What Is Torah

What Is the Torah?

Five books of story, law, and poetry

http://www.myjewishlearning.com/common/uploads/images/articles/torah_scroll2.jpgFor Jews, the concept of “Torah” is much broader than the books themselves, the delimited concept of the Torah. “Torah” can refer to all of traditional Jewish learning, but “the Torah” usually refers to the Torah she’bi’ktav, the written Torah, also known as the Humash (the five volumes or Pentateuch, sometimes referred to as the Five Books of Moses). Readings from the Torah, which are divided into 54 weekly portions (parshiyot), have always been the centerpiece of the Sabbath morning service, and as such, its stories, laws, and poetry stand at the center of Jewish culture.

The Torah retells God’s creation of the world, the selection and growth of the family of Abraham and Sarah in relationship to God in the land of Canaan, the exile and redemption from Egypt of that “family-become-nation” known as Israel, and their travels through the desert until they return to the land of Canaan. Along the way, Israel enters into a covenanted relationship with God, and God reveals many of the rules for governing a just society and for establishing appropriate worship

The Torah is Judaism’s most important text. It is composed of the Five Books of Moses and also contains the 613 commandments (mitzvot) and the Ten Commandments. The word “Torah” means “to teach.”

What Is the Torah?Traditionally a Torah is written on a scroll that is then wound around two wooden poles. This is called a “Sefer Torah” and it is handwritten by a sofer (scribe) who must copy the text perfectly. When in modern printed form, the Torah is usually called a “Chumash,” which comes from the Hebrew word for the number “five.”

The writings of the Torah are also part of the Tanach (Hebrew Bible), which contains not only the Five Books of Moses (Torah) but 39 other important Jewish texts. The word “Tanach” is actually an acronym: “T” is for Torah, “N” is for Nevi’iim (Prophets) and “Ch” is for Ketuvim (Writings).

The Five Books of Moses

The Five Books of Moses begin with the Creation of the World and end with the death of Moses. They are listed below according to their English and Hebrew names. In Hebrew, the name of each book is derived from the first unique word that appears in that book.

Genesis (Bereisheet) – “Bereisheet” means “in the beginning.” This book talks about the Creation of the World, the Great Flood, and also tells the stories of Judaism’s patriarchs and matriarchs. These stories begin with Abraham and Sarah and end with Joseph in Egypt.

Exodus (Shemot) – “Shemot” means “names” in Hebrew. This book tells story of the Israelites bondage in Egypt, their journey to Mt. Sinai (where the Ten Commandments are received) and their wanderings in the wilderness.

Leviticus (Vayikra) – “Vayikra” means “And He Called” in Hebrew. This book deals mostly with priestly matters such as rituals, sacrifice, atonement and ritual purity.

Numbers (BaMidbar) – “BaMidbar” means “In the wilderness” in Hebrew. This book talks about the Israelites wanderings in the desert as they continue towards the Promised Land.

Deuteronomy (D’varim) – “D’varim” means “words” in Hebrew. This is the final book of the Torah. It recounts the Israelites’ journey according to Moses and ends with his death just before they enter the Promised Land.

 

If you need more information about Torah please visit www.torah.org or http://www.jewfaq.org/index.htm.

Weekly Torah Readings

Weekly Torah Readings

Each week in synagogue, we read (or, more accurately, chant, because it is sung) a passage from the Torah. This passage is referred to as a parshah. The first parshah, for example, is Parashat Bereishit, which covers from the beginning of Genesis to the story of Noah. There are 54 parshahs, one for each week of a leap year, so that in the course of a year, we read the entire Torah (Genesis to Deuteronomy) in our services. During non-leap years, there are 50 weeks, so some of the shorter portions are doubled up. We reach the last portion of the Torah around a holiday called Simkhat Torah (Rejoicing in the Law), which occurs in October, a few weeks after Rosh Hashanah (Jewish New Year). On Simkhat Torah, we read the last portion of the Torah, and proceed immediately to the first paragraph of Genesis, showing that the Torah is a circle, and never ends.

In the synagogue service, the weekly parshah is followed by a passage from the prophets, which is referred to as a haftarah. Contrary to common misconception, “haftarah” does not mean “half-Torah.” The word comes from the Hebrew root Feh-Tet-Resh and means “Concluding Portion”. Usually, haftarah portion is no longer than one chapter, and has some relation to the Torah portion of the week.

The Torah and haftarah readings are performed with great ceremony: the Torah is paraded around the room before it is brought to rest on the bimah (podium). The reading is divided up into portions, and various members of the congregation have the honor of reciting a blessing over a portion of the reading. This honor is referred to as an aliyah (literally, ascension).

The first aliyah of any day’s reading is reserved for a kohein, the second for a Levite, and priority for subsequent aliyoth are given to people celebrating major life events, such as marriage or the birth of a child. In fact, a Bar Mitzvah was originally nothing more than the first aliyah of a boy who had reached the age to be permitted such an honor. Celebrants of life events are ordinarily given the last aliyah, which includes blessing the last part of the Torah reading as well as blessing the haftarah reading. The person given this honor is referred to as the maftir, from the same root as haftarah, meaning “the one who concludes.”

Jewish scriptures are sometimes bound in a form that corresponds to this division into weekly readings. Scriptures bound in this way are generally referred to as a chumash. The word “chumash” comes from the Hebrew word meaning five, and refers to the five books of the Torah. Sometimes, a chumash is simply refers to a collection of the five books of the Torah. But often, a chumash contains the entire first five books, divided up by the weekly parshiyot, with the haftarah portion inserted after each week’s parshah. Table of Weekly Parshiyot

Below is a table of the regular weekly scriptural readings. Haftarot in parentheses indicate Sephardic ritual where it differs from Ashkenazic. There are other variations on the readings, but these are the most commonly used ones. If you want to know the reading for this week, check the Current Calendar.

There are additional special readings for certain holidays and other special days, listed in a separate table below.

Parashat

Torah

Haftarah

Bereishit

Genesis 1:1-6:8

Isaiah 42:5-43:11
(Isaiah 42:5-42:21)

Noach

Genesis 6:9-11:32

Isaiah 54:1-55:5
(Isaiah 54:1-10)

Lekh Lekha

Genesis 12:1-17:27

Isaiah 40:27-41:16

Vayeira

Genesis 18:1-22:24

II Kings 4:1-4:37
(II Kings 4:1-4:23)

Chayei Sarah

Genesis 23:1-25:18

I Kings1:1-1:31

Toldot

Genesis 25:19-28:9

Malachi 1:1-2:7

Vayeitzei

Genesis 28:10-32:3

Hosea 12:13-14:10
(Hosea 11:7-12:12)

Vayishlach

Genesis 32:4-36:43

Hosea 11:7-12:12
(Obadiah1:1-1:21)

Vayyeshev

Genesis 37:1-40:23

Amos 2:6-3:8

Miqeitz

Genesis 41:1-44:17

I Kings 3:15-4:1

Vayigash

Genesis 44:18-47:27

Ezekiel 37:15-37:28

Vayechi

Genesis 47:28-50:26

I Kings 2:1-12

Shemot

Exodus 1:1-6:1

Isaiah 27:6-28:13; 29:22-29:23
(Jeremiah 1:1-2:3)

Va’eira

Exodus 6:2-9:35

Ezekiel 28:25-29:21

Bo

Exodus 10:1-13:16

Jeremiah 46:13-46:28

Beshalach

Exodus 13:17-17:16

Judges 4:4-5:31
(Judges 5:1-5:31)

Yitro

Exodus 18:1-20:23

Isaiah 6:1-7:6; 9:5-9:6
(Isaiah 6:1-6:13)

Mishpatim

Exodus 21:1-24:18

Jeremiah 34:8-34:22; 33:25-33:26

Terumah

Exodus 25:1-27:19

I Kings 5:26-6:13

Tetzaveh

Exodus 27:20-30:10

Ezekiel 43:10-43:27

Ki Tisa

Exodus 30:11-34:35

I Kings 18:1-18:39
(I Kings 18:20-18:39)

Vayaqhel

Exodus 35:1-38:20

I Kings 7:40-7:50
(I Kings 7:13-7:26)

Pequdei

Exodus 38:21-40:38

I Kings 7:51-8:21
(I Kings 7:40-7:50)

Vayiqra

Leviticus 1:1-5:26

Isaiah 43:21-44:23

Tzav

Leviticus 6:1-8:36

Jeremiah 7:21-8:3; 9:22-9:23

Shemini

Leviticus 9:1-11:47

II Samuel 6:1-7:17
(II Samuel 6:1-6:19)

Tazria

Leviticus 12:1-13:59

II Kings 4:42-5:19

Metzora

Leviticus 14:1-15:33

II Kings 7:3-7:20

Acharei

Leviticus 16:1-18:30

Ezekiel 22:1-22:19
(Ezekiel 22:1-22:16)

Qedoshim

Leviticus 19:1-20:27

Amos 9:7-9:15
(Ezekiel 20:2-20:20)

Emor

Leviticus 21:1-24:23

Ezekiel 44:15-44:31

Behar

Leviticus 25:1-26:2

Jeremiah 32:6-32:27

Bechuqotai

Leviticus 26:3-27:34

Jeremiah 16:19-17:14

Bamidbar

Numbers 1:1-4:20

Hosea 2:1-2:22

Nasso

Numbers 4:21-7:89

Judges 13:2-13:25

Beha’alotkha

Numbers 8:1-12:16

Zechariah 2:14-4:7

Shelach

Numbers 13:1-15:41

Joshua 2:1-2:24

Qorach

Numbers 16:1-18:32

I Samuel 11:14-12:22

Chuqat

Numbers 19:1-22:1

Judges 11:1-11:33

Balaq

Numbers 22:2-25:9

Micah 5:6-6:8

Pinchas

Numbers 25:10-30:1

I Kings 18:46-19:21

Mattot

Numbers 30:2-32:42

Jeremiah 1:1-2:3

Masei

Numbers 33:1-36:13

Jeremiah 2:4-28; 3:4
(Jeremiah 2:4-28; 4:1-4:2)

Devarim

Deuteronomy 1:1-3:22

Isaiah 1:1-1:27

Va’etchanan

Deuteronomy 3:23-7:11

Isaiah 40:1-40:26

Eiqev

Deuteronomy 7:12-11:25

Isaiah 49:14-51:3

Re’eh

Deuteronomy 11:26-16:17

Isaiah 54:11-55:5

Shoftim

Deuteronomy 16:18-21:9

Isaiah 51:12-52:12

Ki Teitzei

Deuteronomy 21:10-25:19

Isaiah 54:1-54:10

Ki Tavo

Deuteronomy 26:1-29:8

Isaiah 60:1-60:22

Nitzavim

Deuteronomy 29:9-30:20

Isaiah 61:10-63:9

Vayeilekh

Deuteronomy 31:1-31:30

Isaiah 55:6-56:8

Ha’azinu

Deuteronomy 32:1-32:52

II Samuel 22:1-22:51

Vezot Haberakhah

Deuteronomy 33:1-34:12

Joshua 1:1-1:18
(Joshua 1:1-1:9)

Table of Special Parshiyot

Below are additional readings for holidays and special shabbats. Haftarot in parentheses indicate Sephardic ritual where it differs from Ashkenazic. Note that on holidays, the Maftir portion ordinarily comes from a different Torah scroll. The Maftir portion is usually the Torah portion that institutes the holiday or specifies the holiday’s offerings.

Parashat

Torah

Maftir

Haftarah

Rosh Hashanah, Day 1

Gen 21:1-34

Num 29:1-6

I Sam 1:1-2:10

Rosh Hashanah, Day 2

Gen 22:1-24

Jer 31:1-19

Shabbat Shuvah

Hos 14:2-10
Mic 7:18-20

Yom Kippur, Morning

Lev 16:1-34

Num 29:7-11

Is 57:14-58:14

Yom Kippur, Afternoon

Lev 18:1-30

Jonah 1:1-4:11
Micah 7:18-20

Sukkot, Day 1

Lev 22:26-23:44

Num 29:12-16

Zech 14:1-21

Sukkot, Day 2

I Kings 8:2-21

Sukkot, Chol Ha-moed Day 1

Num 29:17-25

Sukkot, Chol Ha-moed Day 2

Num 29:20-28

Sukkot, Chol Ha-moed Day 3

Num 29:23-31

Sukkot, Chol Ha-moed Day 4

Num 29:26-34

Sukkot, Intermediate Shabbat

Ex 33:12-34:26

Ezek 38:18-39:16

Hoshanah Rabbah

Num 29:26-34

Shemini Atzeret

Deut 14:22-16:17

Num 29:35-30:1

I Ki 8:54-9:1

Simkhat Torah

Deut 33:1-34:12
Gen 1:1-2:3

Num 29:35-30:1

Josh 1:1-18
(Josh 1:1-9)

Chanukkah, Day 1

Num 7:1-17

Chanukkah, Day 2

Num 7:18-29

Chanukkah, Day 3

Num 7:24-35

Chanukkah, Day 4

Num 7:30-41

Chanukkah, Day 5

Num 7:36-47

Chanukkah, Day 6 (Rosh Chodesh)

Num 28:1-15
Num 7:42-47

Chanukkah, Day 7 (not Rosh Chodesh)

Num 7:48-59

Chanukkah, Day 7 (Rosh Chodesh)

Num 28:1-15
Num 7:42-47

Chanukkah, Day 8

Num 7:54-8:4

Chanukkah, First Shabbat

Day 6: Num 28:9-15

Zech 2:14-4:7

Chanukkah, Second Shabbat

Num 7:54-8:4

I Ki 7:40-50

Sheqalim

Ex 30:11-16

II Ki 11:17-12:17
(II Ki 12:1-17)

Zakhor

Deut 25:17-19

I Sam 15:1-34

Purim

Ex 17:8-16

Parah

Num 19:1-22

Ezek 36:16-38
(Ezek 36:16-36)

Ha-Chodesh

Ex 12:1-20

Ezek 45:16-46:18
(Ezek 45:18-46:18)

Shabbat Ha-Gadol

Mal 3:4-24

Pesach (Passover), Day 1

Ex12:21-51

Num 28:16-25

Josh3:5-7; 5:2-6:1; 6:27
(Josh 5:2-6:1)

Pesach (Passover), Day 2

Lev 22:26-23:44

II Ki 23:1-9; 21-25

Pesach (Passover), Chol Ha-moed Day 1

Ex 13:1-16;
Num 28:19-25

Pesach (Passover), Chol Ha-moed Day 2

Ex 22:24-23:19;
Num 28:19-25

Pesach (Passover), Chol Ha-moed Day 3

Ex 34:1-26;
Num 28:19-25

Pesach (Passover), Chol Ha-moed Day 4

Ex 9:1-14;
Num 28:19-25

Pesach (Passover)
Intermediate Shabbat

Ex 33:12-34:26

Num 28:19-25

Ezek 37:1-37:14
(Ezek 36:37-37:14)

Pesach (Passover), Day 7

Ex 13:17-15:26

II Sam 22:1-51

Pesach (Passover), Day 8 (weekday)

Deut 15:19-16:17

Is 10:32-12:6

Pesach (Passover), Day 8 (Shabbat)

Deut 14:22-16:17

Shavu’ot, Day 1

Ex19:1-20:23

Num 28:26-31

Ezek 1:1-28; 3:12

Shavu’ot, Day 2 (weekday)

Deut 15:19-16:17

Hab 2:20-3:19

Shavu’ot, Day 2 (Shabbat)

Deut 14:22-16:17

Tisha B’Av, Morning

Deut 4:25-40

Jer 8:13-9:23

Tisha B’Av, Afternoon

Ex 32:11-14, 34:1-10

Isaiah 55:6-56:8
(Hosea 14:2-10; Micah 7:18-20)

Minor Fasts, Morning

Ex 32:11-14; 34:1-10

Is 55:6-56:8
(none)

Minor Fasts, Afternoon

Ex 32:11-14; 34:1-10

Shabbat Mevarekhim (Shabbat before Rosh Chodesh)

I Sam 20:18-42

Rosh Chodesh (weekday)

Num 28:1-15

Rosh Chodesh (Shabbat)

Num 28:9-15

Is 66:1-24

Tosefta By Wiki

Tosefta

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Tosefta (Aramaic: תוספתא. Additions, Supplements) is a compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah.

Overview

In many ways, the Tosefta acts as a supplement to the Mishnah (tosefta means “supplement or addition”). The Mishnah is the basic compilation of the Oral law of Judaism; it was compiled around 220 CE. The Tosefta closely corresponds to the Mishnah, with the same divisions for sedarim (“orders”) and masekhot (“tractates”). It is mainly written in Mishnaic Hebrew, with some Aramaic.

At times the text of the Tosefta agrees nearly verbatim with the Mishnah. At others there are significant differences. The Tosefta often attributes laws that are anonymous in the Mishnah to named Tannaim. It also augments the Mishnah with additional glosses and discussions. It offers additional aggadic and midrashic material, and it sometimes contradicts the Mishnah in the ruling of Halakha (Jewish law), or in attributing in whose name a law was stated.

Origins

According to rabbinic tradition, the Tosefta was redacted by Rabbis Ḥiya and Oshaiah (a student of Ḥiya).[1] Whereas the Mishna was considered authoritative, the Tosefta was supplementary. The Talmud often utilizes the traditions found in the Tosefta to examine the text of the Mishnah.

The traditional view is that the Tosefta should be dated to a period concurrent with or shortly after the redaction of the Mishnah. This view pre-supposes that the Tosefta was produced in order to record variant material not included in the Mishnah.

Modern scholarship can be roughly divided into two camps. Some, such as Jacob N. Epstein theorize that the Tosefta as we have it developed from a proto-Tosefta recension which formed much of the basis for later Amoraic debate. Others, such as Hanokh Albeck, theorize that the Tosefta is a later compendium of several baraitot collections which were in use during the Amoraic period.

More recent scholarship, such as that of Yaakov Elman, concludes that since the Tosefta, as we know it, must be dated linguistically as an example of Middle Hebrew 1, it was most likely compiled in early Amoraic times from oral transmission of baraitot.,[2] Professor Shamma Friedman, has found that the Tosefta draws on relatively early Tannaitic source material and that parts of the Tosefta predate the Mishnah.[3]

Alberdina Houtman and colleagues theorize that while the Mishnah was compiled in order to establish an authoritative text on halakhic tradition, a more conservative party opposed the exclusion of the rest of tradition and produced the Tosefta to avoid the impression that the written Mishnah was equivalent to the entire oral Torah. The original intention was that the two texts would be viewed on equal standing, but the succinctness of the Mishnah and the power and influence of Yehuda Ha-Nassi made it more popular among most students of tradition.[4]

Ultimately, the state of the source material is such to allow divergent opinions to exist. These opinions serve to show the difficulties in establishing a clear picture of the origins of the Tosefta.

Manuscripts / Editions / Commentaries

Manuscripts

Three manuscripts exist of the Tosefta, they are:

  • ‘Vienna’ (late 13th C.; Oesterreichische Nationalbibliothek Cod hebr. 20),
  • ‘Erfurt’ (~ 14th C.; Berlin – Staatsbibliothek (Preussischer Kulturbesitz) Or. fol. 1220), and,
  • ‘London’ (15th C.; London – British Library Add. 27296).

The Editio Princeps was printed in Venice in 1521 as an addendum to Isaac Alfasi‘s Halakhot.

Many Geniza fragments have been published online by Bar Ilan University.[5]

Editions

Two critical editions have been published. The first was that of Moses Samuel Zuckermandl in 1882. Which relied heavily on the Erfurt manuscript of the Tosefta. Zuckermandl’s work has been characterized as a “a great step forward” for its time.[6]

In 1955 Saul Lieberman began publishing his monumental Tosefta ki-Feshutah. Between 1955 and 1973, ten volumes of the new edition were published, representing the text and the commentaries on the entire orders of Zera’im, Mo’ed and Nashim. In 1988, three volumes were published posthumously on the order of Nezikin, including tractates Bava Kama, Bava Metziah, and Bava Basrah. Lieberman’s work has been called the “pinnacle of modern Tosefta studies.”[7]

Commentaries

Major commentaries on the Tosefta include those by:

David Pardo: Chasdei David; Originally published in Livorno (1776), and printed in editions of the Vilna Shas.

Yehezkel Abramsky: Hazon Yehezkel (24 volumes, 1925-1975 in Hebrew).

Saul Lieberman: Tosefet Rishonim, Jerusalem 1937.

Translations

The Tosefta has been translated into English by Rabbi Jacob Neusner and his students. They have also produced a commentary on Seder Zeraim.

Eli Gurevich’s English translation and detailed commentary on the Tosefta is in the progress of being written. It can be downloaded for free from his website http://www.toseftaonline.org/.

Notes

1.       ^ Rashi in his commentary on Talmud Sanhedrin 33a, s.v. v’afilu ta’ah b’rebbi Hiyya.

2.       ^ Yaakov Elman, Authority & Tradition, Yeshiva Univ. Press, 1994; “Babylonian Baraitot in Tosefta and the `Dialectology’ of Middle Hebrew,” Association for Jewish Studies Review 16 (1991), 1-29.

3.       ^ S.Y. Friedman, Le-Hithavvut Shinnuye ha-Girsaot be’Talmud ha-Bavli, Sidra 7, 1991.

4.       ^ Alberdina Houtman, Mishnah and Tosefta: A Synoptic Comparison of the Tractates Berakhot, Mohr Siebeck, 1996

5.       ^ Available at: http://www.biu.ac.il/js/tannaim/

6.       ^ Stephen G. Wald, Tosefta in the Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 20. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. p70-72

7.       ^ Stephen G. Wald, Tosefta in the Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ibid.

 

The Six Orders of the Mishnah (ששה סדרי משנה)

Zeraim (Seeds)
(
זרעים)

Moed (Festival)
(
מועד)

Nashim (Women)
(
נשים)

Nezikin (Damages)
(
נזיקין)

Kodashim (Holies)
(
קדשים)

Tehorot (Purities)
(
טהרות)

Torah Database By Wiki

Torah Database

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A Torah database (מאגר תורני or מאגר יהדות) is an electronic collection of classic Jewish texts in electronic form, the kinds of texts which especially in Israel are often called “The Traditional Jewish Bookshelf” (ארון הספרים היהודי); the texts are in their original languages (Hebrew or Aramaic). These databases contain either keyed-in digital texts or a collection of page-images from printed editions. Given the nature of traditional Jewish Torah study, which involves extensive citation and cross-referencing among hundreds of texts written over the course of thousands of years, many Torah databases also make extensive use of hypertext links.

A Torah database usually refers to a collection of primary texts, rather than translations or secondary research and reference materials.

Digital Text Software Packages

The Bar-Ilan Responsa Project

The very first such database was the Bar Ilan Responsa Project, which began in 1963 at the Weizmann Institute in Israel, migrated to Bar-Ilan University soon thereafter, and was up and running by 1967. It became available in time-sharing mode from university terminals in 1979, was transferred to CD-ROM in 1990, and version 1.0 was offered for sale to the public in 1992. The current version is number 19 or 19+ (the “plus” version contains an important secondary reference called the Encyclopedia Talmudit). [1]

The Responsa Project tries to base its electronic texts on the most accurate printed editions (though it seems that it is sometimes prevented from doing so because of copyright considerations), and it has a reputation for relatively error-free electronic texts based upon those editions. It also features approximately 360,000 hypertext links between the various collections within the database, as well as a topical halakhic index for the Shulchan Aruch and selected responsa. Since its early years it has employed a sophisticated search-engine specifically designed for Hebrew language texts.

In recent years (at least since version 10 in 2002), the Responsa Project has made updates available once a year, between the Passover and Shavuot holidays.

In January, 2007, the responsa project became available in an online edition found at www.responsa.co.il.

In April, 2007 the Responsa Project won the Israel Prize for Jewish studies.

DBS Master Library

DBS rivals the Bar-Ilan Responsa project in size. It has less in the overall area of Halakha and hardly any responsa, but it includes far more in the following areas: Jewish philosophy, Kabbalah, Hasidut, biblical commentaries, and late halakhic works. The major subcollections within DBS are also sold individually.

DBS contains a good number of Hebrew texts with vowels (niqqud); see below. Criticisms: It does not have extensive hypertext links between its various large collections, and it has also been criticized for poor proofreading and error-laden texts.

The Torah Bookshelf (“Halamish”)

Otzar ha-Poskim (also see below) produces “The Torah Bookshelf,” a large digital collection of basic texts called “Halamish” (Ha-Sifriyah ha-Toranit) in Hebrew, currently in version 3.0.

Ariel

Ariel (currently version 2.1) uses the same software as Otzar Haposkim’s “Torah Bookshelf” and is similar to it in scope (a large basic collection), but many of the titles in the two collections are not the same.

Judaic Bookshelf

Also a very large collection

Mikra’ot Gedolot Haketer

Bar-Ilan University‘s project to produce an entirely new critical edition of the Mikra’ot Gedolot is also being made available not only in printed volumes,[2] but also in electronic form. The project contains four main elements:

  • The biblical text (based on the Aleppo codex and a careful reconstruction of its missing parts) is keyed-in, including vowels and cantillation signs, allowing for sophisticated research on details of grammar.
  • The masorah is also keyed in (also based on the Aleppo codex and supplemented by a special commentary).
  • The Targum is included with vowels, based on the Yemenite Taj.
  • The biblical commentaries are also keyed-in as fresh new critical editions, including textual variants from manuscripts.

The CD-ROM is currently in version 2.0 (beta).

(Note: Although also under the auspices of Bar-Ilan University, this project is unrelated to the Bar-Ilan Responsa Project.)

Digital Hebrew Texts with Vowels (Niqqud)

Tanakh

Tanakh is available as a keyed-in digital Hebrew text with vowels (niqqud) in all of the above software packages.

The Mikra’ot Gedolot Haketer package includes not only the vowels, but also cantillation signs. Tanakh with both vowels and cantillation is also available as online freeware from Mechon Mamre (see below). Both versions are based on the Aleppo codex, but Mechon Mamre’s edition is based on the editing method of Rabbi Mordecai Breuer, which differs slightly from the Mikra’ot Gedolot Haketer edition in some small details.

Targum

Both Targum Onkelos on the Torah and Targum Jonathan on Nevi’im are vowelized (based on Yemenite manuscripts) in the digital texts of Mikra’ot Gedolot Haketer. Targum Onkelos is vowelized in the Judaic Bookshelf package.

Mishnah

The Mishnah is included as a keyed-in digital Hebrew text with vowels in all of the general software packages above except for the Bar-Ilan Responsa Project. The vowels in the “Halamish” package seem to be based upon the Albeck edition of the Mishnah (see Mishnah).

Siddur and liturgy

Siddur: Digital siddurim with vowels (according to various customs) are included in DBS (Ashkenaz, Sefard, Sefaradi/Edot Mizrah), Judaic Bookshelf (Ashkenaz, Sefard), and Ariel (Ashkenaz, Sefard, Sefaradi/Edot Mizrah). The latest version of DBS (version 10) also includes mahzorim, selihot, and the Passover Haggadah.

Popular ethical works (musar)

Popular ethical works are normally vowelized in published editions. DBS’s collection of such works includes vowels in the electronic editions.

Popular halakhic works

Some of these are also vowelized in DBS.

Page-Image Software Packages

Otzar HaHochma

This project is based on page-images of over 47,000 scanned Jewish books . The search engine allows to search in over 40,000 of these volumes. The system has features which turns it to a learning tool.

Otzar ha-Shut

Otzar ha-Poskim produces “Otzar ha-Shut” (hyperlinked images of individual responsa indexed according to the order of the Shulhan Arukh). This package also includes “Halamish” (see above).

The Steinzaltz Talmud on CD-ROM

The Steinsaltz Talmud is available as searchable PDF images on CD-ROM. All material from the printed edition is included, but it can be copied and pasted only as images and not as digital text.

Wikimedia Torah study projects

Text study projects at Wikisource allow contributors to help build free content Torah databases at Wikimedia through volunteer typing and editing. Please note that in most instances, these projects proceed much faster in Hebrew than in English.

Free Torah Libraries Online

All of the databases listed in the main article are patented commercial products, and may not be used without permission of the copyright holders. There are also some online projects that make either digital texts, or public domain images of old books, available to the public for free:

Hebrew Wikisource

Contains thousands of free content Torah texts in a digital library that is continually being expanded and improved by volunteers.

The ארון הספרים היהודי (Aron Ha-Sefarim Ha-Yehudi) project at Wikisource has hundreds of texts available online.

HebrewBooks.org (public domain images)

This website concentrates on the works of North American rabbis (in Hebrew, Yiddish, and English), but now contains thousands of older works. About 40,000 out-of-print books and journals may be downloaded as PDF images. While many titles are in the public domain in the United States, they may not be in the public domain in other countries. Additionally, there are also many copyrighted works that have been submitted by the original authors or their families for inclusion within this website.

Mechon Mamre (digital freeware)

Mechon Mamre makes the following digital Hebrew texts available as freeware (but claims a copyright on them):

The digital texts available at Snunit [3] are taken (with permission) from Mechon Mamre.

Sages of Ashkenaz (digital freeware)

Sages of Ashkenaz provides free digital text to various Ashkenazi seforim.

Seforim Online (public domain images)

“Seforim Online” (“seforim” means “books”) provides PDF images of several hundred classic rabbinic texts for downloading. Many or most of them are hard-to-find or rare editions, and all are in the public domain.

The Daat Library (digital freeware)

A wide variety of primary texts, including many of R’ Yosef Qafih’s (“Kapach”) and other more critical editions.

TorahTexts.org (searchable Torah Texts)

Provides single point of search and access to many Hebrew and English texts available on the Internet

Sifrei Kodesh Search – (Firefox add-on for searching texts)

A convenient way to search through many Hebrew texts directly from your browser. It also allows you to narrow your search down to a specific text or genre of texts.

Torat Emet

Program that may be downloaded freely containing a major library of Torah texts.

Orayta

Linux port of Torat Emet

Commercial software packages

Free Torah Libraries Online

(based upon the texts at Mechon Mamre)

Torah By Wiki

TORAH

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/54/K%C3%B6ln-Tora-und-Innenansicht-Synagoge-Glockengasse-040.JPG/220px-K%C3%B6ln-Tora-und-Innenansicht-Synagoge-Glockengasse-040.JPG

 

Sefer Torah at old Glockengasse Synagogue (reconstruction), Cologne

The Torah (English pronunciation: /ˈtɔːrə/; Hebrew: תּוֹרָה‎‎, “Instruction”, “Teaching”) is the Jewish name for the first five books of the Jewish Bible. In Hebrew the five books are named by the first phrase in the text: Bereshit (“In the beginning,” Book of Genesis), Shemot (“Names,” Exodus), Vayikra (“He called”, Leviticus[1]), Bamidbar (“In the desert,” Numbers) and Devarim (“Words,” Deuteronomy). In rabbinic literature the word Torah denotes both these five books, Torah Shebichtav (תורה שבכתב, “Torah that is written”), and an Oral Torah, Torah Shebe’al Peh (תורה שבעל פה, “Torah that is spoken”). The Oral Torah consists of the traditional interpretations and amplifications handed down by word of mouth from generation to generation and now embodied in the Talmud (תַּלְמוּד) and Midrash (מדרש‎) .[2]

According to Jewish tradition, all of the laws found in the Torah, both written and oral, were given by God to Moses, some of them at Mount Sinai and most of them at the Tabernacle, and all the teachings were later compiled and written down by Moses, which resulted in the Torah we have today. According to medieval Jewish mysticism the Torah was created prior to the creation of the world, and was used as the blueprint for Creation.[3] Most Modern biblical scholars believe that the written books were a product of the Babylonian exilic period (c.600 BCE) and that it was completed by the Persian period (c.400 BCE).[4]

Meaning and names

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Reading of the Torah

The word “Torah” in Hebrew is derived from the root ירה which in the hifil conjugation means “to teach” (cf. Lev. 10:11). The meaning of the word is therefore “teaching,” “doctrine,” or “instruction”; the commonly accepted “law” gives a wrong impression.[5] Other translational contexts in the English language include custom, theory, guidance,[6] or system.[7]

The Hebrew word for law is din. The term “Torah” is therefore also used in the general sense to include both Judaism‘s written law and oral law, serving to encompass the entire spectrum of authoritative Jewish religious teachings throughout history, including the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Midrash and more, and the inaccurate rendering of “Torah” as “Law”[8] may be an obstacle to “understanding the ideal that is summed up in the term talmud torah (תלמוד תורה, “study of Torah”).[2]

In the Hebrew Bible,

The earliest name for the first part of the Bible seems to have been “The Torah of Moses.” This title, however, is found neither in the Torah itself, nor in the works of the pre-Exilic literary prophets. It appears in Joshua (8:31–32; 23:6) and Kings (I Kings 2:3; II Kings 14:6; 23:25), but it cannot be said to refer there to the entire corpus. In contrast, there is every likelihood that its use in the post-Exilic works (Mal. 3:22; Dan. 9:11, 13; Ezra 3:2; 7:6; Neh. 8:1; II Chron. 23:18; 30:16) was intended to be comprehensive. Other early titles were “The Book of Moses” (Ezra 6:18; Neh. 13:1; II Chron. 35:12; 25:4; cf. II Kings 14:6) and “The Book of the Torah” (Neh. 8:3) which seems to be a contraction of a fuller name, “The Book of the Torah of God” (Neh. 8:8, 18; 10:29–30; cf. 9:3).[9]

Scholars usually refer to the first five books of the Hebrew Bible as the Pentateuch, a term first used in the Hellenistic Judaism of Alexandria,[10] meaning five books, or as the Law, or Law of Moses. Muslims refer to the Torah as Tawrat (توراة, “Law”), an Arabic word for the revelations given to the Islamic prophet Musa (موسى, Moses in Arabic).

Composition

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A Sefer Torah opened for liturgical use in a synagogue service

According to Jewish tradition the Torah was dictated to Moses by God, with the exception of the last eight verses of Deuteronomy which describe his death.[11] Today, the majority of scholars agree that the Torah does not have a single author, and that its composition took place over centuries.[12] From the late 19th century there was a general consensus around the documentary hypothesis, which suggests that the five books were created c.450 BCE by combining four originally independent sources, known as the Jahwist, or J (about 900 BCE), the Elohist, or E (about 800 BCE), the Deuteronomist, or D, (about 600 BCE), and the Priestly source, or P (about 500 BCE).[13] This general agreement began to break down in the late 1970s, and today there are many theories but no consensus, or even majority viewpoint.[14] Variations of the documentary hypothesis remain popular especially in America and Israel, and the identification of distinctive Deuteronomistic and Priestly theologies and vocabularies remains widespread, but they are used to form new approaches suggesting that the books were combined gradually over time by the slow accumulation of “fragments” of text, or that a basic text was “supplemented” by later authors/editors.[15] At the same time there has been a tendency to bring the origins of the Pentateuch further forward in time, and the most recent proposals place it in 5th century Judah under the Persian empire.[16][17]

Deuteronomy is often treated separately from Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus. The process of its formation probably took several hundred years, from the 8th century to the 6th,[18] and its authors have been variously identified as prophetic circles (because the concerns of Deuteronomy mirror those of the prophets, especially Hosea), Levitical priestly circles (because it stresses the role of the Levites), and wisdom and scribal circles (because it esteems wisdom, and because the treaty-form in which it is written would be best known to scribes).[19] According to the theory of the Deuteronomistic history proposed by Martin Noth and widely accepted, Deuteronomy was a product of the court of Josiah (late 7th century) before being used as the introduction to a comprehensive history of Israel written in the early part of the 6th century; later still it was detached from the history and used to round off the Pentateuch.[20]

Structure

Books of the Torah

  1. Genesis
  2. Exodus
  3. Leviticus
  4. Numbers
  5. Deuteronomy

The Hebrew names of the five books of the Torah are known by their incipit, taken from initial words of the first verse of each book. For example, the Hebrew name of the first book, Bereshit, is the first word of Genesis 1:1:

  1. Bereshit (בְּרֵאשִׁית, literally “In the beginning”)
  2. Shemot (שִׁמוֹת, literally “Names”)
  3. Vayikra (ויקרא, literally “And He called”)
  4. Bəmidbar (במדבר, literally “In the desert [of]”)
  5. Devarim (דברים, literally “Things” or “Words”)

The anglicized names are derived from the Greek and reflect the essential theme of each book:

  1. Genesis: “creation”
  2. Exodus: “departure”
  3. Leviticus: refers to the Levites and the regulations that apply to their presence and service in the Temple, which form the bulk of the third book.
  4. Numbers (Arithmoi): contains a record of the numbering of the Israelites in the wilderness of Sinai and later on the plain of Moab.
  5. Deuteronomy: “second law,” refers to the fifth book’s recapitulation of the commandments reviewed by Moses before his death.

According to the Oral tradition, the prose in the Torah is not always in chronological order. Sometimes it is ordered by concept according to the rule: “There is not ‘earlier’ and ‘later’ in the Torah” (אין מוקדם ומאוחר בתורה, Ein mukdam u’meuchar baTorah).[21] This position is accepted by Orthodox Judaism. Non-Orthodox Jews generally understand the same texts as signs that the current text of the Torah was redacted from earlier sources (see documentary hypothesis.)

Contents

Bereshit (Genesis) begins with the so-called “primeval history” (Genesis 1–11), the story of the world’s beginnings and the descent of Abraham. This is followed by the story of the three patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac and Jacob), Joseph (Genesis 12–50) and the four matriarchs (Sarah, Rebekah, Leah and Rachel). God gives to the patriarchs a promise of the land of Canaan, but at the end of Genesis the sons of Jacob end up leaving Canaan for Egypt.

Shemot (Exodus) begins the story of God’s revelation to his people Israel through Moses, who leads them out of Egypt (Exodus 1–18) to Mount Sinai. There the people accept a covenant with God, agreeing to be his people in return for agreeing to abide by his Law. Moses receives the Torah from God, and mediates His laws and Covenant (Exodus 19–24) to the people of Israel. Exodus also deals with the first violation of the covenant when the Golden Calf was constructed (Exodus 32–34). Exodus concludes with the instructions on building the Tabernacle (Exodus 25–31; 35–40).

Vayikra (Leviticus) begins with instructions to the Israelites on how to use the Tabernacle, which they had just built (Leviticus 1–10). This is followed by rules of clean and unclean (Leviticus 11–15), which includes the laws of slaughter and animals permissible to eat (see also: Kashrut), the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16), and various moral and ritual laws sometimes called the Holiness Code (Leviticus 17–26).

Bamidbar (Numbers) tells how Israel consolidated itself as a community at Sinai (Numbers 1–9), set out from Sinai to move towards Canaan and spied out the land (Numbers 10–13). Because of unbelief at various points, but especially at Kadesh Barnea (Numbers 14), the Israelites were condemned to wander for forty years in the desert in the vicinity of Kadesh instead of immediately entering the land of promise. Even Moses sins and is told he would not live to enter the land (Numbers 20). At the end of Numbers (Numbers 26–35) Israel moves from Kadesh to the plains of Moab opposite Jericho, ready to enter the Promised Land.

Devarim (Deuteronomy) is a series of speeches by Moses on the plains of Moab opposite Jericho. Moses proclaims the Law (Deuteronomy 12–26), gives instruction concerning covenant renewal at Shechem (Deuteronomy 27–28) and gives Israel new laws (the “Deuteronomic Code)”.[22] At the end of the book (Deuteronomy 34) Moses is allowed to see the promised land from a mountain, but it is not known what happened to Moses on the mountain. He was never seen again. Knowing that he is nearing the end of his life, Moses appoints Joshua his successor, bequeathing to him the mantle of leadership. Soon afterwards Israel begins the conquest of Canaan.

Torah and Judaism

The Torah is the primary holy scripture of Judaism.

Rabbinic writings offer various ideas on when the Torah was composed. The revelation to Moses at Mount Sinai is considered by most to be the revelatory event. According to dating of the text by Orthodox rabbis, this occurred in 1312 BCE;[23] another date given for this event is 1280 BCE.[24]

Some rabbinic sources state that the entire Torah was given all at once at this event. In the maximalist belief, this dictation included not only the quotations that appear in the text, but every word of the text itself, including phrases such as “And God spoke to Moses …”, and included God telling Moses about Moses’ own death and subsequent events. Other classical rabbinic sourceshold that the Torah was revealed to Moses over many years, and finished only at his death.

Another rabbinic school of thought holds that although Moses wrote the vast majority of the Torah, the last four verses of the Torah must have been written after his death by Joshua. Abraham ibn Ezra and Joseph Bonfils observedthat some phrases in the Torah present information that people should only have known after the time of Moses. Ibn Ezra hinted, and Bonfils explicitly stated, that Joshua (or perhaps some later prophet) wrote these sections of the Torah. Other rabbis would not accept this belief.

The Talmud (tractate Sabb. 115b) states that a peculiar section in the Book of Numbers (10:35 — 36, surrounded by inverted Hebrew letter nuns) in fact forms a separate book. On this verse a midrash on the book of Mishle (English Proverbs) states that “These two verses stem from an independent book which existed, but was suppressed!” Another (possibly earlier) midrash, Ta’ame Haserot Viyterot, states that this section actually comes from the book of prophecy of Eldad and Medad. The Talmud says that God dictated four books of the Torah, but that Moses wrote Deuteronomy in his own words (Talmud Bavli, Meg. 31b).

All classical rabbinic views hold that the Torah was entirely or almost entirely Mosaic and of divine origin.[25]

Ritual use

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Torahs in Ashkenazi Synagogue (Istanbul, Turkey)

Torah reading (Hebrew: קריאת התורה, K’riat HaTorah ; “Reading [of] the Torah”) is a Jewish religious ritual that involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll. The term often refers to the entire ceremony of removing the Torah scroll (or scrolls) from the ark, chanting the appropriate excerpt with special cantillation, and returning the scroll(s) to the ark. It is distinct from academic Torah study.

Regular public reading of the Torah was introduced by Ezra the Scribe after the return of the Jewish people from the Babylonian captivity (c. 537 BCE), as described in the Book of Nehemiah.[26] In the modern era, adherents of Orthodox Judaism practice Torah reading according to a set procedure they believe has remained unchanged in the two thousand years since the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem (70 CE). In the 19th and 20th centuries CE, new movements such as Reform Judaism and Conservative Judaism have made adaptations to the practice of Torah reading, but the basic pattern of Torah reading has usually remained the same:

As a part of the morning or afternoon prayer services on certain days of the week or holidays, a section of the Pentateuch is read from a Torah scroll. On Shabbat (Saturday) mornings, a weekly section (“parasha“) is read, selected so that the entire Pentateuch is read consecutively each year.[27][28] On Saturday afternoons, Mondays, and Thursdays, the beginning of the following Saturday’s portion is read. On Jewish holidays, the beginnings of each month, and fast days, special sections connected to the day are read.

Jews observe an annual holiday, Simchat Torah, to celebrate the completion of the year’s cycle of readings.

Torah scrolls are often dressed with a sash, a special Torah cover, various ornaments and a Keter (crown), although such customs vary among synagogues. Congregants traditionally stand when the Torah is brought out of the ark to be read (although they sit during the reading itself.)

Biblical law

The Torah contains narratives, statements of law, and statements of ethics. Collectively these laws, usually called biblical law or commandments, are sometimes referred to as the Law of Moses (Torat Moshe תּוֹרַת־מֹשֶׁה), or Mosaic Law. Moses received all the laws of God on Mount Sinai. These laws were the first part of the Torah.

The Torah and Judaism’s oral law

Rabbinic tradition holds that the written Torah was transmitted in parallel with the oral tradition. Where the Torah leaves words and concepts undefined, and mentions procedures without explanation or instructions, the reader is required to seek out the missing details from supplemental sources known as the oral law or oral Torah.[29] Some of the Torah’s most prominent commandments needing further explanation are:

  • Tefillin: As indicated in Deuteronomy 6:8 among other places, tefillin are to be placed on the arm and on the head between the eyes. However, there are no details provided regarding what tefillin are or how they are to be constructed.
  • Kashrut: As indicated in Exodus 23:19 among other places, a kid may not be boiled in its mother’s milk. [A kid being a young goat.] In addition to numerous other problems with understanding the ambiguous nature of this law, there are no vowelization characters in the Torah; they are provided by the oral tradition. This is particularly relevant to this law, as the Hebrew word for milk (חלב) is identical to the word for animal fat when vowels are absent. Without the oral tradition, it is not known whether the violation is in mixing meat with milk or with fat.
  • Shabbat laws: With the severity of Sabbath violation, namely the death penalty, one would assume that direction would be provided as to how exactly such a serious and core commandment should be upheld. However, there is little to no information as to what can and cannot be performed on the Sabbath. Without the oral tradition, keeping this law would be impossible.

According to classical rabbinic texts this parallel set of material was originally transmitted to Moses at Sinai, and then from Moses to Israel. At that time it was forbidden to write and publish the oral law, as any writing would be incomplete and subject to misinterpretation and abuse.

However, after exile, dispersion and persecution, this tradition was lifted when it became apparent that in writing was the only way to ensure that the Oral Law could be preserved. After many years of effort by a great number of tannaim, the oral tradition was written down around 200 CE by Rabbi Judah haNasi who took up the compilation of a nominally written version of the Oral Law, the Mishnah (Hebrew: משנה). Other oral traditions from the same time period not entered into the Mishnah were recorded as “Baraitot” (external teaching), and the Tosefta. Other traditions were written down as Midrashim.

After continued persecution more of the oral law was committed to writing. A great many more lessons, lectures and traditions only alluded to in the few hundred pages of Mishnah, became the thousands of pages now called the Gemara. Gemara is written in Aramaic, having been compiled in Babylon. The Mishnah and Gemara together are called the Talmud. The Rabbis in Israel also collected their traditions and compiled them into the Jerusalem Talmud. Since the greater number of Rabbis lived in Babylon, the Babylonian Talmud has precedence should the two be in conflict.

Orthodox Jews and Conservative Jews accept these texts as the basis for all subsequent halakha and codes of Jewish law, which are held to be normative. Reform and Reconstructionist Jews deny that these texts may be used for determining normative law (laws accepted as binding) but accept them as the authentic and only Jewish version for understanding the Torah and its development throughout history.

Divine significance of letters, Jewish mysticism

Kabbalists hold that not only are the words giving a Divine message, but indicate a far greater message that extends beyond them. Thus they hold that even as small a mark as a kotzo shel yod (קוצו של יוד), the serif of the Hebrew letter yod (י), the smallest letter, or decorative markings, or repeated words, were put there by God to teach scores of lessons. This is regardless of whether that yod appears in the phrase “I am the Lord thy God” (אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, Exodus 20:2) or whether it appears in “And God spoke unto Moses saying” (וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים, אֶל-מֹשֶׁה; וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו, אֲנִי יְהוָה. Exodus 6:2). In a similar vein, Rabbi Akiva (ca.50–ca.135CE), is said to have learned a new law from every et (את) in the Torah (Talmud, tractate Pesachim 22b); the word et is meaningless by itself, and serves only to mark the direct object. In other words, the Orthodox belief is that even apparently contextual text “And God spoke unto Moses saying …” is no less important than the actual statement.

One kabbalistic interpretation is that the Torah constitutes one long name of God, and that it was broken up into words so that human minds can understand it. While this is effective since it accords with our human reason, it is not the only way that the text can be broken up.

Production and use of a Torah scroll

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Page pointers for reading of the Torah

Manuscript Torah scrolls are still used, and still scribed, for ritual purposes (i.e., religious services); this is called a Sefer Torah (“Book [of] Torah”). They are written using a painstakingly careful methodology by highly qualified scribes. This has resulted in modern copies of the text that are unchanged from millennia-old copies. It is believed that every word, or marking, has divine meaning, and that not one part may be inadvertently changed lest it lead to error. The fidelity of the Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular, is considered paramount, down to the last letter: translations or transcriptions are frowned upon for formal service use, and transcribing is done with painstaking care. An error of a single letter, ornamentation, or symbol of the 304,805 stylized letters which make up the Hebrew Torah text renders a Torah scroll unfit for use, hence a special skill is required and a scroll takes considerable time to write and check.

According to Jewish law, a sefer Torah (plural: Sifrei Torah) is a copy of the formal Hebrew text of hand-written on gevil or qlaf (forms of parchment) by using a quill (or other permitted writing utensil) dipped in ink. Written entirely in Hebrew, a sefer Torah contains 304,805 letters, all of which must be duplicated precisely by a trained sofer (“scribe”), an effort which may take as long as approximately one and a half years. Most modern Sifrei Torah are written with forty-two lines of text per column (Yemenite Jews use fifty), and very strict rules about the position and appearance of the Hebrew letters are observed. See for example the Mishna Berura on the subject.[30] Any of several Hebrew scripts may be used, most of which are fairly ornate and exacting.

The completion of the sefer Torah is a cause for great celebration, and it is a Mitzvah for every Jew to either write or have written for him a Sefer Torah. Torah scrolls are stored in the holiest part of the synagogue in the Ark known as the “Holy Ark” (אֲרוֹן הקֹדשׁ aron hakodesh in Hebrew.) Aron in Hebrew means “cupboard” or “closet”, and kodesh is derived from “kadosh”, or “holy”.

In other religions

While Christianity includes the five books of Moses (the Pentateuch) among their sacred texts, in its Old Testament, Islam believes that only the original Torah was sent by the One true God. In both religions they lack the religious legal significance that they have in Orthodox Judaism.

Among early centers of Christianity a Koine Greek version of the Hebrew Bible was used by Greek speakers (Aramaic Targums were used by Aramaic speakers such as the Syriac Orthodox Church). The Greek version’s name in Latin is the Septuagint: L. septem meaning seven, plus -gintā meaning “times ten”. It was named Septuagint from the traditional number of its translators. This Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures dates from the 3rd century B.C., originally associated with Hellenistic Judaism. It contains both a translation of the Hebrew and additional and variant material. It was regarded as the standard form of the Old Testament in the early Greek Christian Church and is still considered canonical in the Eastern Orthodox Church.[31] [32] Though different Christian denominations have slightly different versions of the Old Testament in their Bibles, the Torah as the “Five Books of Moses” (or “the Mosaic Law“) is common among them all.

The Quran refers heavily to Moses to outline the truth of his existence and the religious guidelines that God (Most Exalted) had revealed to the Children of Israel. God (Most Exalted) says in the Qur’an, “It is He Who has sent down the Book (the Qur’an) to you with truth, confirming what came before it. And He sent down the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel).” [3:1]

Muslims call the Torah the Tawrat and consider it the word of God given to Moses. However, Muslims also believe that this original revelation was corrupted (tahrif) over time by Jewish scribes[33] and hence do not revere the present “Jewish version” Torah as much. 7:144–144 The Torah in the Qur’an is always mentioned with respect in Islam. The Muslims’ belief in the Torah, as well as the prophethood of Moses, is one of the fundamental tenets of Islam.

References

1.       ^ Chaim Miller The Gutnick Edition Chumash – the Book of Leviticus Page 1 2005 “… Vayikra means “He called,” as in the opening verse of our Parsha, “He called to Moshe.” “

2.       ^ a b Birnbaum (1979), p. 630

3.       ^ Vol. 11 Trumah Section 61

4.       ^ page 1, Blenkinsopp, Joseph (1992). The Pentateuch: An introduction to the first five books of the Bible. Anchor Bible Reference Library. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-41207-X.

5.       ^ Rabinowitz, Louis Isaac and Harvey, Warren. “Torah.” Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 20. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. pp 39–46.

6.       ^ Philip Birnbaum, Encyclopedia of Jewish Concepts, Hebrew Publishing Company, 1964, page 630

7.       ^ p.2767, Alcalay

8.       ^ pp.164–165, Scherman, Exodus 12:49

9.       ^ Sarna, Nahum M. et al. “Bible.” Encyclopaedia Judaica. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 3. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. pp 576–577.

10.    ^ The World and the Word: An Introduction to the Old Testament p163 ed. Eugene H. Merrill, Mark Rooker, Michael A. Grisanti – 2011 “Part 4 THE PENTATEUCH Michael A. Grisanti THE TERM “PENTATEUCH” derives from the Greek pentateuchos, literally, … 1 The Greek term was apparently popularized by the Hellenized Jews of Alexandria, Egypt, in the first century AD “

11.    ^ Louis Jacobs (1995). The Jewish religion: a companion. Oxford University Press. p. 375. ISBN 978-0-19-826463-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=l1u-_VMDM80C. Retrieved 27 February 2012.

12.    ^ McDermott, John J., “Reading the Pentateuch: a historical introduction” (Pauline Press, 2002) p.21. Books.google.com.au. 2002-10. ISBN 978-0-8091-4082-4. http://books.google.com/?id=Dkr7rVd3hAQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Reading+the+Pentateuch:+a+historical+introduction#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-10-03.

13.    ^ Gordon Wenham, “Pentateuchal Studies Today,” in Themelios 22.1 (October 1996): 3–13.

14.    ^ Van Seters, John, “The Pentateuch: a social-science commentary” T&T Clark, 2004) p.74. Books.google.com.au. 2004-08-23. ISBN 978-0-567-08088-2. http://books.google.com/?id=T-Vi9eK_vS0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Pentateuch+Social+Science+Commentary#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-10-03.

15.    ^ Van Seters, John, “The Pentateuch: a social-science commentary” T&T Clark, 2004) pp.74–79. Books.google.com.au. 2004-08-23. ISBN 978-0-567-08088-2. http://books.google.com/?id=T-Vi9eK_vS0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Pentateuch+Social+Science+Commentary#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-10-03.

16.    ^ Ska, Jean-Louis, “Introduction to reading the Pentateuch” (Eisenbrauns, 2006) pp.217 ff.

17.    ^ For more information on the current debates surrounding the promulgation of the Pentateuch see The Pentateuch as Torah: New Models for Understanding Its Promulgation and Acceptance (ed. Gary Knoppers and Bernard M. Levinson; Winona Lake: Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2007) ISBN 978-1-57506-140-5.

18.    ^ Miller, Patrick D., “Deuteronomy” (John Knox Press, 1990) pp.2–3

19.    ^ Miller, Patrick D., “Deuteronomy” (John Knox Press, 1990) pp.5–8

20.    ^ Van Seters, John, “The Pentateuch: a social-science commentary” T&T Clark, 2004) p.93. Books.google.com.au. 2004-08-23. ISBN 978-0-567-08088-2. http://books.google.com/?id=T-Vi9eK_vS0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=The+Pentateuch+Social+Science+Commentary#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2010-10-03.

21.    ^ Talmud Pesachim 7a

22.    ^ Coogan, Michael D. A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible in Its Context. Oxford University Press, 2009. pages 148–149

23.    ^ History Crash Course #36: Timeline: From Abraham to Destruction of the Temple, by Rabbi Ken Spiro, Aish.com. Retrieved 2010-08-19.

24.    ^ Kurzweil, Arthur (2008). The Torah For Dummies. For Dummies. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-470-28306-6. http://media.wiley.com/product_data/excerpt/59/04701734/0470173459.pdf. Retrieved 2010-08-19.

25.    ^ For more information on these issues from an Orthodox Jewish perspective, see Modern Scholarship in the Study of Torah: Contributions and Limitations, Ed. Shalom Carmy, and Handbook of Jewish Thought, Volume I, by Aryeh Kaplan.

26.    ^ Book of Nehemia, Chapter 8

27.    ^ The division of parashot found in the modern-day Torah scrolls of all Jewish communities (Ashkenazic, Sephardic, and Yemenite) is based upon the systematic list provided by Maimonides in Mishneh Torah, Laws of Tefillin, Mezuzah and Torah Scrolls, chapter 8. Maimonides based his division of the parashot for the Torah on the Aleppo Codex. Though initially doubted by Umberto Cassuto, this has become the established position in modern scholarship. (See the Aleppo Codex article for more information.)

28.    ^ Conservative and Reform synagogues may read parashot on a triennial rather than annual schedule, The Authentic Triennial Cycle: A Better Way to Read Torah?, [1][dead link]

29.    ^ Rietti, Rabbi Jonathan. The Oral Law: The Heart of The Torah

30.    ^ Mishnat Soferim The forms of the letters translated by Jen Taylor Friedman (geniza.net)

31.    ^ Def. of Septuagint

32.    ^ p.317, DeSilva

33.    ^ Is the Bible God’s Word by Sheikh Ahmed Deedat

The Obligations Of Faith According To The Torah

THE OBLIGATIONS OF FAITH ACCORDING TO THE TORAH

 

 

Faith in God without Idolatry

But I am the Lord your God… You shall acknowledge no God but Me, no Savior except Me. (Hosea, 13:4)

O Lord… there is no God like You in heaven above or on earth below. (1 Kings, 8:23)

I am the Lord, and there is no other; apart from Me there is no God… so that from the rising of the Sun to the place of its setting men may know there is none besides Me. I am the Lord, and there is no other. (Isaiah, 45:5-6)

I am the Lord your God… You shall have no other gods before Me. You shall not make for your self an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. You shall not bow down to them or worship them… (Exodus, 20:2-5)

This is what the Lord says… the Lord Almighty: I am the first and I am the last; apart from Me there is no God. (Isaiah, 44:6)

All who make idols are nothing, and the things they treasure are worthless. Those who would speak up for them are blind; they are ignorant, to their own shame. Who shapes a god and casts an idol, which can prof it him nothing? He and his kind will be put to shame; crafts men are nothing but men. Let them all come together and take their stand; they will be brought down to terror and infamy. (Isaiah, 44:9-11)

… Ignorant are those who carry about idols of wood… There is no God apart from Me, a righteous God and a Savior; there is none but Me. “Turn to Me and be saved, all you ends of the earth; for I am God, and there is no other.” (Isaiah, 45:20-22)

And you shall know… that I am the Lord your God, and that there is no other… (Joel, 2:27)

Fear the Lord your God, serve Him only and take your oaths in His name. Do not follow other gods, the gods of the peoples around you. (Deuteronomy, 6:13-14)

… Before Me no God was formed, nor will there be one after Me. I, even I, am the Lord, and apart from Me there is no savior. I have revealed and saved and proclaimed—I, and not some foreign god among you… I am God. Yes, and from ancient days I am He. When I act, who can reverse it? (Isaiah, 43:10-13)

Of what value is an idol, since a man has carved it? Or an image that teaches lies? For he who makes it trusts in his own Creation; he makes idols that can not speak. Woe to him who says to wood, “Come to life!” or to life less stone, “Wake up!” Can it give guidance? It is covered with gold and silver; there is no breath in it. (Habakkuk, 2:18-19)

See, they are all false! Their deeds amount to nothing; their images are but wind and confusion. (Isaiah, 41:29)

Many, O Lord my God, are the wonders You have done. The things You planned for us no one can recount to You; were I to speak and tell of them, they would be too many to declare. (Psalms, 40:5)

For who in the skies above can compare with the Lord?… O Lord God Almighty, who is like You?… The heavens are Yours, and Yours al so the earth; You founded the world and all that is in it. (Psalms, 89:6, 8, 11)

But those who trust in idols, who say to images, “You are our gods,” will be turned back in utter shame. (Isaiah, 42:17)

But if you turn away and forsake the decrees and commands I have given you and go off to serve other gods and worship them, then I will up root… from My land, which I have given them… (2 Chronicles, 7:19-20)

Do not bow down before their gods or worship them or follow their practices. You must demolish them and break their sacred stones to pieces. Worship the Lord your God… (Exodus, 23:24-25)

If you violate the covenant of the Lord your God, which He commanded you, and go and serve other gods and bow down to them, the Lord’s anger will burn against you, and you will quickly perish from the good land He has given you. (Joshua, 23:16)

Whoever sacrifices to any god other than the Lord must be destroyed. (Exodus, 22:20)

… You have forsaken Me and served other gods [God is beyon this]. (Judges, 10:13)

 

Gratitude to God

Moreover, when God gives any man wealth and possessions, and enables him to enjoy them, to accept his lot and be happy in his work—this is a gift of God. (Ecclesiastes, 5:19)

Sing to the Lord, you saints of His; praise His holy name… that my heart may sing to You and not be silent. O Lord my God, I will give You thanks forever. (Psalms, 30:4, 12)

I will praise You forever for what You have done… (Psalms, 52:9)

We give thanks to You, O God, we give thanks, for Your Name is near, men tell of Your wonderful deeds. (Psalms, 75:1)

Then we Your people… will praise You forever; from generation to generation we will recount Your praise. (Psalms, 79:13)

And said: “Naked I came from my mother’s womb, and naked I will depart. The Lord gave and the Lord has taken away; may the name of the Lord be praised.” (Job, 1:21)

… There were… songs of praise and thanksgiving to God. (Nehemiah, 12:46)

Enter His gates with thanksgiving and His courts with praise; give thanks to Him and praise His name. For the Lord is good and His love endures forever; His faithfulness continues through all generations. (Psalms, 100:4-5)

I will praise You, O Lord, with all my heart; I will tell of all Your wonders. I will be glad and rejoice in You; I will sing praise to Your name, O Most High. (Psalms, 9:1-2)

Wealth and honor come from You; You are the ruler of all things. In Your hands are strength and power to exalt and give strength to all. Now, our God, we give You thanks, and praise Your glorious name. (1 Chronicles, 29:12-13)

Praise the Lord. Give thanks to the Lord, for He is good; His love endures forever. (Psalms, 106:1)

Praise the Lord. I will extol the Lord with all my heart in the council of the up right and in the assembly. (Psalms, 111:1)

Give thanks to the Lord, for He is good; His love endures forever… Let them give thanks to the Lord for His unfailing love and His wonderful deeds for men, for He sat is fies the thirsty and fills the hungry with good things. (Psalms, 107:1, 7-9)

I will praise You, O Lord, with all my heart… I will sing Your praise… will praise Your name for Your love and Your faithfulness… When I called, You answered me; You made me bold and stouthearted. May all the kings of the earth praise You, O Lord… (Psalms, 138:1-4)

All You have made will praise You, O Lord; Your saints will extol You. (Psalms, 145:10)

I thank and praise You, O God of my fathers: You have given me wisdom and power, You have made known to me what we asked of You… (Daniel, 2:23)

I will praise You with an upright heart as I learn Your righteous laws. I will obey Your decrees; do not utterly forsake me. (Psalms, 119:7-8)

Give thanks to the Lord, for He is good; His love endures forever… Open for me the gates of righteousness; I will enter and give thanks to the Lord. This is the gate of the Lord through which the righteous may enter. I will give You thanks, for You answered me; You have be come my salvation. You are my God, and I will give You thanks; You are my God, and I will exalt You. Give thanks to the Lord, for He is good; His love endures forever. (Psalms, 118:1, 19-21, 28-29)

I will praise You, O Lord my God, with all my heart; I will glorify Your name forever. For great is Your love toward me; You have delivered me from the depths of the grave. (Psalms, 86:12-13)

Give thanks to the Lord, for His love endures forever. (2 Chronicles, 20:21)

Give thanks to the Lord, call on His name; make known among the nations what He has done. Sing to Him, sing praise to Him; tell of all His wonderful acts. Glory in His holy name; let the hearts of those who seek the Lord rejoice. (1 Chronicles, 16:8-10)

… They were also to stand every morning to thank and praise the Lord. They were to do the same in the evening. (1 Chronicles, 23:30)

It is good to praise the Lord and make mu sic to Your name, O Most High, to pro claim Your love in the morn ing and Your faithfulness at night, to the mu sic of the ten-stringed lyre and the mel o dy of the harp. (Psalms, 92:1-3)

Rejoice in the Lord, you who are righteous, and praise His holy name. (Psalms, 97:12)

Give thanks to the Lord, call on His name; make known among the nations what He has done. Sing to Him, sing praise to Him; tell of all His wonderful acts. (Psalms, 105:1-2)

Give thanks to the Lord, for He is good. His love endures forever. (Psalms, 136:1)

“I will praise You, O Lord. Surely God is my salvation; I will trust and not be afraid. The Lord, the Lord, is my strength and my song; He has be come my salvation.” In that day you will say: “Give thanks to the Lord, call on His name; make known among the nations what He has done, and proclaim that His name is exalted.” (Isaiah, 12:1-4)

May the peoples praise You, O God; may all the peoples praise You. May the nations be glad and sing for joy, for You rule the peoples justly and guide the nations of the earth. (Psalms, 67:3-4)

Praise the Lord. Praise, O servants of the Lord, praise the name of the Lord. (Psalms, 113:1)

 

Submission to God

The Lord is my strength and my shield; my heart trusts in Him, and I am helped. (Psalms, 28:7)

Those who trust in the Lord… which can not be shaken but endures forever. (Psalms, 125:1)

He said: “The Lord is my strength, my fortress and my deliverer; my God… in Whom I take refuge, my shield and the horn of my salvation. He is my stronghold, my refuge and my savior—from violent men You save me.” (2 Samuel, 22:2-3)

Fear of man will prove to be a snare, but whoever trusts in the Lord is kept safe. (Proverbs, 29:25)

Surely God is my help; the Lord is the One Who sustains me. (Psalms, 54:4)

The Lord is my light and my salvation—whom shall I fear? The Lord is the stronghold of my life—of whom shall I be afraid? When evil men advance against me to devour my flesh, when my enemies and my foes attack me, they will stumble and fall. Though an army besiege me, my heart will not fear; though war break out against me, even then will I be confident. (Psalms, 27:1-3)

Trust in the Lord… Delight your self in the Lord and He will give you the de sires of your heart. Commit your way to the Lord; trust in Him and He will do this. (Psalms, 37:3-5)

Wait for the Lord and keep His way… When the wicked are cut off, you will see it. The salvation of the righteous comes from the Lord; He is their stronghold in time of trouble. The Lord helps them and delivers them; He delivers them from the wicked and saves them, because they take refuge in Him. (Psalms, 37:34, 39-40)

Whoever gives heed to instruction prospers, and blessed is he who trusts in the Lord. (Proverbs, 16:20)

A greedy man stirs up dissension, but he who trusts in the Lord will prosper. (Proverbs, 28:25)

Surely God is my salvation; I will trust and not be afraid. The Lord, the Lord, is my strength and my song; He has become my salvation. (Isaiah, 12:2)

You will keep in perfect peace him whose mind is steadfast, because he trusts in You. Trust in the Lord forever, for the Lord, the Lord, is the eternal strength. (Isaiah, 26:3-4)

This is what the Sovereign Lord… says: “In repentance and rest is your salvation, in quietness and trust is your strength, but you would have none of it.” (Isaiah, 30:15)

… Let him who walks in the dark, who has no light, trust in the name of the Lord and rely on his God. (Isaiah, 50:10)

But blessed is the man who trusts in the Lord, whose confidence is in Him. He will be like a tree planted by the water that sends out its roots by the stream. It does not fear when heat comes; its leaves are always green. It has no worries in a year of drought and never fails to bear fruit. (Jeremiah, 17:7-8)

Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous. Do not be terrified; do not be discouraged, for the Lord your God will be with you wherever you go. (Joshua, 1:9)

… “Surely God is with you, and there is no other; there is no other god.” (Isaiah, 45:14)

I am still confident of this: I will see the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living. Wait for the Lord; be strong and take heart and wait for the Lord. (Psalms, 27:13-14)

I love You, O Lord, my strength. The Lord is my strength, my fortress and my deliverer; my God is my strength, in Whom I take refuge. He is my shield and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold. I call to the Lord, Who is worthy of praise, and I am saved from my enemies. (Psalms, 18:1-3)

In my distress I called to the Lord; I cried to my God for help… He… drew me out of deep waters. He rescued me from my powerful enemy, from my foes, who were too strong for me. They confronted me in the day of my disaster, but the Lord was my support. He brought me out in to a spacious place; He rescued me because He delighted in me. (Psalms, 18:6, 16-19)

You, O Lord, keep my lamp burning; my God turns my darkness into light. (Psalms, 18:28)

… He is a shield for all who take refuge in Him. For who is God besides the Lord? And who is the strength except our God? It is God Who arms me with strength and makes my way perfect. You give me Your shield of victory… You broad en the path beneath me, so that my an kles do not turn. (Psalms, 18:30-32, 35-36)

… Exalted be God my Savior! Who saves me from my enemies… from violent men You rescued me. (Psalms, 18:46, 48)

In You, O Lord, I have taken refuge; let me never be put to shame; deliver me in Your righteousness… Be my strength of refuge, a strong fortress to save me. Since You are my strength and my fortress, for the sake of Your name lead and guide me. Free me from the trap that is set for me, for You are my refuge. Into Your hands I commit my spirit; redeem me, O Lord the God of truth. I hate those who cling to worthless idols; I trust in the Lord. (Psalms, 31:1-6)

My soul finds rest in God alone; my salvation comes from Him. He alone is my strength and my salvation; He is my fortress, I will never be shaken. Find rest, O my soul, in God alone; my hope comes from Him. He alone is my strength and my salvation; He is my fortress, I will not be shaken. My salvation and my honor depend on God; He is my… refuge. Trust in Him at all times, O people; pour out your hearts to Him, for God is our refuge. (Psalms, 62:1-2, 5-8)

But I call to God, and the Lord saves me… Cast your cares on the Lord and He will sustain you; He will never let the righteous fall. But You, O God, will bring down the wicked into the pit of corruption… But as for me, I trust in You. (Psalms, 55:16, 22-23)

He trusted in the Lord, the God… He held fast to the Lord and did not cease to follow Him; he kept the commands the Lord had given Moses. And the Lord was with him; he was successful in whatever he undertook… (2 Kings, 18:5-7)

But I trust in You, O Lord; I say, “You are my God.” My times are in Your hands; deliver me from my enemies and from those who pursue me. Let Your face shine on Your servant; save me in Your unfailing love. In the shelter of Your presence You hide them from the intrigues of men; in Your dwelling You keep them safe from accusing tongues… Love the Lord, all His saints! The Lord preserves the faithful… Be strong and take heart, all you who hope in the Lord. (Psalms, 31:14-16, 20-24)

You are my hiding place; You will protect me from trouble and surround me with songs of deliverance. (Psalms, 32:7)

Many are the woes of the wicked, but the Lord’s unfailing love surrounds the man who trusts in Him. Rejoice in the Lord and be glad, you righteous; sing, all you who are up right in heart! (Psalms, 32:10-11)

… And put their trust in the Lord. Blessed is the man who makes the Lord his trust, who does not look to the proud, to those who turn aside to false gods. (Psalms, 40:3-4)

Be pleased, O Lord, to save me; O Lord, come quickly to help me… You are my help and my deliverer; O my God… (Psalms, 40:13, 17)

… The Lord delivers him in times of trouble. The Lord will protect him and preserve his life… The Lord will sustain him on his sickbed and re store him from his bed of illness. (Psalms, 41:1-3)

I do not trust in my bow, my sword does not bring me victory; but You give us victory over our enemies… (Psalms, 44:6-7)

Such is the destiny of all who forget God; so perishes the hope of the godless. What he trusts in is fragile; what he relies on is a spider’s web. He leans on his web, but it gives way; he clings to it, but it does not hold. (Job, 8:13-15)

The Lord is a refuge for the oppressed, a stronghold in times of trouble. Those who know Your name will trust in You, for You, Lord, have never forsaken those who seek You. (Psalms, 9:9-10)

I have set the Lord always before me. Because He is at my right hand, I will not be shaken. Therefore my heart is glad and my tongue rejoices; my body also will rest secure… You have made known to me the path of life; You will fill me with joy in Your presence, with eternal pleasures at Your right hand. (Psalms, 16:8-11)

Some trust in chariots and some in horses, but we trust in the name of the Lord our God. They are brought to their knees and fall, but we rise up and stand firm. (Psalms, 20:7-8)

For the king trusts in the Lord; through the unfailing love of the Most High he will not be shaken. (Psalms, 21:7)

Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for You are with me; Your rod and Your staff, they comfort me… Surely goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever. (Psalms, 23:4-6)

To You, O Lord, I lift up my soul; in You I trust, O my God… No one whose hope is in You will ever be put to shame, but they will be put to shame who are treacherous with out excuse… For You are God my Savior, and my hope is in You all day long. (Psalms, 25:1-5)

… I have trusted in the Lord with out wavering. (Psalms, 26:1)

I will lie down and sleep in peace, for You alone, O Lord, make me dwell in safety. (Psalms, 4:8)

… Have faith in the Lord your God and you will be upheld. Have faith in His Prophets and you will be successful. (2 Chronicles, 20:20)

Here now is the man who did not make God his stronghold… But I am like an olive tree flourishing in the house of God; I trust in God’s unfailing love forever and ever. (Psalms, 52:7-8)

When I am afraid, I will trust in You. In God, Whose word I praise, in God I trust; I will not be afraid. What can mortal man do to me?… I will know that God is for me. (Psalms, 56:3-4-9)

In God, Whose word I praise, in the Lord, Whose word I praise—in God I trust; I will not be afraid. What can man do to me?… For You have delivered me from death and my feet from tumbling, that I may walk before God in the light of life. (Psalms, 56:10-13)

And Asa called to the Lord his God and said, “Lord, there is no one like You to help the powerless against the mighty. Help us, O Lord our God, for we rely on You, and in Your name we have come against this vast army. O Lord, You are our God…” (2 Chronicles, 14:11)

Even though some one is pursuing you to take your life, the soul of my Lord shall be kept, as in the bundle of the living by the Lord your God. But the lives of your enemies He will hurl away as from the pocket of a sling. (1 Samuel, 25:29)

Have no fear of sudden disaster or of the ruin that overtakes the wicked, for the Lord will be your confidence and will keep your foot from being snared. (Proverbs, 3:25-26)

The Lord is with me; I will not be afraid. What can man do to me? The Lord is with me; He is my helper… It is better to take refuge in the Lord than to trust in man… I was pushed back and about to fall, but the Lord helped me. The Lord is my strength and my praise; He has become my salvation. (Psalms, 118:6-9, 13-14)

… Trust in the Lord—He is their help and shield. You who fear Him, trust in the Lord—He is their help and shield. (Psalms, 115:9, 11)

He will have no fear of bad news; his heart is stead fast, trusting in the Lord. His heart is secure, he will have no fear… (Psalms, 112:7-8)

For the Lord God is a Sun and shield; the Lord bestows favor and honor; no good thing does He with hold from those whose walk is blameless. O Lord Almighty, blessed is the man who trusts in You. (Psalms, 84:11-12)

Then they would put their trust in God and would not forget His deeds but would keep His commands. They would not be like their forefathers—a stubborn and rebellious generation, whose hearts were not loyal to God, whose spirits were not faithful to Him. (Psalms, 78:7-8)

In You, O Lord, I have taken refuge… Be my strength of refuge, to which I can always go… You are my strength and my fortress. Deliver me, O my God, from the hand of the wicked, from the grasp of evil and cruel men. For You have been my hope, O Sovereign Lord, my confidence since my youth. From birth I have relied on You; You brought me forth from my mother’s womb. I will ever praise You. I have become like a portent to many, but You are my strong refuge. (Psalms, 71:1-7)

Have no fear of sudden disaster or of the ruin that over takes the wicked, for the Lord will be your confidence… (Proverbs, 3:25-26)

Have I not commanded you? Be strong and courageous. Do not be terrified; do not be discouraged, for the Lord your God will be with you wherever you go. (Joshua, 1:9)

Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or terrified because of them, for the Lord your God goes with you; He will never leave you nor forsake you. (Deuteronomy, 31:6)

The Lord Himself goes before you and will be with you; He will never leave you nor forsake you. Do not be afraid; do not be discouraged. (Deuteronomy, 31:8)

Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or discouraged because… there is a greater Power [God] with us than with him. (2 Chronicles, 32:7)

He Who dwells in the shelter of the Most High will rest in the shadow of the Almighty. I will say of the Lord, “He is my refuge and my fortress, my God, in Whom I trust.” Surely He will save you from the fowler’s snare and from the deadly pestilence. He will cover you with His feathers, and under His wings you will find refuge; His faithfulness will be your shield and rampart. You will not fear the terror of night, nor the arrow that flies by day, nor the pestilence that stalks in the darkness, nor the plague that destroys at midday… If you make the Most High your dwelling—even the Lord, Who is my refuge—then no harm will befall you, no disaster will come near your tent. For He will command His angels concerning you to guard you in all your ways; they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone. You will tread up on the lion and the cobra; you will trample the great lion and the serpent. “Because he loves Me,” says the Lord, “I will rescue him; I will protect him, for he acknowledges My name. He will call up on Me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble, I will deliver him and honor him. With long life will I satisfy him and show him My salvation.” (Psalms, 91:1-7, 9-16)

Then they cried out to the Lord in their trouble, and He delivered them from their distress. (Psalms, 107:6)

In my anguish I cried to the Lord, and He answered me [and]… set me free [from all of them]. (Psalms, 118:5)

The righteous cry out… the Lord… delivers them from all their troubles. (Psalms, 34:17)

God is our refuge and strength… (Psalms, 46:1)

Commit your works to the Lord, and your purposes will be made certain. The Lord has made everything for its own ends. (Proverbs, 16:3-4)

 

Obedience to God’s Commandments

So be careful to do what the Lord your God has commanded you; do not turn aside to the right or to the left. Walk in all the way that the Lord your God has commanded you, so that you may live and prosper and prolong your days in the land that you will possess. (Deuteronomy, 5:32-33)

Oh, that their hearts would be in clined to fear Me and keep all My commands always, so that it might go well with them and their children forever! (Deuteronomy, 5:29)

Be sure to keep the commands of the Lord your God and the stipulations and decrees He has given you. Do what is right and good in the Lord’s sight, so that it may go well with you and you may go in and take over the good land that the Lord promised on oath to your forefathers. (Deuteronomy, 6:17-18)

The Lord commanded us to obey all these decrees and to fear the Lord our God, so that we might always prosper and be kept alive, as is the case to day. And if we are careful to obey all this law before the Lord our God, as He has commanded us, that will be our righteousness. (Deuteronomy, 6:24-25)

Remember how the Lord your God… test you in order to know what was in your heart, whether or not you would keep His commands. (Deuteronomy, 8:2)

You must obey My laws and be careful to follow My decrees. I am the Lord your God. Keep My decrees and laws, for the man who obeys them will live by them. I am the Lord. (Leviticus, 18:4-5)

… Repent! Turn away from all your offenses; then sin will not be your downfall. Rid yourselves of all the offenses you have committed, and get a new heart and a new spirit. (Ezekiel, 18:30-31)

… Your people whom You brought out of Egypt have be come corrupt. They have turned away quickly from what I commanded them and have made a cast idol for themselves. And the Lord said to me… They are a stiff-necked people indeed!… I may destroy them and blot out their name from under heaven. (Deuteronomy, 9:12-14)

… But you rebelled against the command of the Lord your God. You did not trust Him or obey Him. You have been rebellious against the Lord ever since I have known you. (Deuteronomy, 9:23-24)

Circumcise your hearts, therefore, and do not be stiff-necked any longer. For the Lord your God is… the great God, mighty and awesome… (Deuteronomy, 10:16-17)

… Lord your God, Who brought you out of Egypt and redeemed you from the land of slavery; he [wicked one] has tried to turn you from the way the Lord your God commanded you to follow. You must purge the evil from among you. (Deuteronomy, 13:5)

… He is to… learn to revere the Lord his God and follow carefully all the words of this law and these decrees and not consider himself better than his brothers and turn from the law… (Deuteronomy, 17:19-20)

The Lord your God commands you this day to follow these decrees and laws; carefully observe them with all your heart and with all your soul. You have declared this day that the Lord is your God and that you will walk in His ways, that you will keep His decrees, commands and laws, and that you will obey Him… that you are to keep all His commands. (Deuteronomy, 26:16-18)

Cursed is the man who does not uphold the words of this law by carrying them out. Then all the people shall say, “Amen!” (Deuteronomy, 27:26)

“You acted foolishly,” Samuel said. “You have not kept the command the Lord your God gave you… (1 Samuel, 13:13)

… To obey is better than sacrifice, and to heed is better than the fat of rams… Because you have rejected the word of the Lord, He has rejected you as king. (1 Samuel, 15:22-23)

A man who remains stiff-necked after many rebukes will suddenly be destroyed—with out remedy. (Proverbs, 29:1)

… For you are a stiff-necked people… you have been rebellious against the Lord. (Deuteronomy, 9:6-7)

They refused to listen and failed to remember the miracles You performed among them. They became stiff-necked and in their rebellion appointed a leader in order to return to their slavery. But You are a for giving God, gracious and compassionate.. .and abounding in love. Therefore You did not desert them… (Nehemiah, 9:17)

However, if you do not obey the Lord your God and do not carefully follow all His commands and decrees I am giving you today, all these curses will come up on you and over take you: You will be cursed in the city and cursed in the country. Your basket and your kneading trough will be cursed. The fruit of your womb will be cursed, and the crops of your land, and the calves of your herds and the lambs of your flocks. You will be cursed when you come in and cursed when you go out. The Lord will send on you curses, confusion and rebuke in everything you put your hand to, until you are destroyed and come to sudden ruin because of the evil you have done in forsaking Him. The Lord will plague you with diseases until He has destroyed you from the land you are entering to possess. (Deuteronomy, 28:15-21)

If you do not carefully follow all the words of this law, which are written in this book, and do not revere this glorious and awesome name—the Lord your God—the Lord will send fear ful plagues on you and your descendants, harsh and prolonged disasters, and severe and lingering illnesses. He will bring upon you all the diseases of Egypt that you dreaded, and they will cling to you. The Lord will also bring on you every kind of sickness and disaster not recorded in this Book of the Law, until you are destroyed. (Deuteronomy, 28:58-61)

I know how rebellious and stiff-necked you are. If you have been rebellious against the Lord while I am still alive and with you, how much more will you rebel after I die! (Deuteronomy, 31:27)

“Woe to the obstinate children,” declares the Lord… heaping sin upon sin. (Isaiah, 30:1)

… Those who oppose You will be as nothing and perish. (Isaiah, 41:11)

They are all hardened rebels… They are bronze and iron; they all act corruptly. (Jeremiah, 6:28)

Yet they did not listen or pay attention; they were stiff-necked and would not listen or respond to discipline. (Jeremiah, 17:23)

This is what the Lord Almighty… says: “Listen! I am going to bring on this city and the villages around it every disaster I pronounced against them, because they were stiff-necked and would not listen to My words.” (Jeremiah, 19:15)

… They and their fathers have been in revolt against Me to this very day. The people to whom I am sending you are obstinate and stubborn. Say to them, “This is what the Sovereign Lord says.” And whether they listen or fail to listen—for they are a rebellious house—they will know that a Prophet has been among them. And you, son of man, do not be afraid of them or their words. Do not be afraid, though briers and thorns are all around you and you live among scorpions. Do not be afraid of what they say or terrified by them, though they are a rebellious house. You must speak My words to them, whether they listen or fail to listen, for they are rebellious. (Ezekiel, 2:3-7)

… “Do not be afraid of them or terrified by them, though they are a rebellious house.” And He said to me, “Son of man, listen carefully and take to heart all the words I speak to you. Go now to your country men in exile and speak to them. Say to them, ‘This is what the Sovereign Lord says,’ wheth er they listen or fail to listen.” (Ezekiel, 3:9-11)

… Those who oppose the Lord will be shattered. He will thunder against them from heaven; the Lord will judge the ends of the earth. (1 Samuel, 2:10)

If you fear the Lord and serve and obey Him and do not rebel against His commands, and if both you and the king who reigns over you follow the Lord your God-good! But if you do not obey the Lord, and if you rebel against His commands, His hand will be against you, as it was against your fathers. (1 Samuel, 12:14-15)

They… refused to live by His law. They forgot what He had done, the wonders He had shown them. But they… rebelled against the Most High; they did not keep His statutes. Like their fathers they were disloyal and faithless, as unreliable as a faulty bow. (Psalms, 78:10-11, 56-57)

For they had rebelled against the words of God and despised the counsel of the Most High… Some became fools through their rebellious ways and suffered affliction because of their iniquities. (Psalms, 107:11, 17)

You have laid down precepts that are to be fully obeyed. Oh, that my ways were stead fast in obeying Your decrees! Then I would not be put to shame when I consider all Your commands. I will praise You with an upright heart as I learn Your righteous laws. I will obey Your decrees; do not utterly forsake me. (Psalms, 119:4-8)

… I obey Your precepts. I have kept my feet from every evil path so that I might obey Your word. I have not departed from Your laws, for You yourself have taught me. How sweet are Your words to my taste, sweeter than honey to my mouth! I gain understanding from Your precepts; there fore I hate every wrong path. Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light for my path. I have taken an oath and confirmed it, that I will follow Your righteous laws. (Psalms, 119:100-106)

The Lord detests all the proud of heart. Be sure of this: They will not go unpunished. (Proverbs, 16:5)

… I said, “Obey Me and do everything I command you… But they did not listen or pay attention; instead, they followed the stubbornness of their evil hearts. So I brought on them all the curses of the covenant I had commanded them to follow but that they did not keep.” (Jeremiah, 11:4, 8)

Because you have burned incense and have sinned against the Lord and have not obeyed Him or followed His law or His decrees or His stipulations, this disaster has come upon you, as you now see.” (Jeremiah, 44:23)

And if you reject My decrees and abhor My laws and fail to carry out all My commands and so vi o late My covenant, then I will do this to you: I will bring up on you sudden terror, wasting diseases and fever that will destroy your sight and drain away your life. You will plant seed in vain, because your enemies will eat it. (Leviticus, 26:15-16)

If you remain hostile toward Me and refuse to listen to Me, I will multiply your afflictions seven times over, as your sins deserve… If in spite of these things you do not accept My correction but continue to be hostile to ward Me, I my self will be hostile to ward you and will afflict you for your sins seven times over… If in spite of this you still do not listen to Me but continue to be hostile to ward Me… I my self will punish you for your sins seven times over.” (Leviticus, 26:21-28)

Because he has despised the Lord’s word and broken His commands, that person must surely be cut off; his guilt remains on him. (Numbers, 15:31)

So I told you, but you would not listen. You rebelled against the Lord’s command and in your arrogance you marched up in to the hill country. (Deuteronomy, 1:43)

… She has rejected My laws and has not followed My decrees. Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: “You have been more unruly than the nations around you and have not followed My decrees or kept My laws. You have not even conformed to the standards of the nations around you.” Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: “I Myself am against you… and I will inflict punishment on you in the sight of the nations.” (Ezekiel, 5:6-8)

But they rebelled against Me and would not listen to Me; they did not get rid of the vile images they had set their eyes on, nor did they forsake the idols of Egypt. (Ezekiel, 20:8)

But the children rebelled against Me: They did not follow My decrees, they were not careful to keep My laws—although the man who obeys them will live by them… I will purge you of those who revolt and rebel against Me. Although I will bring them out of the land where they are living… (Ezekiel, 20:21, 38)

I dealt with them according to their uncleanness and their offenses… (Ezekiel, 39:24)

Because you did not obey the Lord… the Lord has done this to you to day. (1 Samuel, 28:18)

But if you or your sons turn away from Me and do not observe the commands and decrees I have given you and go off to serve other gods and worship them, then I will cut off… the land I have given them… (1 Kings, 9:6-7)

… Be careful to follow all the commands of the Lord your God, that you may possess this good land and pass it on as an inheritance to your descendants forever. (1 Chronicles, 28:8)

… He [Zechariah] stood before the people and said, “This is what God says: “Why do you disobey the Lord’s commands? You will not prosper. Because you have forsaken the Lord, He has forsaken you.” (2 Chronicles, 24:20)

Whoever does not obey the law of your God… must surely be punished by death, banishment, confiscation of property, or imprisonment. (Ezra, 7:26)

… O our God, what can we say after this? For we have disregarded the commands You gave through Your servants the Prophets… (Ezra, 9:10-11)

We have acted very wickedly toward You. We have not obeyed the commands, decrees and laws You gave Your servant Moses. “Remember the instruction You gave Your servant Moses, say ing, ‘If you are unfaithful, I will scatter you among the nations, but if you return to Me and obey My commands, then even if your exiled people are at the farthest horizon, I will gather them from there and bring them to the place I have chosen as a dwelling for My Name’.” (Nehemiah, 1:7-9)

You warned them to return to Your law, but they became arrogant and disobeyed Your commands. They sinned against Your ordinances, by which a man will live if he obeys them. Stubbornly they turned their backs on You, became stiff-necked and refused to listen. (Nehemiah, 9:29)

… [They] bind themselves with a curse and an oath to follow the Law of God given through Moses the servant of God and to obey carefully all the commands, regulations and decrees of the Lord our Lord. (Nehemiah, 10:29)

… We have not obeyed the Lord our God or kept the laws He gave us through His servants the Prophets… has transgressed Your law and turned away, refusing to obey You. “Therefore the curses and sworn judgments written in the Law of Moses, the servant of God, have been poured out on us, because we have sinned against You. You have fulfilled the words spoken against us and against our rulers by bringing upon us great disaster… Just as it is written in the Law of Moses, all this disaster has come upon us, yet we have not sought the favor of the Lord our God by turning from our sins and giving attention to Your truth.” (Daniel, 9:10-13)

This is what the Lord says: “… I will not turn back [My wrath]. Because they have rejected the law of the Lord and have not kept His decrees, because they have been led astray by false gods, the gods their ancestors followed.” (Amos, 2:4)

 

Heeding the Conscience

I will maintain my righteousness and never let go of it; my conscience will not reproach me as long as I live. (Job, 27:6)

I will praise the Lord, Who counsels me; even at night my heart in structs me. (Psalms, 16:7)

A man tormented by the guilt of murder will be a fugitive till death… (Proverbs, 28:17)

… I have done this with a clear conscience and clean hands. (Genesis, 20:5)

… My bones have no soundness because of my sin. My guilt has overwhelmed me like a burden too heavy to bear. (Psalms, 38:3-4)

 

Timelessness and Belief in Destiny

For a thousand years in Your sight are like a day that has just gone by, or like a watch in the night. (Psalms, 90:4)

I thought in my heart, “God will bring to judgment both the righteous and the wicked, for there will be a time for every activity, a time for every deed.” (Ecclesiastes, 3:17)

The lot is cast in to the lap, but its every decision is from the Lord. (Proverbs, 16:33)

Before I formed you in the womb I knew you, before you were born I set you apart; I appointed you as a Prophet to the nations. (Jeremiah, 1:5)

I know that everything God does will endure forever; nothing can be added to it and nothing taken from it. God does it so that men should fear before Him. Whatever is has already been, and what will be has been before… (Ecclesiastes, 3:14-15)

Remember the former things, those of long ago; I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like Me. I make known the end from the beginning, from ancient times, what is still to come. (Isaiah, 46:9-10)

Your eyes saw my unformed body. All the days ordained for me were written in Your book before one of them came to be. (Psalms, 139:16)

There is a time for everything, and a season for every activity under heaven. (Ecclesiastes, 3:1)

[There is] a time to be born and a time to die, a time to plant and a time to uproot. (Ecclesiastes, 3:2)

… [There is] a time to heal, a time to tear down and a time to build… He has made everything beautiful in its time… (Ecclesiastes, 3:3, 11)

Man’s days are determined; You have decreed the number of his months and have set limits he cannot exceed. (Job, 14:5)

Many are the plans in a man’s heart, but it is the Lord’s purpose that prevails. (Proverbs, 19:21)

Before a word is on my tongue, You know it completely, O Lord. (Psalms, 139:4)

… All the days ordained for me were written in Your book before one of them came to be. (Psalms, 139:16)

… It [the time of the end] will still come at the appointed time. (Daniel 11:35)

Moreover, no man knows when his hour will come: As fish are caught in a cruel net, or birds are taken in a snare, so men are trapped by evil times that fall unexpectedly upon them. (Ecclesiastes, 9:12)

Even from birth the wicked go astray; from the womb they are wayward and speak lies. (Psalms, 58:3)

Listen to me, you is lands; hear this, you distant nations: Before I was born the Lord called me; from my birth He has made mention of my name. (Isaiah, 49:1)

The lot is cast into the lap, but its every decision is from the Lord. (Proverbs, 16:33)

Have you not heard? Long ago I ordained it. In days of old I planned it; now I have brought it to pass, that you have turned fortified cities in to piles of stone… But I know where you stay and when you come and go… (Isaiah, 37:26,28)

… But you did not look to the One Who made it, or have regard for the One Who planned it long ago… “Till your dying day this sin will not be atoned for”… (Isaiah, 22:11, 14)

Let this be written for a future generation, that a people not yet created may praise the Lord. (Psalms, 102:18)

… All the curses written in this book will fall upon him, and the Lord will blot out his name from under heaven. (Deuteronomy, 29:20)

… I am going to bring disaster on this place and its people—all the curses written in the book… (2 Chronicles, 34:24)

“Have you not heard? Long ago I ordained it. In days of old I planned it; now I have brought it to pass, that you have turned fortified cities in to piles of stone.” (2 Kings, 19:25)

 

The Importance of Prayer

The Lord is near to all who call on Him, to all who call on Him in truth. He fulfills the desires of those who fear Him; He hears their cry and saves them. The Lord watches over all who love Him… (Psalms, 145:18-20)

… Let us go at once to entreat the Lord and seek the Lord Almighty… (Zechariah, 8:21)

Ask the Lord for rain in the springtime; it is the Lord Who makes the storm clouds. (Zechariah, 10:1)

“When my life was ebbing away… and my prayer rose to You.” (Jonah, 2:7)

So I turned to the Lord God and pleaded with Him in prayer and petition, in fasting, and in sackcloth and ashes. I prayed to the Lord my God and confessed: “O Lord, the great and awesome God, Who keeps His covenant of love with all who love Him and obey His commands.” (Daniel, 9:3-4)

… At night His song is with me—a prayer to the God of my life. (Psalms, 42:8)

He [Job (pbuh)] prays to God and finds fa vor with Him, he sees God’s face and shouts for joy; he is restored by God… (Job, 33:26)

But I prayed, “Now strengthen my hands.” (Nehemiah, 6:9)

I cry aloud to the Lord; I lift up my voice to the Lord for mercy… I cry to You, O Lord; I say, “You are my refuge, my portion in the land of the living.” (Psalms, 142:1, 5)

… If My people, who are called by My name, will humble themselves and pray and seek My face and turn from their wicked ways, then will I… forgive their sin and will heal their land. (2 Chronicles, 7:14)

But we prayed to our God… (Nehemiah, 4:9)

You alone are the Lord. You made the heavens, even the highest heavens, and all their starry host, the earth and all that is on it, the seas and all that is in them. You give life to everything, and the multitudes of heaven worship You. (Nehemiah, 9:6)

This is what the Lord says, He Who made the earth, the Lord Who formed it and established it—the Lord is His name: “Call to Me and I will answer you and tell you great and unsearchable things you do not know.” (Jeremiah, 33:2-3)

I cry aloud to the Lord; I lift up my voice to the Lord… When my spirit grows faint with in me, it is You Who know my way. In the path where I walk men have hidden a snare for me… I cry to You, O Lord; I say, “You are my refuge, my portion in the land of the living.” Listen to my cry, for I am in desperate need; rescue me from those who pursue me, for they are too strong for me. (Psalms, 142:1-6)

From inside the fish Jonah prayed to the Lord his God. He said: “In my distress I called to the Lord, and He answered me… I called for help, and You listened to my cry. You hurled me into the deep, into the very heart of the seas, and the currents swirled about me; all Your waves and breakers swept over me… But You brought my life up from the pit, O Lord my God. When my life was ebbing away, I remembered You, Lord, and my prayer rose to You, what I have vowed I will make good. Salvation comes from the Lord.” (Jonah, 2:1-9)

O Lord, hear my prayer, listen to my cry for mer cy; in Your faithfulness and righteousness come to my relief… I spread out my hands to You; my soul thirsts for You like a parched land. Answer me quickly, O Lord; my spirit fails. Do not hide Your face from me or I will be like those who go down to the pit. Let the morning bring me word of Your unfailing love, for I have put my trust in You. Show me the way I should go, for to You I lift up my soul. Rescue me from my enemies, O Lord, for I hide my self in You. Teach me to do Your will, for You are my God; may Your good Spirit lead me on level ground. For Your name’s sake, O Lord, preserve my life; in Your righteousness, bring me out of trouble… (Psalms, 143:1, 6-12)

Then Hannah prayed and said: “My heart rejoices in the Lord; in the Lord my horn is lifted high… There is no one holy like the Lord; there is no one besides You; there is no strength like our God… For the Lord is a God Who knows, and by Him deeds are weighed… The Lord brings death and makes alive; He brings down to the grave and raises up.” The Lord sends poverty and wealth; He humbles and He exalts. He raises the poor from the dust and lifts the needy from the ash heap… “For the foundations of the earth are the Lord’s… He will guard the feet of His saints, but the wicked will be silenced in darkness. It is not by strength that one prevails.” (1 Samuel, 2:1-9)

Then Abraham prayed to God, and God healed… they could have children again. (Genesis, 20:17)

Then he prayed, “O Lord, God of my master Abraham, give me success today, and show kindness to my master Abraham.” (Genesis, 24:12)

Moses then left Pharaoh and prayed to the Lord. (Exodus, 10:18, 8:30)

… But Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, “May the Lord… pardon every one who sets his heart on seeking God—the Lord, the God of his fathers?” (2 Chronicles, 30:18-19)

Three times a day he [Daniel] got down on his knees and prayed, giving thanks to his God, just as he had done before. Then these men went as a group and found Daniel praying and asking God for help. (Daniel, 6:10-11)

Then Solomon stood… spread out his hands to ward heaven and said: “O Lord… there is no god like You in heaven above or on earth below—You Who keep Your covenant of love with Your servants who continue wholeheartedly in Your way. O Lord my God. Hear the cry and the prayer that Your servant is praying in Your presence this day… You will hear the prayer Your servant prays toward this place. Hear the supplication of Your servant and of Your people… when they pray toward this place. When a man wrongs his neighbor and is required to take an oath and he comes and swears the oath before Your altar in this house… judge between your servants, condemning the guilty and bringing down on his own head what he has done… when they turn back to You and confess Your name, praying and making supplication to You in this house, then… forgive the sin of Your people… and bring them back to the land You gave to their fathers. When the heavens are shut up and there is no rain because Your people have sinned against You, and when they pray toward this place and confess Your name and turn from their sin… then forgive the sin of Your servants… Teach them the right way to live, and send rain on the land You gave Your people for an inheritance. When famine or plague comes to the land, or blight or mildew, locusts or grasshoppers, or when an enemy besieges them in any of their cities, whatever disaster or disease may come, and when a prayer or plea is made by any of Your people…—each one aware of the afflictions of his own heart, and spreading out his hands to ward this house—then… forgive… since You know his heart (for You alone know the hearts of all men), so that they will fear You all the time they live in the land You gave our fathers. As for the foreigner… has come from a distant land because of Your name—for men will hear of Your great name and Your mighty hand and Your out stretched arm—when he comes and prays toward this house… so that all the peoples of the earth may know Your name and fear You… and say, ‘We have sinned, we have done wrong, we have acted wickedly’; and if they turn back to You with all their heart and soul in the land of their enemies who took them captive, and pray to You toward the land You gave their fathers, toward the city You have chosen and the house I have built for Your Name; then… hear their prayer and their plea, and uphold their cause. And forgive Your people, who have sinned against You; forgive all the of fenses they have committed against You… may You listen to them when ever they cry out to You.” When Solomon had finished all these prayers and supplications to the Lord, he rose from before the altar of the Lord, where he had been kneeling with his hands spread out toward heaven. (1 Kings, 8:22-54)

So I turned to the Lord God and pleaded with Him in prayer and petition, in fasting. I prayed to the Lord my God and confessed: “O Lord… we have sinned and done wrong. We have been wicked and have rebelled; we have turned away from Your commands and laws. We have not listened to Your servants the Prophets, who spoke in Your name to our kings, our princes and our fathers, and to all the people of the land. “Lord, You are righteous, but this day we are covered with shame… in all the countries where You have scattered us because of our un faithfulness to You. O Lord, we and our kings, our princes and our fathers are covered with shame because we have sinned against You. The Lord our God is merciful and forgiving, even though we have rebelled against Him; we have not obeyed the Lord our God or kept the laws He gave us through His servants the Prophets… Therefore the curses and sworn judgments written in the Law of Moses, the servant of God, have been poured out on us, because we have sinned against You. You have fulfilled the words spoken against us and against our rulers by bringing up on us great disaster… Just as it is written in the Law of Moses, all this disaster has come up on us, yet we have not sought the favor of the Lord our God by turning from our sins and giving attention to Your truth. Now, our God, hear the prayers and petitions of Your servant… We do not make requests of You because we are righteous, but because of Your great mercy. O Lord, forgive!… For Your sake, O my God, do not delay… (Daniel, 9:3-19)

… The Prophet Elijah stepped forward and prayed: “… I am Your servant and have done all these things at Your command. Answer me, O Lord, answer me… and that You are turning their hearts back again.” (1 Kings, 18:36-37)

… I mourned and fasted and prayed before the God of heaven. “O Lord, God of heaven, the great and awesome God… hear the prayer Your servant is praying before You day and night… Give your servant success today.” (Nehemiah, 1:4-7, 11)

Hezekiah received the letter… and spread it prayed “O Lord Almighty… You alone are God over all the kingdoms of the earth. You have made heaven and earth.” (Isaiah, 37:14-16)

And seek the peace of the city… and pray to the Lord for it… (Jeremiah, 29:7)

Therefore pray for the remnant that still survives. (2 Kings, 19:4)

… [They] pray for the well-being… (Ezra, 6:10)

And Hezekiah prayed to the Lord: “O Lord… You alone are God over all the kingdoms of the earth. You have made heaven and earth.” (2 Kings, 19:15)

And Elisha prayed and said, “O Lord, open his eyes so he may see…” (2 Kings, 6:17)

Then he stretched himself out on the boy three times and cried to the Lord, “O Lord my God, let this boy’s life return to him!” (1 Kings, 17:21)

Hear my voice when I call, O Lord… Do not reject me or forsake me, O God my Savior… Teach me your way, O Lord; lead me in a straight path… (Psalms, 27:7-11)

 

Belief in Angels

For He will command His angels concerning you to guard you in all your ways; they will lift you up in their hands, so that you will not strike your foot against a stone. You will tread up on the lion and the cobra; you will trample the great lion and the serpent. “Because he loves Me,” says the Lord, “I will rescue him; I will protect him, for he acknowledges My name. He will call up on Me, and I will answer him; I will be with him in trouble, I will deliver him and honor him. With long life will I satisfy him and show him My salvation.” (Psalms, 91:11-16)

… All at once an an gel touched him and said, “Get up and eat.” He looked around, and there by his head was a cake of bread baked over hot coals, and a jar of water. He ate and drank and then lay down again. The angel of the Lord came back a second time and touched him and said, “Get up and eat, for the journey is too much for you.” So he got up and ate and drank. Strengthened by that food, he traveled forty days and forty nights until he reached Horeb, the mountain of God. (1 Kings, 19:5-8)

He replied, “The Lord, before Whom I have walked, will send His angel with you and make your journey a success.” (Genesis, 24:40)

The Lord replied… “Now go, lead the people to the place I spoke of, and My angel will go before you. However, when the time comes for Me to punish, I will punish them for their sin.” (Exodus, 32:33-34)

Jacob also went on his way, and the angels of God met him. (Genesis, 32:1)

But when we cried out to the Lord, He heard our cry and sent an angel and brought us out of Egypt. (Numbers, 20:16)

Then the Lord spoke to the angel, and he put his sword back in to its sheath. (1 Chronicles, 21:27)

With the coming of dawn, the angels urged Lot, saying, “Hurry! Take… your two daughters who are here…” (Genesis, 19:15)

The two angels arrived at Sodom in the evening, and Lot was sitting in the gateway of the city. When he saw them, he got up to meet them… (Genesis, 19:1)

“See, I am sending an angel ahead of you to guard you along the way and to bring you to the place I have prepared. Pay attention to him and listen to what he says. Do not rebel against him; he will not forgive your rebellion, since My Name is in him. If you listen carefully to what he says and do all that I say, I will be an enemy to your enemies and will oppose those who oppose you. My angel will go ahead of you…” (Exodus, 23:20-23)

I will send an an gel before you… to the land flowing with milk and honey. (Exodus, 33:2-3)

And the Lord sent an angel, who annihilated all the fighting men and the leaders and officers in the camp of the Assyrian king. So he with drew to his own land in disgrace. (2 Chronicles, 32:21)

Praise the Lord, you His angels, you mighty ones who do His orders, who obey His word. Praise the Lord, all His heavenly hosts, you His servants who do His will. Praise the Lord, all His works everywhere in His dominion. Praise the Lord, O my soul. (Psalms, 103:20-22)

Praise Him, all His an gels, praise Him, all His heavenly hosts. (Psalms, 148:2)

I asked, “What are these, my lord?” The angel who was talking with me answered, “I will show you what they are.” Then the man standing among the myrtle trees explained, “They are the ones the Lord has sent to go through out the earth.” And they reported to the angel of the Lord, who was standing among the myrtle trees, “We have gone throughout the earth and found the whole world at rest and in peace.” (Zechariah, 1:9-11)

Then the angel who talked with me answered me, “Don’t you know what these are?”… And he answered, and spoke to me, saying: “This is the word of the Lord…” (Zechariah, 4:5-6)

When the angel of the Lord appeared to Gideon, he said, “The Lord is with you, mighty warrior.” (Judges, 6:12)

The angel of the Lord appeared to her and said, “You are sterile and childless, but you are going to conceive and have a son… The angel of God came again to the woman while she was out in the field.” (Judges, 13:3, 9)

 

The Importance Of Remembering God And Saying Inthe Torah

THE IMPORTANCE OF REMEMBERING GOD AND SAYING GOOD WORDS ACCORDING TO THE TORAH

 

 

Speaking of God

… In all your ways acknowledge Him [Lord], and He will make your paths straight. (Proverbs, 3:6)

Do not let this Book of the Law depart from your mouth; meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful. (Joshua, 1:8)

Fix these words of Mine in your hearts and minds…Teach them to your children, talking about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. (Deuteronomy, 11:18-19)

My mouth is filled with Your praise, declaring Your splendor all day long. (Psalms, 71:8)

In the night I remember Your name, O Lord, and I will keep Your law. (Psalms, 119:55)

I will extol the Lord at all times; His praise will always be on my lips. My soul will boast in the Lord… Glorify the Lord with me; let us exalt His name together. (Psalms, 34:1-3)

… The law of the Lord is to be on your lips. For the Lord brought you out of Egypt with His mighty hand. (Exodus, 13:9)

No, the word is very near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart so you may obey it. (Deuteronomy, 30:14)

In that day you will say: “Give thanks to the Lord, call on His name; make known among the nations what He has done, and proclaim that His name is exalted. Sing to the Lord, for He has done glorious things; let this be known to all the world. (Isaiah, 12:4-5)

Ascribe to the Lord, O families of nations, ascribe to the Lord glory and strength. (1 Chronicles, 16:28)

… O God, the God Who saves me, and my tongue will sing of Your righteousness. O Lord, open my lips, and my mouth will declare Your praise. (Psalms, 51:14-15)

The Spirit of the Lord spoke through me; His word was on my tongue. (2 Samuel, 23:2)

But I will sing of Your strength, in the morning I will sing of Your love; for You are my fortress, my refuge in times of trouble. O my strength, I sing praise to You; You, O God, are my fortress, my loving God. (Psalms, 59:16-17)

I cried out to Him with my mouth; His praise was on my tongue. (Psalms, 66:17)

My lips will shout for joy when I sing praise to You—I, whom You have redeemed. My tongue will tell of Your righteous acts all day long… (Psalms, 71:23-24)

… May they always say, “The Lord be exalted, Who delights in the well-being of His servant.” My tongue will speak of Your righteousness and of Your praises all day long. (Psalms, 35:27-28)

… For it is pleasing when you keep them [My Words] in your heart and have all of them ready on your lips. (Proverbs, 22:18)

Because Your love is better than life, my lips will glorify You. I will praise You as long as I live, and in Your name I will lift up my hands… with singing lips my mouth will praise You. (Psalms, 63:3-5)

With my lips I recount all the laws that come from Your mouth. I rejoice in following Your statutes as one rejoices in great riches… May my lips overflow with praise, for You teach me Your decrees. May my tongue sing of Your word, for all Your commands are righteous. (Psalms, 119:13-14, 171-172)

… You shall read this law…. Assemble the people—men, women and children, and the aliens living in your towns—so they can listen and learn to fear the Lord your God and follow carefully all the words of this law. Their children, who do not know this law, must hear it and learn to fear the Lord your God… (Deuteronomy, 31:11-13)

… [We] will praise You forever; from generation to generation we will recount Your praise. (Psalms, 79:13)

“… My Spirit, Who is on you, and My words that I have put in your mouth will not depart from your mouth, or from the mouths of your children, or from the mouths of their descendants from this time on and forever,” says the Lord. (Isaiah, 59:21)

These commandments that I give you today are to be upon your hearts. Impress them on your children. Talk about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. (Deuteronomy, 6:6-7)

 

Speaking the Truth

The mouth of the righteous man utters wisdom, and his tongue speaks what is just. The law of his God is in his heart; his feet do not slip. (Psalms, 37:30-31)

Whoever of you loves life and desires to see many good days, keep your tongue from evil and your lips from speaking lies. (Psalms, 34:12-13)

These are the things you are to do: “Speak the truth to each other… and do not love to swear falsely…” declares the Lord. (Zechariah, 8:16-17)

A truthful witness gives honest testimony, but a false witness tells lies… Truthful lips endure forever, but a lying tongue lasts only a moment. There is deceit in the hearts of those who plot evil, but joy for those who promote peace. No harm befalls the righteous, but the wicked have their fill of trouble. The Lord dislikes lying lips, but He delights in men who are truthful. (Proverbs, 12:17-22)

The mouth of the righteous is a fountain of life, but violence overwhelms the mouth of the wicked. (Proverbs, 10:11)

The mouth of the righteous brings forth wisdom, but a perverse tongue will be cut out. The lips of the righteous know what is fitting, but the mouth of the wicked only what is perverse. (Proverbs, 10:31-32)

The righteous hate what is false, but the wicked bring shame and disgrace. (Proverbs, 13:5)

I said, “I will watch my ways and keep my tongue from sin; I will put a muzzle on my mouth as long as the wicked are in my presence.” (Psalms, 39:1)

True instruction was in his mouth and nothing false was found on his lips. He walked with me in peace and uprightness, and turned many from sin. (Malachi, 2:6)

… I open my lips to speak what is right. My mouth speaks what is true, for my lips detest wickedness. All the words of my mouth are just; none of them is crooked or perverse. To the discerning all of them are right; they are faultless to those who have knowledge. (Proverbs, 8:6-9)

A scoundrel and villain, who goes about with a corrupt mouth. (Proverbs, 6:12)

A truthful witness does not deceive, but a false witness pours out lies. (Proverbs, 14:5)

… They take delight in lies. With their mouths they bless, but in their hearts they curse. (Psalms, 62:4)

… A malicious man disguises himself with his lips, but in his heart he harbors deceit. (Proverbs, 26:23-24)

As long as I have life within me, the breath of God in my nostrils, my lips will not speak wickedness, and my tongue will utter no deceit. (Job, 27:3-4)

Why do you boast of evil, you mighty man? Why do you boast all day long, you who are a disgrace in the eyes of God? Your tongue plots destruction; it is like a sharpened razor, you who practice deceit. You love evil rather than good, falsehood rather than speaking the truth. You love every harmful word, O you deceitful tongue! Surely God will bring you down to everlasting ruin: … He will uproot you from the land of the living. (Psalms, 52:1-5)

Let their lying lips be silenced, for with pride and contempt they speak arrogantly against the righteous. (Psalms, 31:18)

The words of his mouth are wicked and deceitful; he has ceased to be wise and to do good. (Psalms, 36:3)

Like a club or a sword or a sharp arrow is the man who gives false testimony against his neighbor… As a north wind brings rain, so a sly tongue brings angry looks. (Proverbs, 25:18, 23)

A lying tongue hates those it hurts…(Proverbs, 26:28)

Save me, O Lord, from lying lips and from deceitful tongues. (Psalms, 120:2)

… Your lips have spoken lies, and your tongue mutters wicked things. No one calls for justice; no one pleads his case with integrity. They rely on empty arguments and speak lies; they conceive trouble and give birth to evil. (Isaiah, 59:3-4)

Friend deceives friend, and no one speaks the truth. They have taught their tongues to lie; they weary themselves with sinning… Their tongue is a deadly arrow; it speaks with deceit. With his mouth each speaks cordially to his neighbor, but in his heart he sets a trap for him. (Jeremiah, 9:5, 8)

You use your mouth for evil and harness your tongue to deceit. (Psalms, 50:19)

Whose mouths are full of lies, whose right hands are deceitful. (Psalms, 144:8)

He who conceals his hatred has lying lips, and whoever spreads slander is a fool. (Proverbs, 10:18)

The tongue of the righteous is choice silver, but the heart of the wicked is of little value. The lips of the righteous nourish many, but fools die for lack of judgment. (Proverbs, 10:20-21)

He who walks righteously and speaks what is right… This is the man who will dwell on the heights, whose refuge will be the mountain fortress. His bread will be supplied, and water will not fail him. (Isaiah, 33:15-16)

These are the things you are to do: Speak the truth to each other… (Zechariah, 8:16)

 

Speaking Wisely and Concisely

The words of a man’s mouth are deep waters, but the fountain of wisdom is a bubbling brook. (Proverbs, 18:4)

The wise in heart are called discerning, and pleasant words promote instruction… A wise man’s heart guides his mouth, and his lips promote instruction. (Proverbs, 16:21, 23)

King Solomon was greater in riches and wisdom than all the other kings of the earth. The whole world sought audience with Solomon to hear the wisdom God had put in his heart. (1 Kings, 10:23-24)

A fool shows his annoyance at once… Reckless words pierce like a sword, but the tongue of the wise brings healing. (Proverbs, 12:16, 18)

A prudent man keeps his knowledge to himself, but the heart of fools blurts out folly. (Proverbs, 12:23)

A fool’s talk brings a rod to his back, but the lips of the wise protect them. (Proverbs, 14:3)

The tongue of the wise commends knowledge, but the mouth of the fool gushes folly. (Proverbs, 15:2)

The lips of the wise spread knowledge; not so the hearts of fools. (Proverbs, 15:7)

A man finds joy in giving an apt reply and how good is a timely word! (Proverbs, 15:23)

Wisdom is found on the lips of the discerning, but a rod is for the back of him who lacks judgment. Wise men store up knowledge, but the mouth of a fool invites ruin. (Proverbs, 10:13-14)

A man who lacks judgment derides his neighbor, but a man of understanding holds his tongue. (Proverbs, 11:12)

A man of knowledge uses words with restraint, and a man of understanding is even-tempered. Even a fool is thought wise if he keeps silent, and discerning if he holds his tongue. (Proverbs, 17:27-28)

An unfriendly man pursues selfish ends; he defies all sound judgment. A fool finds no pleasure in understanding but delights in airing his own opinions. (Proverbs, 18:1-2)

Gold there is, and rubies in abundance, but lips that speak knowledge are a rare jewel. (Proverbs, 20:15)

He who guards his lips guards his life, but he who speaks rashly will come to ruin. (Proverbs, 13:3)

God gave Solomon wisdom and very great insight, and a breadth of understanding as measureless as the sand on the seashore. Solomon’s wisdom was greater than the wisdom of all the men of the East, and greater than all the wisdom of Egypt. He was wiser than any other man… Men of all nations came to listen to Solomon’s wisdom, sent by all the kings of the world, who had heard of his wisdom. (1 Kings, 4:29-34)

 

Avoiding Evil Words and Speaking Truthfully

The tongue that brings healing is a tree of life, but a deceitful tongue crushes the spirit. (Proverbs, 15:4)

Pleasant words are a honeycomb, sweet to the soul and healing to the bones. (Proverbs, 16:24)

A gentle answer turns away wrath, but a harsh word stirs up anger. (Proverbs, 15:1)

Through patience a ruler can be persuaded, and a gentle tongue can break a bone. (Proverbs, 25:15)

An anxious heart weighs a man down, but a kind word cheers him up. (Proverbs, 12:25)

… I have resolved that my mouth will not sin. (Psalms, 17:3)

His mouth is full of curses and lies and threats; trouble and evil are under his tongue. (Psalms, 10:7)

[They] devise evil plans in their hearts and stir up war every day. They make their tongues as sharp as a serpent’s; the poison of vipers is on their lips. (Psalms, 140:2-3)

With his mouth the godless destroys his neighbor, but through knowledge the righteous escape… Through the blessing of the upright a city is exalted, but by the mouth of the wicked it is destroyed. (Proverbs, 11:9, 11)

They sharpen their tongues like swords and aim their words like deadly arrows. They shoot from ambush at the innocent man; they shoot at him suddenly, without fear… He will turn their own tongues against them and bring them to ruin. (Psalms, 64:3-4, 8)

The heart of the righteous weighs its answers, but the mouth of the wicked gushes evil. (Proverbs, 15:28)

A wicked man listens to evil lips; a liar pays attention to a malicious tongue. (Proverbs, 17:4)

… And he [Joseph] reassured them and spoke kindly to them. (Genesis, 50:21)

My heart is stirred by a noble theme… My tongue is the pen of a skillful writer. (Psalms, 45:1)

 

Preaching Goodness and Forbidding Evil

Do not hate your brother in your heart. Rebuke your neighbor frankly so you will not share in his guilt. (Leviticus, 19:17)

She speaks with wisdom, and faithful instruction is on her tongue. (Proverbs, 31:26)

A righteous man is cautious in friendship, but the way of the wicked leads them astray. (Proverbs, 12:26)

Do not be like your forefathers, to whom the earlier Prophets proclaimed: This is what the Lord Almighty says: “Turn from your evil ways and your evil practices.” But they would not listen or pay attention to Me, declares the Lord. (Zechariah, 1:4)

And [Lot] said, “No, my friends. Don’t do this wicked thing.” (Genesis, 19:7)

Listen now to me and I will give you some advice, and may God be with you… (Exodus, 18:19)

… “No, my friends, don’t be so vile… don’t do this disgraceful thing… But to this man, don’t do such a disgraceful thing.” (Judges, 19:23-24)

There is deceit in the hearts of those who plot evil, but joy for those who promote peace. (Proverbs, 12:20)

… forsaking Me and serving other gods, so they are doing to you… but warn them solemnly… (1 Samuel, 8:8-9)

[David:] Turn from evil and do good; seek peace and pursue it. (Psalms, 34:14)

[Job:] But my mouth would encourage you; comfort from my lips would bring you relief. (Job, 16:5)

 

Avoiding Idle Talk

All hard work brings a profit, but mere talk leads only to poverty. (Proverbs, 14:23)

… and not doing as you please or speaking idle words, then you will find your joy in the Lord. (Isaiah, 58:13-14)

Would a wise man answer with empty notions or fill his belly with the hot east wind? Would he argue with useless words, with speeches that have no value? (Job, 15:2-3)

Therefore thus said the Lord God; “Because you have spoken vanity, and seen lies, therefore, behold, I am against you,” said the Lord God. (Ezekiel, 13:8)

… Why then this meaningless talk? (Job, 27:12)

… He speaks vanity: His heart gathers iniquity to itself; when he goes abroad, he tells it… (Psalms, 41:6)

… They are prophesying to you false visions, divinations, idolatries and the delusions of their own minds. (Jeremiah, 14:14)

So how can you console me with your nonsense? Nothing is left of your answers but falsehood! (Job, 21:34)

 

Avoiding Gossip

A perverse man stirs up dissension, and a gossip separates close friends. (Proverbs, 16:28)

Without wood a fire goes out; without gossip a quarrel dies down. As charcoal to embers and as wood to fire, so is a quarrelsome man for kindling strife. (Proverbs, 26:20-22)

A gossip betrays a confidence; so avoid a man who talks too much. (Proverbs, 20:19)

A gossip betrays a confidence, but a trustworthy man keeps a secret. (Proverbs, 11:13)

Do not go about spreading slander among your people. Do not do anything that endangers your neighbor’s life. I am the Lord. (Leviticus, 19:16)

They are all hardened rebels, going about with slanders. They are bronze and iron; they all act corruptly… the Lord has rejected them. (Jeremiah, 6:28, 30)

 

Other Forms of Speech Recommended

Do not boast about tomorrow, for you do not know what a day may bring forth. Let another praise you, and not your own mouth; someone else, and not your own lips. (Proverbs, 27:1-2)

Do not keep talking so proudly or let your mouth speak such arrogance, for the Lord is a God Who knows, and by Him deeds are weighed. (1 Samuel, 2:3)

He who answers before listening—that is his folly and his shame. (Proverbs, 18:13)

He who covers over an offense promotes love, but whoever repeats the matter separates close friends. (Proverbs, 17:9)

… and a flattering mouth works ruin. (Proverbs, 26:28)

A fool’s lips bring him strife, and his mouth invites a beating. A fool’s mouth is his undoing, and his lips are a snare to his soul. (Proverbs, 18:6-7)

From the fruit of his lips a man is filled with good things as surely as the work of his hands rewards him. (Proverbs, 12:14)

From the fruit of his lips a man enjoys good things, but the unfaithful have a craving for violence. (Proverbs, 13:2)

But you even undermine piety and hinder devotion to God. Your sin prompts your mouth; you adopt the tongue of the crafty. Your own mouth condemns you, not mine; your own lips testify against you. (Job, 15:4-6)

An evil man is trapped by his sinful talk, but a righteous man escapes trouble. (Proverbs, 12:13)

May the Lord cut off all flattering lips and every boastful tongue that says, “We will triumph with our tongues; we own our lips—who is our master?” (Psalms, 12:3-4)

 

 

The Importance Of Deep Thinking In The Old Testament

The Importance of Deep Thinking in the Old Testament

On my bed I remember You; I think of You through the watches of the night. (Psalms, 63:6)

But his delight is in the law of the Lord, and on His law he meditates day and night. (Psalms, 1:2)

I will remember the deeds of the Lord; yes, I will remember Your miracles of long ago. I will meditate on all Your works and consider all Your mighty deeds. (Psalms, 77:11-12)

Though rulers sit together and slander me, Your servant will meditate on Your decrees. Your statutes are my delight; they are my counselors. (Psalms, 119:23-24)

Oh, how I love Your law! I meditate on it all day long. Your commands make me wiser than my enemies, for they are ever with me. I have more insight than all my teachers, for I meditate on Your statutes. (Psalms, 119:97-99)

I rise before dawn and cry for help; I have put my hope in Your word. My eyes stay open through the watches of the night, that I may meditate on Your promises. (Psalms, 119:147-148)

I applied my heart to what I observed and learned a lesson from what I saw. (Proverbs, 24:32)

Consider what God has done: Who can straighten what He has made crooked? When times are good, be happy; but when times are bad, consider… (Ecclesiastes 7:13-14)

… I rejoice in following Your statutes as one rejoices in great riches. I meditate on Your precepts and consider Your ways. I delight in Your decrees; I will not neglect Your word. (Psalms, 119:13-16)

Listen to this, Job; stop and consider God’s wonders. (Job, 37:14)

Do not let this Book of the Law depart from your mouth; meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful. (Joshua, 1:8)

I remember the days of long ago; I meditate on all Your works and consider… I spread out my hands to You; my soul thirsts for You like a parched land. (Psalms, 143:5-6)

Great are the works of the Lord; they are pondered by all who delight in them. (Psalms, 111:2)

But be sure to fear the Lord and serve Him faithfully with all your heart; consider what great things He has done for you. (1 Samuel, 12:24)

… for I delight in Your commands because I love them. I lift up my hands to Your commands, which I love, and I meditate on Your decrees. (Psalms, 119:47-48)

My heart grew hot within me, and as I meditated, the fire burned; then I spoke with my tongue: “Show me, O Lord, my life’s end and the number of my days; let me know how fleeting is my life.” (Psalms, 39:3-4)

One generation will commend Your works to another; they will tell of Your mighty acts. They will speak of the glorious splendor of Your majesty, and I will meditate on Your wonderful works, they will tell of the power of Your awesome works. (Psalms, 145:4-5)

Now this is what the Lord Almighty says: “Give careful thought to your ways.” (Haggai, 1:5)

“Now give careful thought to this from this day on… I struck all the work of your hands with blight, mildew and hail, yet you did not turn to Me,” declares the Lord. “… Give careful thought.” (Haggai, 2:15-18)

So I reflected on all this and concluded that the righteous and the wise and what they do are in God’s hands. (Ecclesiastes, 9:1)

… When I think of all this, I fear Him. (Job, 23:15)

The Excitement And Joy Of Faith In The Old Testament

The Excitement and Joy of Faith in the Old Testament

Be glad… rejoice in the Lord your God. (Joel, 2:23)

… I desire to do Your will, O my God; Your law is within my heart. (Psalms, 40:8)

I rejoice in following Your statutes as one rejoices in great riches. I meditate on Your precepts and consider Your ways. I delight in Your decrees; I will not neglect Your word. (Psalms, 119:14-16)

… The Lord your God is testing you to find out whether you love Him with all your heart and with all your soul. (Deuteronomy, 13:3)

Many are the woes of the wicked, but the Lord’s unfailing love surrounds the man who trusts in Him. Rejoice in the Lord and be glad, you righteous; sing, all you who are upright in heart! (Psalms, 32:10-11)

… I keep Your precepts with all my heart. Their hearts are callous and unfeeling, but I delight in Your law… The law from Your mouth is more precious to me than thousands of pieces of silver and gold. (Psalms, 119:69-72)

Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength. (Deuteronomy, 6:5)

Blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked or stand in the way of sinners or sit in the seat of mockers. But his delight is in the law of the Lord, and on His law he meditates day and night. (Psalms, 1:1-2)

Then Hannah prayed and said: “My heart rejoices in the Lord; in the Lord my horn is lifted high. My mouth boasts over my enemies, for I delight in Your deliverance. There is no one holy like the Lord; there is no one besides You; there is no strength like our God.” (1 Samuel, 2:1-2)

… for I delight in Your commands because I love them. I lift up my hands to Your commands, which I love, and I meditate on your decrees. (Psalms, 119:47-48)

Trouble and distress have come upon me, but Your commands are my delight. Your statutes are forever right; give me understanding that I may live. (Psalms, 119:143-144)

Great peace have they who love Your law, and nothing can make them stumble. I wait for Your salvation, O Lord, and I follow Your commands. I obey Your statutes, for I love them greatly. (Psalms, 119:165-167)

The law of the Lord is perfect, reviving the soul. The statutes of the Lord are trustworthy, making wise the simple. The precepts of the Lord are right, giving joy to the heart. The commands of the Lord are radiant, giving light to the eyes. The fear of the Lord is pure, enduring forever. The ordinances of the Lord are sure and altogether righteous. They are more precious than gold, than much pure gold; they are sweeter than honey, than honey from the comb. (Psalms, 19:7-10)

Great are the works of the Lord; they are pondered by all who delight in them. (Psalms, 111:2)

Though rulers sit together and slander me, Your servant will meditate on Your decrees. Your statutes are my delight; they are my counselors. (Psalms, 119:23-24)

Teach me, O Lord, to follow Your decrees; then I will keep them to the end. Give me understanding, and I will keep Your law and obey it with all my heart. Direct me in the path of Your commands, for there I find delight. (Psalms, 119:33-35)

May Your unfailing love be my comfort, according to Your promise to Your servant. Let Your compassion come to me that I may live, for Your law is my delight. (Psalms, 119:76-77)

But if from there you seek the Lord your God, you will find Him if you look for Him with all your heart and with all your soul. (Deuteronomy, 4:29)

Then I was… at His side. I was filled with delight day after day, rejoicing always in His presence, rejoicing in His whole world and delighting in mankind. (Proverbs, 8:30-31)

If Your law had not been my delight, I would have perished in my affliction. I will never forget Your precepts, for by them You have preserved my life. (Psalms, 119:92-93)

May my lips overflow with praise, for You teach me Your decrees. May my tongue sing of Your word, for all Your commands are righteous… I long for Your salvation, O Lord, and Your law is my delight. Let me live that I may praise You, and may Your laws sustain me. (Psalms, 119:171-175)

Blessed are they who keep: His statutes and seek Him with all their heart. (Psalms, 119:2)

So if you faithfully obey the commands I am giving you today—to love the Lord your God and to serve Him with all your heart and with all your soul then I will send rain on your land in its season, both autumn and spring rains… (Deuteronomy, 11:13-14)

Shout for joy to the Lord, all the earth. Worship the Lord with gladness; come before Him with joyful songs. Know that the Lord is God. It is He Who made us, and we are His… Enter His gates with thanksgiving and His courts with praise; give thanks to Him and praise His name. (Psalms, 100:1-4)

The Lord is my strength and my song; He has become my salvation. He is my God, and I will praise Him… and I will exalt Him. (Exodus, 15:2)

Delight yourself in the Lord and He will give you the desires of your heart. (Psalms, 37:4)

Praise the Lord. Blessed is the man who fears the Lord, who finds great delight in His commands. (Psalms, 112:1)

I will sing to the Lord all my life; I will sing praise to my God as long as I live. May my meditation be pleasing to Him, as I rejoice in the Lord… Praise the Lord, O my soul. Praise the Lord. (Psalms, 104:33-35)

Blessed are those who have learned to acclaim You, who walk in the light of Your presence, O Lord. They rejoice in Your name all day long; they exult in Your righteousness. For You are their glory and strength, and by Your favor You exalt the strength. (Psalms, 89:15-17)

But may all who seek You rejoice and be glad in You; may those who love Your salvation always say, “The Lord be exalted!” (Psalms, 40:16; Psalms, 70:4)

Then will I go to the altar of God, to God, my joy and my delight. I will praise You with the harp, O God, my God. (Psalms, 43:4)

When Your words came, I ate them; they were my joy and my heart’s delight, for I bear Your name, O Lord God Almighty. (Jeremiah, 15:16)

But may the righteous be glad and rejoice before God; may they be happy and joyful. Sing to God, sing praise to His name… (Psalms, 68:3-4)

Accept, O Lord, the willing praise of my mouth, and teach me Your laws… Your statutes are my heritage forever; they are the joy of my heart. (Psalms, 119:108, 111)

I know, my God, that You test the heart and are pleased with integrity. All these things have I given willingly and with honest intent. And now I have seen with joy how willingly Your people who are here have given to You. O Lord… keep this desire in the hearts of Your people forever, and keep their hearts loyal to You. And give my son Solomon the wholehearted devotion to keep Your commands, requirements and decrees and to do everything to build the palatial structure for which I have provided. (1 Chronicles, 29:17-19)

Sing for joy to God our strength; shout aloud to the God of Jacob! Begin the music, strike the tambourine, play the melodious harp and lyre. (Psalms, 81:1-2)

Create in me a pure heart, O God, and renew a steadfast spirit within me… Restore to me the joy of Your salvation and grant me a willing spirit, to sustain me…and my tongue will sing of Your righteousness. O Lord, open my lips, and my mouth will declare Your praise. (Psalms, 51:10-15)

But be glad and rejoice forever in what I will create… (Isaiah, 65:18)

Your statutes are wonderful; therefore I obey them. The unfolding of Your words gives light; it gives understanding to the simple. I open my mouth and pant, longing for Your commands. (Psalms, 119:129-131)

I will praise You with the harp for Your faithfulness, O my God; I will sing praise to You with the lyre… My lips will shout for joy when I sing praise to You—I, whom You have redeemed. My tongue will tell of Your righteous acts all day long… (Psalms, 71:22-24)

… So they sang praises with gladness and bowed their heads and worshipped. (2 Chronicles, 29:30)

With praise and thanksgiving they sang to the Lord… And all the people gave a great shout of praise to the Lord… (Ezra, 3:11)

… But Hezekiah prayed for them, saying, “May the Lord, Who is good, pardon everyone who sets his heart on seeking God—the Lord, the God of his fathers—even if he is not clean according to the rules of the house.” (2 Chronicles, 30:19)

My words come from an upright heart; my lips sincerely speak what I know. The Spirit of God has made me; the breath of the Almighty gives me life. (Job, 33:3-4)

The people rejoiced at the willing response of their leaders, for they had given freely and wholeheartedly to the Lord. David the king also rejoiced. (1 Chronicles, 29:9)

… and everyone who was willing and whose heart moved him came and brought an offering to the Lord for the work on the Tent of Meeting, for all its service, and for the sacred garments. All who were willing, men and women alike, came… (Exodus, 35:21-22)

… [They] brought to the Lord freewill offerings for all the work the Lord through Moses had commanded them to do. (Exodus, 35:29)

Oh, that their hearts would be inclined to fear Me and keep all My commands always, so that it might go well with them and their children forever! (Deuteronomy, 5:29)

O Lord, let Your ear be attentive to the prayer of this Your servant and to the prayer of Your servants who delight in revering Your name. Give Your servant success today… (Nehemiah, 1:11)

… You made him glad with the joy of Your presence. For the king trusts in the Lord; through the unfailing love of the Most High he will not be shaken. (Psalms, 21:6-7)

The trumpeters and singers joined in unison, as with one voice, to give praise and thanks to the Lord. Accompanied by trumpets, cymbals and other instruments, they raised their voices in praise to the Lord and sang: “He is good; His love endures forever.” (2 Chronicles, 5:13)

I will praise You as long as I live, and in Your name I will lift up my hands. My soul will be satisfied as with the richest of foods; with singing lips my mouth will praise You. (Psalms, 63:4-5)

Sing the glory of His name; make His praise glorious! (Psalms, 66:2)

Be exalted, O Lord, in Your strength; we will sing and praise Your might. (Psalms, 21:13)

… They rejoice before You as people rejoice at the harvest, as men rejoice when dividing the plunder. (Isaiah, 9:3)

… Levites and priests sang to the Lord every day, accompanied by the Lord’s instruments of praise. (2 Chronicles, 30:21)

Glorify the Lord with me; let us exalt His name together. (Psalms, 34:3)

Let the saints rejoice in this honor and sing for joy on their beds. (Psalms, 149:5)

My servants will sing out of the joy of their hearts, but you will cry out from anguish of heart and wail in brokenness of spirit. (Isaiah, 65:14)

Because you did not serve the Lord your God joyfully and gladly in the time of prosperity, therefore in hunger and thirst, in nakedness and dire poverty, you will serve the enemies the Lord sends against you. (Deuteronomy, 28:47-48)

“… Do not grieve, for the joy of the Lord is your strength.” (Nehemiah, 8:10)

… to love the Lord your God, to walk in all His ways, to obey His commands, to hold fast to Him and to serve Him with all your heart and all your soul. (Joshua, 22:5)

The Commandments Are Compatable In The Torah And The Quran

THE COMMANDMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS ACCORDING TO THE TORAH THAT ARE COMPATIBLE WITH THOSE IN THE QURAN

 

 

Lying Is Prohibited

… Do not lie… Do not swear falsely by My name. (Leviticus, 19:11-12)

You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor. (Exodus, 20:16; Deuteronomy, 5:20)

Have nothing to do with a false charge and do not put an innocent or honest person to death, for I will not acquit the guilty. (Exodus, 23:7)

Do not spread false reports. Do not help a wicked man by being a malicious witness. Do not follow the crowd in doing wrong. When you give testimony in a lawsuit, do not pervert justice by siding with the crowd… (Exodus, 23:1-2)

… If he finds lost property and lies about it, or if he swears falsely, or if he commits any such sin that people may do… he thus sins and becomes guilty… (Leviticus, 6:3-4)

The remnant… will do no wrong; they will speak no lies, nor will deceit be found in their mouths. They will eat and lie down and no one will make them afraid. (Zephaniah, 3:13)

 

Theft Is Prohibited

You shall not steal. (Exodus, 20:15; Deuteronomy, 5:19)

Do not steal. Do not lie. Do not deceive one another. (Leviticus, 19:11)

Thieves break into houses, bandits rob in the streets; but they do not realize that I remember all their evil deeds. Their sins engulf them; they are always before Me. (Hosea, 7:1-2)

Will you steal and murder, commit adultery and perjury, burn incense to Baal and follow other gods you have not known, and then come and stand before Me in this house, which bears My Name, and say, “We are safe” -safe to do all these detestable things? (Jeremiah, 7:9-10)

Whoever is an accomplice of a thief is an enemy of his own soul… (Proverbs, 29:24)

 

Eating Pork Is Prohibited

And the pig, though it has a split hoof completely divided, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you. You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you. (Leviticus, 11:7-8)

… [The people] who eat the flesh of pigs, and whose pots hold broth of unclean meat. (Isaiah, 65:4)

“… Those who eat the flesh of pigs and rats and other abominable things—they will meet their end together,” declares the Lord. (Isaiah, 66:17)

 

Earning Interest Is Prohibited

Do not charge your brother interest, whether on money or food or anything else that may earn interest. (Deuteronomy, 23:19)

… If you lend money to one of My people among you who is needy, do not be like a moneylender; charge him no interest. (Exodus, 22:25)

Do not take interest of any kind from him, but fear your God, so that your countryman may continue to live among you. You must not lend him money at interest or sell him food at a profit. (Leviticus, 25:36-37)

… who lends his money without usury… He who does these things will never be shaken. (Psalms, 15:5)

I and my brothers and my men are also lending the people money and grain. But let the exacting of usury stop! (Nehemiah, 5:10)

Suppose there is a righteous man who does what is just and right… He does not lend at usury. (Ezekiel, 18:5, 8)

 

Distractions Such as Astrology and Fortune-Telling Are Prohibited

… Do not practice divination or sorcery. (Leviticus, 19:26)

Isn’t this the cup… uses for divination? This is a wicked thing you have done. (Genesis, 44:5)

Let no one be found among you who… practices divination or sorcery, interprets omens, engages in witchcraft, or casts spells, or who is a medium or spiritist or who consults the dead. Anyone who does these things is detestable to the Lord, and because of these detestable practices the Lord your God will drive out those nations before you. (Deuteronomy, 18:10-12)

The nations you will dispossess listen to those who practice sorcery or divination. But as for you, the Lord your God has not permitted you to do so. (Deuteronomy, 18:14)

… They practiced divination and sorcery… do evil in the eyes of the Lord. (2 Kings, 17:17)

Have you not seen false visions and uttered lying divinations when you say, “The Lord declares,” though I have not spoken? Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says: “Because of your false words and lying visions, I am against you, declares the Sovereign Lord. My hand will be against the [false] prophets who see false visions and utter lying divinations… Therefore you will no longer see false visions or practice divination.” (Ezekiel, 13:7-9, 23)

So do not listen to… your diviners, your interpreters of dreams, your mediums or your sorcerers… (Jeremiah, 27:9)

Despite false visions concerning you and lying divinations about you… whose day has come, whose time of punishment has reached its climax. (Ezekiel, 21:29)

I will destroy your witchcraft and you will no longer cast spells. I will destroy your carved images and your sacred stones from among you; you will no longer bow down to the work of your hands. I will take vengeance in anger and wrath upon the nations that have not obeyed Me. (Micah, 5:12-15)

… They are prophesying to you false visions, divinations, idolatries and the delusions of their own minds… I will pour out on them the calamity they deserve. (Jeremiah, 14:14, 16)

 

Taking Bribes Is Prohibited

Do not pervert justice or show partiality. Do not accept a bribe, for a bribe blinds the eyes of the wise and twists the words of the righteous. (Deuteronomy, 16:19, Exodus, 23:8)

Cursed is the man who accepts a bribe to kill an innocent person. (Deuteronomy, 27:25)

He who walks righteously and speaks what is right, who rejects gain from extortion and keeps his hand from accepting bribes… This is the man who will dwell on the heights, his bread will be supplied, and water will not fail him. (Isaiah, 33.15:16)

For I know how many are your offenses and how great your sins. You oppress the righteous and take bribes and you deprive the poor of justice in the courts. (Amos, 5:12)

… [He] does not accept a bribe against the innocent. He who does these things will never be shaken. (Psalms, 15:5)

Woe to those who… acquit the guilty for a bribe, but deny justice to the innocent. (Isaiah, 5:22-23)

Judge carefully, for with the Lord our God there is no injustice or partiality or bribery. (2 Chronicles, 19:7)

Be careful that no one entices you by riches; do not let a large bribe turn you aside. (Job, 36:18)

 

Cheating Is Prohibited

… Do not deceive one another… (Leviticus, 19:11)

Blessed is the man whose sin the Lord does not count against him and in whose spirit is no deceit. (Psalms, 32:2)

A good man obtains favor from the Lord, but the Lord condemns a crafty man. (Proverbs, 12:2)

 

Murdering Is Prohibited

You shall not murder. (Exodus, 20:13; Deuteronomy, 5:17)

Have nothing to do with a false charge and do not put an innocent or honest person to death, for I will not acquit the guilty. (Exodus, 23:7)

Will you steal and murder, commit adultery and perjury, burn incense to Baal and follow other gods you have not known, and then come and stand before Me in this house, which bears My Name, and say, “We are safe”—safe to do all these detestable things? (Jeremiah, 7:9-10)

My son, if sinners entice you, do not give in to them. If they say, “Come along with us; let’s lie in wait for someone’s blood, let’s waylay some harmless soul.” (Proverbs, 1:10-11)

 

Adultery Is Prohibited

You shall not commit adultery. (Exodus, 20:14, Deuteronomy, 5:18)

They will not set their thoughts to return to their God: for the spirit of fornication is in the midst of them, and they have not known the Lord. (Hosea, 5:4)

For a spirit of harlotry has led them astray, and they have played the harlot, departing from their God. (Hosea, 4:12)

Do not rejoice… Do not be jubilant like the other nations. For you have been unfaithful to your God; you love the wages of a prostitute at every threshing floor. (Hosea, 9:1)

The land is full of adulterers… [they] follow an evil course. (Jeremiah, 23:10)

But a man who commits adultery lacks judgment; whoever does so destroys himself. Blows and disgrace are his lot, and his shame will never be wiped away. (Proverbs, 6:32-33)

The eye of the adulterer watches for dusk; he thinks, “No eye will see me”… They make friends with the terrors of darkness. (Job, 24:15, 17)

 

Homosexuality Is Prohibited

If a man lies with a man as one lies with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable. (Leviticus, 20:13)

Do not lie with a man as one lies with a woman; that is detestable. (Leviticus, 18:22)

 

Eating Blood Products Is Prohibited

This is a lasting ordinance for the generations to come, wherever you live: You must not eat… any blood. (Leviticus, 3:17)

And wherever you live, you must not eat the blood of… animal. (Leviticus, 7:26)

But be sure you do not eat the blood… You must not eat the blood… Do not eat it, so that it may go well with you and your children after you, because you will be doing what is right in the eyes of the Lord. (Deuteronomy, 12:23-25)

But you must not eat the blood. (Deuteronomy, 15:23)

 

Eating the Flesh of Dead Animals Is Prohibited

He must not eat anything found dead or torn by wild animals, and so become unclean through it. I am the Lord. The priests are to keep My requirements… (Leviticus, 22:8-9)

The priests must not eat anything, bird or animal, found dead or torn by wild animals. (Ezekiel 44:31)

Do not eat anything you find already dead… (Deuteronomy, 14:21)

Anyone, whether native-born or alien, who eats anything found dead or torn by wild animals… will be ceremonially unclean… (Leviticus, 17:15)