four most important philosophical problems of all time. It ramifies into ethics, theology, metaphysics, and psychology. The view adopted in response to it will determine a man’s position in regard to the most momentous issues that...

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Are We Alone?

Are We Alone? Implications of the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life This article is an extensive review of Paul Davies’ book called “Are We Alone? Implications of the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life“. It is a critical analysis of the material that describes, summarizes, and critiques the ideas presented Project Phoenix, launched...

Mural of archangel Uriel by Henry O. Walker in Thomas Jefferson Building, inspired by Emerson's poem Uriel

Archangel Uriel

Archangel Uriel Archangel Uriel or Auriel (אוּרִיאֵל ʾŪrīʾēl, “Flame of God” or “El/God is my flame”; Greek: Οὐριήλ Ouriìl; Coptic: Ouriyl; Italian: Uriele; Geʽez and Amharic: ዑራኤል ʿUraʾēl or ዑርኤል ʿUriʾēl) is the name of one of the archangels who is mentioned in the post-exilic rabbinic tradition and in certain Christian traditions. He is well known in the Russian Orthodox tradition (which considers him to be...


Angels are …

Angels are … The word angel arrives from Latin angelus; Greek aggelos; the Hebrew mal’āk̠ ‘ĕlōhîm (“one going” or “one sent”; messenger). Angels are generally supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies. It is used in Hebrew to denote indifferently either a divine or human messenger. The Septuagint renders it by aggelos which also has both...

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Who Is An Angel?

Who Is An Angel? An angel (Greek: ἄγγελος, ángelos, meaning “messenger”) is a supernatural and ethereal being found in many religions, whose duty is to serve and assist God. Angels typically act as messengers but can perform other tasks such as keeping records of humans’ actions, acting as guardians, announcing God’s decrees,...

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What About The Angel Of Death?

What About The Angel Of Death? This article covers the angel of death. Since all angels were created from light, they can be present in any place and in any form simultaneously. They also can perform countless tasks at the same time. Therefore, Azrael can take millions of souls simultaneously...

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Satan And His Contemporary Followers

Satan And His Contemporary Followers This article covers Satan and his contemporary followers. Satan is a miserable and accursed one, who has fallen away from God’s Mercy, whose task is to go astray and to lead astray, who continues his existence around the axis of sedition, incitement, hypocrisy, and discord....

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Satan And The Whispering Of Satan

Satan And The Whispering Of Satan This article covers Satan and the Whispering of Satan (Involuntary Thoughts Occurring to Man). What Satan Is and Why He Was Created? Satan was, like the jinn with whom he mostly kept company, was also created from ‘fire’. Before he was put to the test...

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Who Is Satan?

Who Is Satan? Satan (meaning “accuser”) represents the arch enemy of God in the Abrahamic religions, who personifies evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver that leads humanity astray. The term is often applied to an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into the ways of sin, and who now rules over the...

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Devil Explained

Devil Explained This article explains Devil (Greek diabolos; Latin diabolus) in detail. The name commonly given to the fallen angels, who are also known as demons (see DEMONOLOGY). With the article (ho) it denotes Lucifer, their chief, as in Matthew 25:41, “the Devil and his angels“. It may be said of this name, as St. Gregory says of the word angel, “nomen est...

The Holy Spirit represented as a dove, Mitteleschenbach, Germany.

Holy Ghost

Holy Ghost Synopsis of the dogma The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms an integral part of her teaching on the mystery of the Holy Trinity, of which St. Augustine (On the Holy Trinity I.3.5), speaking with diffidence, says: “In no other subject is the danger of erring so great, or the progress so difficult, or the fruit...

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Soul Explained

Soul Explained The question of the reality of the soul (psyche, anima, ame, Seele) and its distinction from the body is among the most important problems of philosophy, for with it is bound up the doctrine of a future life. Various theories as to the nature of the soul have claimed to...

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What Is The Soul?

What Is The Soul? This article covers the answer to the question: “What Is The Soul?“ In many religious and philosophical systems, the word “soul” denotes the inner essence of a being comprising its locus of sapience (self-awareness) and metaphysical identity. Souls are usually described as immortal (surviving death in an afterlife) and incorporeal (without...

Spiritual Happiness

Spirit Explained

Spirit Explained The English word spirit comes from the Latin “spiritus” (“breath”) and has several interrelated meanings: Metaphysically, a spirit is an incorporeal energy force that is present in all living things but distinct from the soul. (The distinction between soul and spirit became current in Judeo-Christian terminology.) A spirit may also be...

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The World Wide Messianic Mission Attributed To Jesus Christ

The World Wide Messianic Mission Attributed To Jesus Christ Toward The End of Time This article covers The World Wide Messianic Mission Attributed To Jesus Christ. Some of the first converts to Islam were subjected to the severest persecutions in Makka. They bore them patiently and never thought of retaliation,...

Islamic drawing, a Madrasa


Luqman The Wise Luqman (لقمان, Luqmān; also known as Luqman the Wise or Luqman al-Hakeem) was a wise man after whom Surah Luqman, the 31st sura (chapter) of the Quran, was named. Luqman (c. 1100 BC) is believed to have been from Nubia or from Egypt. There are many stories about Luqman in Persian, Arabic and Turkish literature, with the primary historical sources for his life being Tafsir...

Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston

Elijah In Islam

Elijah In Islam This article covers the prophet of the Israelites, Elijah, in Islam. Ilyas (Ilyās, إلياس) was a prophet and messenger of God (Allah) who was sent to guide the Children of Israel. He was given the prophetic mission to prevent people from worshipping idols. Ilyas is the prophetic predecessor to Alyasa. Some Islamic scholars...

The shrine of Shuayb, as believed by the Druze and some Muslims, near Hittin in the Galilee

Prophet Shuaib

Prophet Shuaib Prophet Shuaib (Shoaib, Shuayb or Shuʿayb, شعيب, “who shows the right path”) is an ancient Midianite Nabi (Prophet) in Islam and the most revered prophet in the Druze faith. Shuayb is traditionally identified with the Biblical Jethro, Moses‘ father-in-law. Prophet Shuaib has mentioned in the Quran a total of 11 times. He is believed to have lived after Ibrahim (Abraham),...

Elisha the prophet

Elisha In Islam

Elisha In Islam Alyasa (اليسع, Alyasā’: Elisha in Islam) is a prophet and messenger of God (Allah) who was sent to guide the Children of Israel. In the Quran, Alyasa is mentioned twice as a prophet and is mentioned both times alongside fellow prophets. He is honored by Muslims as the prophetic successor to Ilyas (Elijah). Islamic sources that...