93. Ad-Duha (The Brightness)
This sūrah of 11 verses was revealed in Makkah following a relatively long period in which Revelation did not come. It takes its name from the word Ad-Duha (The Brightness, the forenoon) in the first verse. It consoles the Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, and mentions some of God’s favors upon him.
In the Name of God, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate.
1. By the forenoon,
2. And the night when it has grown dark and most still,
3. Your Lord has not forsaken you, nor has He become displeased with you.1
4. Assuredly, what comes after will be better for you than what has gone before.2
5. And assuredly, He will increasingly grant you his favors one after another, and you will be contented.3
6. Did He not find you an orphan and give shelter (to you)?4
7. And find you unguided (by God’s Messengership) and guide (you)?5
8. And find you in want and make you self-sufficient?
9. Therefore, do not oppress the orphan;
10. Nor chide and drive away the petitioner.6
11. And as for the favor of your Lord, proclaim it!7
1. The oaths taken on some of the phenomena in the world have a definite relationship with the following verses. For example, as God’s pleasure and displeasure with His servants may mean a bright day or darkness for them, so can happy and sorrowful moments in the life of a person correspond to daytime and nighttime, respectively. There may, of course, be many other instances of such correlations to be found in such oaths, and in the facts or truths expressed in the verses that follow them.
2. This means that God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, was continually promoted to higher and higher ranks, and his promotion still continues through the good deeds which every one of his community performs, as he was the person to establish the Religion of Islam in its last and universal form. The verse also gives the good tidings that Islam is always on the way to completion in his own time, and any Islamic movement in his footsteps will be on the way to success. Moreover, the Hereafter will be, in every way, better than this world for both God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, and all the Muslims.
3. That is, you will attain the rank of being well-pleased with God and His being well-pleased with you (which was particularly assigned to you). In this verse, there is a reference to the fact that in the Hereafter, God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, will be given the universal authority of intercession, and he will intercede on behalf of all humankind in the Supreme Place of Gathering; more particularly, he will intercede for his community. He was one who never lived for his own comfort, but always lived for the sake of the happiness of others (al-Bukhārī, “Tawhīd,” 36, Anbiyā’,” 3; Muslim, “Īmān,” 320).
4. At the time God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, was born, his father had died a few months before; and he lost his mother when he was only six years old.
5. This refers both to the life of God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, before his Messengership, and to his every moment compared to a next one, being related to verse 4 above. Verses 42: 52–53 say: And thus (in the ways mentioned), We have revealed to you a spirit of Our command (the life-giving Message, the Qur’ān). You would not (otherwise) have known what the Book was (with all the knowledge it contains and the way of life it establishes), and what faith was (as described by the Book and with all its principles, requirements, and implications). But We have made it a light by which We guide whom We will of Our servants. And, certainly, you (by God’s guidance) guide (people) to a straight path – the path of God; to Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Be aware: all affairs are ultimately referred to God. So although God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, never and in any way went astray from the Straight Path in creed, even before his Messengership, he did not receive the Revelation during that time and was not guided through it.
6. God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings, never repelled anyone who asked him for something. He was so willing to help all that Imam Busīrī says: “If he had not had to say ‘No!’ when seated in the Prayer, he would never have uttered the word ‘No!’” (Every Muslim has to say “I bear witness that there is no deity but God,” when seated during the Prayer.) Although giving to whoever asks for something is a noble attitude, it does not mean that we must give to every supplicant regardless of what they ask for, regardless of our means to give or of the consequences of doing so.
7. This order relates in particular to conveying God’s Message to people.