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A page from a Janamsakhi manuscript with the story about Guru Nanak at a school.

Singh Sabha Movement

Singh Sabha Movement The Singh Sabha Movement was a Sikh movement that began in Punjab in the 1870s in reaction to the proselytising activities of Christians, Hindu reform movements (Brahmo Samajis, Arya Samaj) and Muslims (Aligarh movement and Ahmadiyah). The movement was founded in an era when the Sikh Empire had been dissolved and annexed by the British, the Khalsa had lost its prestige,...

Preserved as MS Panj D4 at the British Library, this is one folio from a Gutka published in 1830 CE and acquired by Jind Kaur, also known as Maharani Jindan (1817–1863) – wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh of the Sikh Empire. The Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib is a thick text of some 1430 pages. It is placed in the sanctum of a Sikh temple. For private collections, the Sikh tradition has been to acquire a Gutka (plural: Gutke). A Gutka is a short anthology of a few principal hymns.A popular version is a Panj-granthi gutka, or one that has five major hymns. The early Gutke were elaborately illustrated. The manuscript Panj D4 contains three hymns from the Gurū Granth Sāhib: Sidh Gosti of Guru Nanak, Bavan Akhari and Sukhmani of Guru Arjan. Each hymn starts with the left side depicting a colored illustration, while the text is on the right in Gurmukhi script with white letters and embellishments on a black background. This illustration depicts Guru Nanak as a young man in dialogue with the Siddhas (Hindu ascetics). This is a photograph of the manuscript created and published in 1830 CE. The 2D-Art licensing guidelines of wikimedia commons therefore apply. Any rights I have as a photographer, I herewith donate to wikimedia under its CC4.0 terms. This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or fewer. This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1925. This file has been identified as being free of known restrictions under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights.

Waheguru

Waheguru Waheguru or Vahiguru also spelt and pronounced Vahguru, is the distinctive name of the Supreme Being in the Sikh dispensation, like YHWH in Judaism and Allah in Islam. In Sikh Scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib, the term does not figure in the compositions of the Gurus, though it occurs therein, both as Vahiguru and...

This Image from the third oldest Guru Nanak Janam Sakhi manuscript known (Bhai Sangu Mal MS, published in August 1733 CE, preserved at the British Library)

Five Virtues

Five Virtues In Sikhism, the Five Virtues are fundamental qualities which one should develop in order to reach Mukti, or to reunite or merge with God. The Sikh Gurus taught that these positive human qualities were Sat (truth), Daya (compassion), Santokh (contentment), Nimrata (humility), and Pyaar (love). Sat Sat is the virtue of truthful living, which means practising “righteousness,...

Diwali celebrations in United Kingdom.

List Of Sikh Festivals

List Of Sikh Festivals This is the list of festivals observed by the followers of the Sikh religion. Festival Date Observed Description Maghi January 14 This festival commemorates the Battle of Muktsar and was initially chosen by Sri Guru Amar Das Ji for Sikhs to attend the Gurdwara. Parkash Utsav...

Gautama Buddha at Long Sơn Temple, Nha Trang.

Religion In Vietnam

Religion In Vietnam The majority of Vietnamese do not follow any organized religion, instead participating in one or more practices of folk religions, such as venerating ancestors, or praying to deities, especially during Tết and other festivals. Folk religions were founded on endemic cultural beliefs that were historically affected by Confucianism and Taoism from China, as...

A Confucian church in Surabaya, Indonesia

Confucian Church

Confucian Church The Confucian church (孔教会; Kǒng jiàohuì or Rú jiàohuì) is a Confucian religious and social institution of the congregational type. It was first proposed by Kang Youwei (1858–1927) near the end of the 19th century, as a state religion of Qing China following a European model. The “Confucian church” model was later replicated by overseas Chinese communities, who established independent Confucian churches...

Priest paying homage to Confucius's tablet, c. 1900

What Is Confucianism?

What Is Confucianism? Confucianism (儒家, rújiā, literally “The School of the Scholars“; or, less accurately, 孔教 kŏng jiào, “The Religion of Kong”) is an East Asian school of ethical, philosophical, and (more contentiously) religious thought originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius (551 – 479 B.C.E.). As a school of thought, it...

The gates of the Temple of Confucius in Datong, Shanxi.

Confucianism Explained

Confucianism Explained By Confucianism is meant the complex system of moral, social, political, and religious teaching built up by Confucius on the ancient Chinese traditions, and perpetuated as the State religion down to the present day. Confucianism aims at making not simply the man of virtue, but the man of...

Chinese Style Architecture Confucian Temple

Progressive Confucianism

Progressive Confucianism Progressive Confucianism (进步儒学; jìn bù rú xué) is a term of philosophy coined by Stephen C. Angle in his book Contemporary Confucian Political Philosophy: Toward Progressive Confucianism (2012). Progressive Confucianism refers to a contemporary approach of Confucianism that aims to promote individual and collective moral progress. It explores themes such as political authority and morality, the rule of...

Tibetan chart for bloodletting based on the Luoshu square. The Luoshu, the Hetu, liubo boards, sundials, Han diviner's boards (shì 式) and luopan for fengshui, and the derived compass, as well as TLV mirrors, are all representations of Di as the north celestial pole.

Religious Confucianism

Religious Confucianism Religious Confucianism is an interpretation of Confucianism as a religion. It originated in the time of Confucius with his defense of traditional religious institutions of his time such as the Jongmyo rites, and the Ritual Music System. The Chinese name for Religious Confucianism is Rujiao (儒教; rujiao), in contrast with Secular Confucianism which...

Hanging Monastery, a temple with the combination of Taoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

Hundred Schools Of Thought

Hundred Schools Of Thought The Hundred Schools of Thought (諸子百家; zhūzǐ bǎijiā) were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century BC to 221 BC during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China. An era of substantial discrimination in China, it was fraught with chaos and bloody battles, but...

South Korea Confucian Confucius Ceremony

Rectification Of Names

Rectification Of Names The rectification of names (正名; Zhèngmíng; Cheng-ming) is originally a doctrine of feudal Confucian designations and relationships, behaving accordingly to ensure social harmony. Without such accordance society would essentially crumble and “undertakings would not be completed.” Mencius extended the doctrine to include questions of political legitimacy. When Confucius was asked what he...

A torii gate at the Takachiho-gawara shrine near Kirishima, Kagoshima Prefecture, which is associated with the mythological tale of Ninigi-no-Mikoto's descent to earth.

Shintoism

Shintoism Shintoism or Shinto (神道; Shintō) is a native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. It involves the worship of kami, which can be translated to mean “sacred spirits which take the form of things and concepts important to life, such as wind, rain, mountains, trees, rivers, and fertility.” Some kami are local and...

Yasukuni Shrine

Shinto Shrine

Shinto Shrine A Shinto shrine (神社, jinja, shinsha, “place of the god(s)”) is a structure whose main purpose is to house (“enshrine”) one or more kami, the deities of the Shinto religion. Overview Structurally, a Shinto shrine typically comprises several buildings. The honden (本殿, meaning: “main hall”) is where a shrine’s patron kami is/are enshrined. The honden may be absent...

Kamo shrine, Kyoto

Women In Shinto

Women In Shinto Women occupy a unique role in the indigenous Japanese traditions of Shinto, including a unique form of participation as temple stewards and shamans, or miko. Though a ban on female Shinto priests was lifted during World War II, the number of women priests in Shinto is a small fraction of...

Miko at the Ikuta Shrine

Miko

Miko A miko (巫女), or shrine maiden, is a young priestess who works at a Shinto shrine. Miko were once likely seen as shamans, but are understood in modern Japanese culture to be an institutionalized role in daily life, trained to perform tasks, ranging from sacred cleansing to performing the sacred Kagura dance. Appearance Main article: Miko clothing The traditional attire of a miko is a pair of...

Shinto purification rite after a ceremonial children's sumo tournament at the Kamigamo Jinja in Kyoto

Misogi

Misogi Misogi (禊) is a Japanese Shinto practice of ritual purification by washing the entire body. Misogi is related to another Shinto purification ritual called Harae – thus both being collectively referred to as misogiharae (禊祓). Background Every year, many people take pilgrimages to sacred waterfalls, lakes and rivers, either alone or in small groups, to perform misogi. Mount Ontake, the Kii...

An Obon offering

Obon

Obon Festival Obon (お盆) or just Bon (盆) is a Japanese Buddhist custom to honor the spirits of one’s ancestors. This Buddhist–Confucian custom has evolved into a family reunion holiday during which people return to ancestral family places and visit and clean their ancestors’ graves when the spirits of ancestors are supposed to revisit the household altars. It has been...

Kimpusen-ji

Setsubun

Setsubun Setsubun (節分) is the day before the beginning of spring in the old calendar in Japan. The name literally means ‘seasonal division‘, referring to the day just before the first day of spring in the traditional calendar, known as Setsubun; though previously referring to a wider range of possible dates, Setsubun is now typically held on February 3 (in...

Illustration and text of the tale of Issun Bōshi from Otogi-zōshi, published in circa 1725. The original Japanese prose narratives were written primarily in the Muromachi period (1392–1573).

Japanese Folklore And Mythology

Japanese Folklore And Mythology This article covers Japanese Folklore And Mythology in detail. Japanese folklore is heavily influenced by the two primary religions of Japan, Shinto, and Buddhism. Japanese mythology is a complex system of beliefs that also embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculture-based folk religion. The Shinto pantheon alone boasts an uncountable...