Story Of Moses-4

Story Of Moses-4

Now (you believe) while you refused to believe before and you were one of the evildoers. So this day We shall deliver your dead body out from the sea that you maybe a sign to those who come after you! And verily, many among mankind are heedless or our Signs. The curtain fell on Pharaoh’s tyranny, and the waves threw his corpse up to the western seashore. The Egyptians saw him and knew that their god whom they worshipped and obeyed were mere slaves who could not keep death away from their own necks.

In spite of Pharaoh’s death, he left a bad influence on the souls of the children of Israel. It was difficult for the years of oppression and intense humility to pass easily. He had made them accustomed to humbling themselves and submitting to someone other than God. He had so suppressed their souls and spoiled their nature that they began to torture Moses out of ignorance and obstinacy.

Story Of Moses-4The miracle of the parting of the sea was still fresh in their minds, damp sea sands were still stuck on their soles, when they passed by a people worshipping idols. Instead of manifesting their indignation at the idolaters’ oppression of the intellect by celebrating the praises of God for His guidance, they looked to Moses for him to specify a god for them to worship as those other people did. They were jealous of the other people and their idols, and they desired the same. They missed the ancient idolatry which they had lived with during the reign of Pharaoh.

God the Exalted revealed: And We brought the children of Israel (with safety) across the sea, and they came upon a people devoted to some of their idols (in worship). They said: “O Moses! Make for us an a god as they have gods.”

He said: “Verily, you are a people who know not (the Majesty and Greatness of God and what is obligatory upon you, to worship none but God Alone, the One and the Only God of all that exists).”

Moses added: “Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in idol-worship. And all that they are doing is in vain.” He said: “Shall I seek for you an a god other than God, while He has give you superiority over the mankind, and jinn of your time.”

And remember when We rescued you from Pharaoh’s people, who were afflicted you with the worst torment, killing your sons, and letting your women live. And in that was a great trial from your Lord.

The children of Israel were favored with God’s grace and bounty. They were saved from oppression and had witnessed the drowning of their cruel ruler Pharaoh. When they needed water in the dry land, God commanded Moses to strike a rock, which parted and sent forth twelve springs of water for the twelve different tribes so that they need not dispute over a shortage of water. God also kept the skies cloudy to protect them from the scorching sun. To relieve their hunger manna (the dried exudate of certain plants) and quail were provided for them.

In spite of God’s generosity, the mean spirited ones began to stir Moses’ people to object that they were disgusted with this food; they desired onions, garlic, beans, and lentils, which were the traditional Egyptian foods. That is why the children of Israel asked Prophet Moses to pray to God to make the earth produce these foods. Moses again admonished them for oppressing themselves and for their desire to return to a life of humiliation in Egypt. He also pointed out that they were ungrateful for the bet and most abundant food. They wanted the worst instead of the best.

God the Exalted said: Remember when Moses asked for water for his people, We said: “Strike the stone with your stick.” Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each group of people knew its own place for water. “Eat and drink of what which God had provided and do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth.”

And remember when you said: “O Moses! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to b ring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its Fum (wheat, or garlic), its lentils and its onions.” He said: “Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower? Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!”

God had also directed Moses to lea them to the Promised Land (Palestine) which had been promised to Abraham as a land in which the pious and God-fearing of his offspring would live and uphold God’s law. The children of Israel were an ungrateful people. In spite of all of God’s favors, they could not stay away from evil and continued to reject God’s Laws. When Moses ordered them to conquer the town of the Canaanites the Hittites (their enemies who had hounded them), the children of Israel were cowardly and made excuses: “O Moses, a great people dwell therein, We will not go in unless they leave.” Ancient books tell that they were six hundred thousand men. Moses did not find among them but two men who were ready to fight. These two said to the people: “Once we enter through the door, God will make us victorious.” However, all the children of Israel were an incarnation of cowardice and quivered from within.

Moses knew that his people were fit for nothing. Pharaoh was dead, but his effect upon their souls still remained. Their recovery needed a long period of time. Moses returned to his Lord, telling Him that he was responsible only for the actions of himself and his brother. He prayed to his Lord to judge between his people and himself.

God the Exalted issued His judgment against this generation whose nature was corrupted by the Egyptians: they must wander restlessly in the wilderness until this generation had died or become senile and had created another generation, a generation which had not been defeated from within and which could fight and score victory.

Almighty God revealed: And remember when Moses said to his people: “O my people! Remember the Favor of God to you, when He made Prophets among you, made you kings, and gave you what He had not give to any other among the mankind and jinn, in the past. O my people! Enter the holy land (Palestine) which God has assigned to you and turn not back in flight for then you will be returned as losers.”

They said: “O Moses! In it (this holy land) are a people of great strength, and we shall never enter it, till they leave it; when they leave, then we will enter.”

Two men of those who feared God and in whom God had His Grace said: “Assault them through the gate, for when you are in, victory will be yours, and put your trust in God if you are believers indeed.”

They said: “O Moses! We shall never enter it as long as they are there. So go you, and your Lord and fight you two, we are sitting right here.”

He (Moses) said: “O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother, so separate us from the people who are the rebellious and disobedient to God!”

God said: “Therefore it (this holy land) is forbidden to them for forty years; in distraction they will wander through the land. So be not sorrowful over the people who are the rebellious and disobedient to God.”

The days of restless wandering began. Each day ended where it began and began where it ended. They started walking to no destination, day and night, morning and evening. They entered Sinai. Moses came to the same place where he had spoke to God for the first time. He appealed to God for guidance in judging over his people. God instructed him to purify himself by fasting for thirty days, after which he was to go to Mount Sinai, where he would be given the law by which he would govern his people.

The ancients said that after Moses fasted thirty days, he hated to speak to his Lord because of the odor of his mouth. He ate a plant of the earth and then his Lord said to him: “Why did you break your fast?” Moses said: “O my Lord, I disliked to speak to You with my mouth not having a pleasant smell.” God said: “Do you not know, Moses, the odor of the fasting one’s mouth is more fragrant to Me than the rose. Go back and fast ten days; then come back to Me.” Moses did what God commanded.

Almighty God declared: And We appointed for Moses thirty nights and added to the period ten more, and he completed them term, appointed by his Lord, of forty nights. And Moses said to his brother Aaron: “Replace me among my people, act in the Right Way (by ordering the people to obey God and to worship Him Alone) and follow not the way of the mischief makers.”

And when Moses came the time and place appointed by Us, and his Lord spoke to him, he said: “O my Lord! Show me (yourself), that I may look upon You.”

God said: “You cannot see Me, but look upon the mountain if it stands still in its place then you shall see Me.” So when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He made it collapse to dust, and Moses fell down unconscious. Then when he recovered his senses he said: “Glory be to You, I turn to You in repentance and I am the first of the believers.”

God said: “O Moses, I have chosen you above men by My Messages, and by My speaking to you. So hold that which I have given you and be of the grateful.”

And We wrote for him on the Tablets the lesson to be drawn from all things and the explanation of all things (and said): “hold unto these with firmness, and enjoin your people to take the better therein, I shall show you the home of the rebellious, disobedient to God. I shall turn away from My Versus, those who behave arrogantly on the earth, in a wrongful manner, and even if they see all the Signs they will not believe in them. And if they see the way of righteousness (monotheism, piety, and good deeds), they will not adopt it as the Way, but if they see the way of error (polytheism, crimes, and evil deeds), they will adopt that way, that is because they have rejected Our Signs and were heedless to learn a lesson from them. Those who deny Our Signs and the Meeting in the Hereafter (Day of Resurrection), vain are their deeds. Do they expect to be rewarded with anything except what they used to do?” Earlier scholars said that The Ten Commandments of the Torah are included in two verses of the Holy Book. Say: “Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Join not anything in worship with Him; be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children because of poverty- We provide sustenance for you and for them; come not near to shameful sins (illegal sexual intercourse, etc.) whether committed openly or secretly; and kill not anyone whom God has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islamic law). This He has commanded you that you may understand. And come not near to the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he or she attains the age of full strength; and give full measure and full weight with justice. We burden not any person but that which he can bear. And whenever you give your word (judge between men or give evidences, etc.) , say the truth even if a near relative is concerned, and fulfill the Covenant of God. This He commands you, that you may remember.”

Moses had been gone for forty days and his people were becoming restless, for they did not know that God had extended his time by a further ten days. Samiri, a man who was inclined towards evil, suggested that they find themselves another guide, as Moses had broken his promise. He said to them: “In order to find true guidance, you need a god, and I shall provide one for you.”

So he collected all their gold jewelry, dug a hole in which he placed the lot, and lit a huge fire to melt it down. During the casting, he threw a handful of dust, making actions like a magician’s to impress the ignorant. From the molten metal he fashioned a golden calf. It was hollow, and the wind passing through it produced a sound. Since superstition was imbedded in their past, they quickly linked the strange sound to something supernatural, as if it were a living god. Some of them accept the golden calf as their god.

Moses’ brother Aaron, who acted as their leader in Moses’ s absence, was grieved and spoke up: “O my people! You have been deceived. Your Lord is the Most Beneficent. Follow and obey me.”

They replied: “We shall stop worshipping this god only if Moses returns.”

Those who had remained steadfast in belief separated themselves from the pagans.

On his return Moses saw his people singing and dancing around the calf statue. Furious at their paganistic ritual, he flung down the Tablet of the Law he was carrying for them. He tugged Aaron’s beard and his hair, crying: “What held you back when you saw them going astray? Whey did you not fight this corruption?”

Aaron replied: “O son of my mother, let go of my beard! The fold considered me weak and were about to kill me. So make not the enemies rejoice over me, nor put me among the people who are wrong-doers.”

Moses’ s anger began to subside when he understood Aaron’s helplessness, and he began to handle the situation calmly and wisely.

Almighty God narrated: They said: “We broke not the promise to you, of our own will, but we were made to carry the weight of the ornaments of the Pharaoh’s people, then we cast them into the fire, and that was what Samiri suggested.”

Then he took out of the fire, for them a statue of a calf which seemed to low. They said: “This is your god, and the god of Moses, but Moses has forgotten (his god).”

Did they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer), and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good?

And Aaron indeed had said to them beforehand: “O my people! You are being tried in this, and verily, your Lord is God the Most Beneficent, so follow me and obey my order.”

They said: “We will not stop worshipping it (the calf) until Moses returns to us.”

God the Exalted revealed some of the dialogue that took place between Him and Moses on Mount Sinai: “And what made you hasten from your people, O Moses?”

He said: “They are close on my footsteps, and I hastened to You, O my Lord! That you might be pleased.”

God said: “Verily! We have tried your people in your absence, and Samarian has led them astray.”

Then Moses returned to his people in a state of anger and sorrow. He said: “O my people! Did not your Lord promise you a fair promise? Did then the promise seem to you long in coming? Or did you desire the Wrath should descend from your Lord on you, so you broke your promise to me (disbelieving in God and worshipping the calf)?”

God the Exalted revealed what happened further on Moses’ return. Moses said: “O Aaron! What stopped you when you saw them going astray, that you followed me not (according to my advice to you)? Have you then disobeyed my order?”

He (Aaron) said; “O my son of my mother! Seize me not by my beard, nor by my head! Verily, I feared lest you should say: ‘You have caused a division among the children of Israel, and you have not respected my word!'”

(Moses) said: “And what is the matter with you, O Samarian? (why did you do so?)”

Samarian said: “I saw what you saw not, so I took a handful of dust from the hoof print of the Messenger (Gabriel’s horse) and threw it (into the fire in which were put the ornaments of the Pharaoh’s people, or into the calf). Thus my inner-self suggested to me.”

Moses said: “Then go away! And verily, your punishment in this life will be that you will say: ‘Touch me not’ (you will live alone exiled away from mankind); and verily (for a future torment), you have a promise that will not fail. And look at your god, to which you have been devoted. We will certainly burn it, and scatter its particles in the sea.”

However, the punishment which was imposed upon the calf worshippers was severe, death. Remember when Moses said to his people: “O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf. So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill yourselves (the innocent kill the wrong doers among you), that will be better for you in the Sight of your Creator.” Then He accepted your repentance. Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.

Therefore, the crime of worshipping the calf did not pass unpunished. Moses commanded the elite of the children of Israel to pray to God for forgiveness and demonstrate their repentance. He chose seventy en out of them and ordered them: “Rush towards God and repent for what you did and ask His forgiveness for what you left.”

Moses returned to Mount Sinai with the seventy elders and there he communicated with God. The elders heard Moses speaking with his Lord. (God spoke to Moses directly.) This was, perhaps, the last miracle that they would see, and it was hoped that it would be sufficient enough to convey the religion to their hearts forever. However, the seventy elite who heard the miracles were dissatisfied. They said to Moses: “O Moses! We shall never believe in you till we see God plainly.”

This was a tragedy that amazes one. It was a tragedy that indicated those who were hard-hearted and who continued to hold onto sensual and material concerns. Their stubborn demand was rewarded with punishing lightning bolts and a violent quaking that stupefied their souls and bodies at once, leaving them dead.

Moses knew what had happened to the seventy elite and was filled with sorrow. He prayed to his Lord, entreating Him to forgive them, for they were fools. Foolishness is only expiated by death. God forgave the elders and revived them after their death.

God the Exalted declared: Moses chose out of his people seventy of the best men for Our appointed time and place of meeting, and when they were seized with a violent earthquake, he said: “O my Lord, if it had been Your Will, You could have destroyed them and me before; would You destroy us for the deeds of the foolish ones among us? It is only Your Trial by which You lead astray whom You will, and keep guided whom You will. You are our Protector, so forgive us and have Mercy on us, for You are the Best of Those who forgive. And ordain for us good in this world, and in the Hereafter. Certainly we have turned unto You.”

Moses stayed among his people calling them to God. It seems their souls were uneasy in a way that the observant eye could not mistake. Their obstinacy and chattering about what has become known as “The Story of the Cow” was unwarranted. This topic did not need so many negotiations between Moses and the people, nor did it need all their bias.

It was said that among the children of Israel there lived a pious man. He was poor but very careful about how he earned the living; it had to be honestly earned. Everything that he did was done for the sake of God, never for selfish gain. On his deathbed his last words were: “O God, I place my wife, my little son, and my only possession, a calf, in Your care.” Strangely, he asked his wife to lead the calf to the forest and leave it there. He did this because he did not trust the children of Israel, for they were a selfish and greedy folk.

After a few years when the boy had grown up, his mother told him: “Your father has left you a calf in the trust of God. It must have grown into a cow by now.” The son was surprised. He did not know of any calf all these years and asked his mother where it was. She replied: “Be like your father and say: ‘I trust in God,’ then go look for it.”

With a rope in his hand, he went to the forest and prostrated himself before God: “O God, Lord of Abraham and Jacob and Job, return to me my father’s trust. ” As he raised his head, he saw a cow coming towards him. It stopped submissively beside him. He tied the rope around its neck and led it to his house. The cow would not allow anyone else come near it except the young man.

The youth was as pious as his father. He earned his living by cutting wood. Whatever he earned he divided into three equal portions; one he gave to his mother, one he used for his needs, and the last he gave as charity. His nights, too, were divided into three parts; during the early part of the night he helped his mother, the middle part he devoted to the worship of God, and during the last part he rested.

About this a wealthy man died, leaving behind an only son, who inherited his father’s wealth. His cousins envied his good fortune, and secretly killed him so that they could inherit it.

The dead boy’s other relatives came to the Prophet Moses and asked his help in tracing the boy’s murderer. Moses instructed them to slaughter a cow, remove its tongue and place it on the corpse. This would reveal the murderer, he told them. They accused Moses of joking. He replied: “God forbid that I be foolish!” They questioned him about the type of cow they should slaughter, and he said: “This cow is neither young nor mature, but in between the two conditions, so do as you have been commanded.”

Instead of following his direction, they asked him more questions. “What color must it be?”

He replied: “Verily, it is yellow in color.”

They still were not satisfied with his answer and asked for more details. Moses replied: “It is an unyoked cow; it does not plow the soil nor water the till, and is entirely without marks.”

They went out in search of such a cow. The only one that matched the description was the one owned by the orphaned youth. They met him on the way and asked the price for which he would sell his cow. He told them he would have to consult his mother first, so they accompanied him to his house and offered her three gold coins. She refused their offer, saying that the cow was worth much more.

They were on increasing their offer and the mother kept on refusing. Finally the urged the son to speak to his mother to be reasonable. He told them: “I will not sell the cow without my mother’s approval, even if you offered me its skin filled with gold!” On hearing this, his mother smiled and said: “Let that be the price: its skin filled with gold.” They realized that no other cow would do; they had to have it at any price. They agreed to buy the cow and paid with its skin filled with gold.

God the Almighty narrated: And remember when Moses said to his people: “Verily, God commands you that you slaughter a cow.”

They said: “Do you make fun of us?”

He said: “I take God’s Refuge from being among the ignorants.”

They said: “Call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!”

He said: “He says, ‘Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young, but it is between the two conditions, so do what you are commanded.”

They said; “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us its color.”

He said: “He says, ‘It is a yellow cow bright in its color, pleasing to the beholders.'”

They said: “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is. Verily to us all cows are alike, and surely, if God wills, we will be guided.”

He (Moses) said: “He says, ‘It is a cow neither trained to till the soil nor water the fields, sound, having no other color except bright yellow.'”

They said: “Now you have brought the truth.” So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it.

Do you member when you killed a man and fell into dispute among yourselves to the crime. But God brought forth that which you were hiding. So We said: “Strike him (the dead man) with a piece of it (the cow).” Thus God brings the dead to life and shows you His Signs so that you may understand.

Then after that your hearts were hardened and became as stone or even worse in hardness. And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them stones which fall down for fear of God. And God is not unaware of what you do.

One day Moses delivered such an impressive sermon that all who heard it was deeply moved. Someone in the congregation asked: “O Messenger of God, is there another man on earth more learned than you?” Moses replied: “No!”, believing so, as God had given him the power of miracles and honored him with the Torah.

However, God revealed to Moses that no man could know all there is to know, nor would one messenger alone be the custodian of all knowledge. There would always be another who knew what others did not. Moses asked God: “O God, where is this man? I would like to meet him and learn from him.” He also asked for a sign to this person’s identity.

God instructed him to take a live fish in a water filled vessel. When the fish disappeared, he would find the man he sought. Moses set out on his journey, accompanied by a young man who carried the vessel with the fish. They reached a place where two rivers met and decided to rest there. Instantly, Moses fell asleep.

While he was asleep, his companion saw the fish wriggle out of the vessel into the river and swim away. However, he forgot to relate the incident to Moses. When he awoke, they continued their journey until they were exhausted and hungry. Moses asked for his morning meal. Only then did his companion recall that the fish they had brought with them had gotten away. Hearing this, Moses exclaimed: “This is exactly what we are seeking!”

They hurriedly retraced their steps to the place where the rivers met and where the fish had jumped out. There they found a man, his face partly covered with a hood. His bearing showed he was a saintly man. He was Al-The Guide, the Guide.

God the Almighty narrated: And remember when Moses said to his boy servant: “I will not give up (traveling) until I reach the junction of the two seas or until I spend years and years in traveling.”

But when they reached the junction of the two seas, they forgot their fish, and it took its way through the sea as in a tunnel. So when they had passed further on (beyond that fixed place), Moses said to his boy servant: “Bring us our morning meal; truly, we have suffered much fatigue in this, our journey.”

He said: “Do you remember when we betook ourselves to the dock? I indeed forgot the fish, none but Satan made me forget to remember it. It took its course into the sea in a strange way!”

Moses said: “That is what we have been seeking.” So they went back retracing their footsteps.

Then they found one of Our slaves, unto whom We had bestowed mercy from Us, and whom We had taught knowledge from Us.

Moses said to him (The Guide) “May I follow you so that you teach me something of that knowledge (guidance, and true path) which you have been taught by God?”

He (The Guide) said: “Verily! You will not be able to have patience with me! And how can you have patience about a thing which you know not?”

Moses said; “If God will, you will find me patience, and I will not disobey you in aught.”

He (The Guide) said: “Then, if you follow me, ask me not about anything till I myself mention it to you.”

So they both proceeded, till, when they were in the ship, he (The Guide) scuttled it. Moses said: “Have you scuttled it in order to drown its people? Verily, you have done dreadful thing.”

He (The Guide) said: “Did I not tell you, that you would not be able to have patience with me?”

Moses said: “Cal me not to account for what I forgot, and be not hard upon me for my affair with you.”

Then they both proceeded, till they met a boy, he (The Guide) killed him. Moses said: “Have you killed an innocent person who had killed none? Verily, you have done a great dreadful thing!”

The Guide said: “Did I not tell you that you can have no patience with me?”

Moses said: “If I ask you anything after this, keep me not in your company, you have received an excuse from me.”

Then they both proceeded, till, when they came to the people of a town, they asked them for food, but they refused to entertain them. Then they found therein a wall about to collapse and he (The Guide) set it up straight. Moses said: “If you had wished, surely you could have taken wages for it!”

The Guide said: “This is the parting between me and you, I will tell you the interpretation of those things over which you were unable to hold patience.

“As for the ship, it belonged to poor people working in the sea. So I wished to make a defective damage in it, as there was a king after them, who seized every ship by force.

“And as for the boy, his parents were believers, and we feared lest he should oppress them by rebellion and disbelief. So we intended that their Lord should change him for them for one better in righteousness and near to mercy.

“And as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys in the town; and there was under it a treasure belonging to them; and their father was a righteous man, and your Lord intended that they should attain their age of full strength and take out their treasure as a mercy from your Lord. And I did it not of my own accord. That is the interpretation of those (things) over which could not hold patience.

The story of Moses and The Guide is also told in a Tradition. Once Moses stood up and addressed Children of Israel. He was asked who was the most learned man amongst the people. He said: “I am.” God admonished him as he did not attribute absolute knowledge to Him (God). So, God said to him: “Yes, at the junction of the two seas there is a slave of Mine who is more learned than you.” Moses said; “O my Lord! How can I meet him?” God said: “Take a fish and put it in a large basket and you will find him at the place where you will lose the fish.”

Moses took a fish and put it in a basket and proceeded along with his servant boy, Joshua, till they reached the rock where they laid their heads (lay down). Moses slept, and the fish, moving out of the basket, fell into the sea. It took its way into the sea straight as in a tunnel. God stopped the flow of water over the fish and it became like an arch (the Prophet pointed out this arch with his hands). They traveled the rest of the night, and the next day Moses said to his boy servant: “Give us our food, for indeed, we have suffered much fatigue in this journey of ours.” Moses did not feel tired till he crossed that place which God had ordered him to seek after. His boy said to him: “Do you know that when we were sitting near that rock, I forgot the fish, and none but Satan caused me to forget to tell you about it, and it took its course into the sea in an amazing way?” So there was a path for the fish and that astonished them. Moses said: “That was what we were seeking after.”

So both of them retraced their footsteps till they reached the rock. There they saw a man lying covering with a garment. Moses greeted him, and he replied saying: “How do people greet each other in your land?” Moses said: “I am Moses.”

The man asked: “Moses of son of Israel?” Moses said: “yes, I have come to you so that you may teach me from those things which God has taught you.” He said: “O Moses! I have some of the knowledge of God which God has taught me and which you do not know, you have some of the knowledge of God which God has taught you and which I do not know.” Moses asked: “May I follow you?” He said: “But you will not be able to remain patient with me, for how can you be patient about things which you will not be able to understand?” Moses said: “You will find me, if God so will, truly patient, and I will not disobey you in aught.”

So both of them set out walking along the seashore. A boat passed by them, and they asked the crew of the boat to take them on board. The crew recognized The Guide, so they took them on board without fare. When they were on board the boat, a sparrow came and stood on the edge of the boat and dipped its beak once or twice into the sea. The Guide said to Moses: “O Moses! My knowledge and your knowledge have not decreased God’s knowledge except as much as this sparrow has decreased the water of the sea with its beak.” Then suddenly The Guide took an adz and pulled up a plank, and Moses did not notice it till he had pulled up a plank with the adz. Moses said to him: “What have you done? They took us on board charging us nothing; yet you have intentionally made a hole in their boat as to drown its passengers. Verily, you have done a dreadful thing.” The Guide replied: “Did I not tell you that you would not be able to remain patient with me?” Moses replied: “Do not blame me for what I have forgotten, and do not be hard upon me for my fault.” So the first excuse of Moses was that he had forgotten.

When they had left the sea, they passed by a boy playing with other boys. The Guide took a hold of the boy’s head and plucked it with his fingertips as if he were plucking some fruit. Moses said to him: “Have you killed an innocent person who has not killed any person? You have really done a horrible thing.” The Guide said: “Did I not tell you that you could not remain patient with me?” Moses said: “If I ask you about anything after this, don’t accompany me. You have received an excuse from me.”

Then both of them went on till they came to some people of a village, and they asked its inhabitants for food but they refused to entertain them as guests. Then they saw therein a wall which was just going to collapse and The Guide repaired it just by touching it with his hands. Moses said: “These are the people whom we have called on, but they neither gave us food, nor entertained us as guests, yet you have repaired their wall. If you had wished, you could have taken wages for it.”

The Guide said: “This is the parting between you and me, and I shall tell you the explanation of those things on which you could not remain patient.”

The Prophet added: “We wish that Moses could have remained patient by virtue of which God might have told us more about their story.”

The children of Israel mistreated Moses a lot. His agony was not limited to mutiny, stupidity, chattering, ignorance, and idolatry; it exceeded this and went as far as inflicting personal harm on him.

Almighty God commanded: O you who believe! Be not like those who annoyed Moses, but God cleared him of that which they alleged, and he was honorable in God’s sight!

The God’s Messenger said: “Prophet Moses was a shy person and used to cover his body completely because of his extensive shyness. One of the children of Israel hurt him by saying: ‘He covers his body in this way only because of some defect in his skin, either leprosy or scrotal hernia, or he has some other defect.’

God wished to clear Moses of what they said about him, so one day while Moses was in seclusion, he took his clothes and put them on a s tone and started taking a bath. When he had finished the bath, he moved towards his clothes so as to take them, but the stone took his clothes and fled. Moses picked up his stick and ran after the stone saying: ‘O stone! Give me my garment!’ till he reached a group of children of Israel who saw him naked then, and found him in the best shape of what God had created, and God cleared him of what they had accused him of. The stone stopped there, and Moses took and put on his garment and started hitting the stone with his stick. By God, the stone still has some traces of the hitting, three, four, or five marks. This was what God the Almighty refers to in His saying: O you who believe! Be not like those who annoyed Moses, but God cleared him of that which they alleged, and he was honorable in God’s sight!”

Aaron died shortly before Moses. His people were still wandering in the wilderness when he died.

Moses, Prophet of God and the one to whom God spoke to directly, met his death with a contented soul and a faithful heart that looked forward to righteousness and made haste to meet with Him Who bore tidings of peace.

Story Of Moses-4

Story Of Moses-3

Story Of Moses-3

Pharaoh’s amazement turned to terror. Fearing that his rule was in danger, he addressed his advisors: “These are two wizards who will strip you of your best traditions and drive you of the country with their magic. What do you advise?” they counseled Pharaoh to detain Moses and his brother while they summoned the cleverest magicians in the country. Then they too, could show their skills of magic and change sticks into serpents. In this way they sought to reduce the influence of Moses’ miracles on the masses.

Pharaoh detained Moses and Aaron. He dispatched couriers all over the land to enlist the best magicians. He offered each successful magician a big reward, including appointment as a royal courtier. On the customary festival day, which attracted citizens from all over the Egyptian empire, Pharaoh arranged for a public contest between Moses and the magicians. The people came in droves as near before when they heard of the greatest contest ever between Pharaoh’s many magicians and a single man who claimed to be a prophet. They had also heard of a baby who had once floated down the river Nile in a basket, landed on Pharaoh’s palace grounds, been reared as a prince, and who later had fled for killing an Egyptian with a single blow.

Everyone was eager and excited to watch this great contest. Before it began, Moses arose. There was a hush in the huge crowd. Moses addressed the magicians. “Woe unto you, if you invent a lie against God by calling His miracles magic and by not being honest with the Pharaoh. Woe unto you, if you do not know the difference between the truth and falsehood. God will destroy you with His punishment, for he who lies against God fails miserably.”

Moses had spoke sincerely and made the magicians think. But they were overwhelmed by their greed for money and glory. They hoped to impress the people with their magic and to expose Moses as a fraud and a cheat.

Moses asked the magicians to perform first. They threw their magical objects down on the ground. Their staffs and ropes took the forms of wriggling serpents while the crowd watched in amazement. Pharaoh and his men applauded loudly. Then Moses threw his staff. It began to wriggle wand became an enormous serpent. The people stood up, craning their necks for a better view. Pharaoh and his men sat silently as, one by one, Moses’ huge serpent swallowed all the snakes. Moses bent to pick it up, and it became a staff in his hand.

The crowd rose like a great wave, shouting and screaming with excitement. A wonder like this had never been seen before! On witnessing the power of Moses, the magicians prostrated themselves to God, declaring: “We believe in the Lord of Moses and Aaron.” Pharaoh was angry and began plotting his next move. He charged that the demonstration had been arranged secretly between Moses and the magicians. He demanded that the magicians confess to their scheme, threatening them with death. They refused to denounce God and stuck to their sincerity of their belief. No longer hiding his cruel nature, Pharaoh threatened to cut off their hands and feet and to crucify them on the trunks of palm trees as an example to his subjects.

Almighty God recounted this event: He (Pharaoh) said: “Have you come to drive us out of our land with your magic, O Moses? Then verily, we can produce magic the like thereof; so appoint a meeting between us and you, which neither we, nor you shall fail to keep, in an open wide place where both shall have a just and equal chance (and beholders could witness the competition).”

Moses said: “your appointed meeting is the day of the festival, and let the people assemble when the sun has risen (forenoon).”

So Pharaoh withdrew, devised his plot and then came back. Moses said to them: “Woe unto you! Invent not a lie against God, lest He should destroy you completely by a torment. And surely, he who invents a lie (against God) will fail miserably.”

Then they debated with one another what they must do, and they kept their talk secret. They said: “Verily! There are two magicians. Their object is to drive you out from your land with magic and overcome your chiefs and nobles. So devise your plot, and then assemble in line. And whoever overcomes this day will be indeed successful.”

They said: “O Moses! Either you throw first or we be the first to throw?”

Moses said: “nay, throw you (first)!” Then behold, their ropes and their sticks, by their magic, appeared to him as though they moved fast. So Moses conceived a fear in himself.

We (God) said: “Fear not! Surely, you will have the upper hand. Throw that which is in your right hand! It will swallow up that which they have made. That which they have made is only a magician’s trick, and the magician will never be successful, no matter whatever amount of skill he may attain.”

So the magicians fell down prostrate. They said :”We believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses.”

Pharaoh said: “Believe you in him (Moses) before I give you permission? Verily! He is your chief who taught you magic. So I will surely cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will surely crucify you on the trunks of palm trees, and you shall surely know which of us (I Pharaoh,) or the Lord of (Moses) (God), can give the severe and more lasting torment.”

They said: “We prefer you not over the clear signs that have come to us, and to Him (God) Who created us. So decree (regarding) this life of the world. Verily! We have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our faults, and the magic to which you did compel us. And God is better as regards reward in comparison to your (Pharaoh’s) reward, and more lasting (as regards punishment in comparison to you punishment).”

Verily! Whoever comes to his Lord as a sinner, then surely, for him is Hell, therein he will neither die nor live.

But whoever comes to Him (God) as a believer (in the Oneness of God, etc.), and has done righteous good deeds, for such are the high ranks (in the Hereafter), – Everlasting Gardens (And Paradise), under which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever; such is the reward of those who purify themselves (by abstaining from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which God has forbidden and by doing all that which God has ordained).

The magicians represented the elite of the Egyptian society. They were its scholars. They prostrated before righteousness, but the people abandoned them and left them to their fate. The path of righteousness was plain, but in spite of this, the people did nothing but stand by and watch. If every one of the Egyptians had stopped to pick up a piece of brick and had thrown it at Pharaoh, he would have fallen dead and the history of Egypt would have been changed. This obviously did not happen. None of the people moved. Each one stood motionless in his place. The people did nothing but watch, and they paid the price of this inactivity: they were drowned later as the price for the cowardice of one day.

Moses and Aaron left, and Pharaoh returned to his palace. Pharaoh entered to his palace. Pharaoh was completely stupefied when he faced the two miracles. When Moses went out of his presence, his emotions changed from amazement and fear to violent rage. He quarreled with his ministers and men, reviled them bitterly for no reason, and commanded them to get out of his presence. When he was left alone, he tried to think more calmly. He drank several cups of wine, but his anger did not abate.

Then he summoned all the ministers, leaders, and responsible men for a serious meeting. Pharaoh entered the meeting with a rigid face. It was obvious that he would never surrender easily. He had established a kingdom on the basis of his being a god worshipped by the Egyptian people. Now Moses came to destroy what he had built. Moses said that there was no Lord other than God in existence. This meant that Pharaoh was a liar.

Pharaoh opened the session by throwing a sudden question at Haman: “Am I a liar, O Haman?”

Haman fell to his knees in amazement and asked: “Who dared to accuse Pharaoh of lying?”

Pharaoh said: “Has he (Moses) not said that there is a Lord in the heaven?”

Haman answered: “Moses is lying.”

Turning his face to the other side, Pharaoh asserted impatiently: “I know he is a liar.” Then he looked towards Haman (and cried): “O Haman! Build me a tower that I may arrive at the ways, – the ways of the heavens, and I may look upon the God of Moses but verily, I think him to be a liar.”

Thus it was made fair seeming, in Pharaoh’s eyes, the evil of his deeds, and he was hindered from the Right Path, and the plot of Pharaoh led to nothing but loss and destruction for him.

Pharaoh issued his royal command to erect a lofty tower, its height to reach the heavens. Pharaoh’s command depended fundamentally upon Egyptian civilization and its fondness for building what Pharaoh wanted. However, he ignored the rules of engineering. In spite of this, Haman assented (hypocritically), knowing that it was impossible to erect such a tower. He said that he would issue a command to build it immediately. “However, your majesty, let me object to Pharaoh for the first time. You will never find anyone in the heavens. There is no god but you.”

Pharaoh listened to a settled fact. Then he declared in the famous meeting his historic line: “O chiefs! I know not that you a god other than me.”

Pharaoh was absorbed in his new problem. A series of serious meetings began in his palace. He summoned those responsible for the army, the police and, what we call today his director of intelligence. He also summoned the ministers, princes, and priests. He called whoever had a powerful effect on the direction of events.

Pharaoh asked his director of intelligence: “What do people say?”

He said: “My men have spread among them that Moses won the contest because of a plot and that a major magician had joined with him in this plan. The plot had been disclosed, and we believe an unknown authority financed it.”

Pharaoh asked his director of police: “What about the magicians’ corpses?”

He said: “My men hung them in public squares and markets to terrify the people. We will spread a rumor that Pharaoh will kill whoever had anything to do with the plot.”

Then Pharaoh asked the commander of the army: “What does the army say?”

He said: “The army hopes that commands will be issued to move in whatever direction Pharaoh desires.”

Pharaoh said: “The role of the army has not come yet. Its role will come.”

Pharaoh fell silent. Haman, the Prime Minister, moved and raised his hand to speak. Pharaoh permitted him and Haman asked: “Will we leave Moses and his people to corrupt the rest of the people on the earth so that they leave your worship?”

Pharaoh said: “You read my thoughts, O Haman. We will kill their sons, rape their women, and conquer them.” He issued commands, and Pharaoh’s men rushed to slay the sons, rape the women, and imprison whomever objected to these acts.

Moses stood watching what was happening. He could not interfere, nor did he have the power to forbid these acts. All he could do was to advise his people to be patient. He ordered them to ask God the Almighty for a calamity on the Egyptians. He pointed out to them the model of the Egyptian magicians who endured for God’s sake without complaint. He helped them to understand that Pharaoh’s soldiers behaved on earth as if they were its private owners.

Pharaoh’s terrorism infused the children of Israel with a spirit of defeat. They complained to Moses: “We (children of Israel) had suffered troubles before you came to us, and since you have come to us.” He said: “It maybe that your Lord will destroy your enemy and make you successors on the earth, so that He may see how you act.”

Moses began to face a difficult situation. He had to confront Pharaoh’s anger and his plots, while at the same time he had to deal with the mutiny of his people. In the midst of all this, Qaroun moved. Qaroun was one of Moses’ s people. He was very rich and lived in a magnificent mansion. He wore only the most expensive clothes. Numerous slaves waited on him and he indulged in every known luxury. His enormous wealth made him arrogant. Qaroun treated the poor with contempt and told them that their poverty was due to their lack of intelligence. He believed that what he owned was due to his own cleverness and business ability.

Moses reminded Qaroun to pay alms on his wealth, a portion of which was rightfully due to the poor. Alms are compulsory upon all the believers. Qaroun was annoyed by this advice and told Moses that his being wealthy was proof that he was favored b y God, Who approved of his life-style and increased his wealth daily. Moses argued with him and warned him of the result of his wicked thoughts.

When Qaroun did calculate the alms due on his wealth, he was shocked at the large amount he had to part with. He not only refused to give alms, but spread a rumor that Moses had invented the law of alms giving for his own gain. He even bribed the people to oppose Moses and to spread wicked rumors about him.

God warned Moses of Qaroun’s plot. Moses appealed to God to punish him for his stinginess and for defying His laws. God’s anger fell on Qaroun. The earth opened up and swallowed him, his mansion and all his wealth, as if he had never existed.

Almighty God revealed: “Verily, Qaroun was of Moses’ people, but he behaved arrogantly towards them. And We gave him of the treasures, that of which the keys would have been a burden to a body of strong men. When his people said to him: “Do not be glad with ungratefulness to God’s Favors). Verily! God likes not those who are glad (with wealth) which God has bestowed on you, the home of the Hereafter, and forget nor your portion of legal enjoyment in this world, and do good as God has been good to you, and seek not mischief in the land. Verily, God likes not those who commit great crimes and sins, oppressors, tyrants, and mischief-makers, corrupts.”

He said: “This has been given to me only because of knowledge I possess.” Did he not know that God had destroyed before him generations, men who were stronger than him in might and greater in the amount of riches, they had collected. But criminals, disbelievers, polytheists, sinners, will not be questioned of their sins (because God knows them well, so they will be punished without account). So he went forth before his people in his pomp. Those who were desirous of the life of the world said: “Ah, would that we had the like of what Qaroun has been given! Verily! He is the owner of a great fortune.”

But those who had been given religious knowledge said: “Woe to you! The Reward of God (in the Hereafter) is better for those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and this none shall attain except those who are patient (in following the truth).”

So We caused the earth to swallow him and his dwelling place. Then he had no group or party to help him against God, nor was he one of those who could save themselves. And those who had desired (for a position like) his position, the day before, began to say; “Know you not that it is God Who enlarges the provision or restricts it to whomsoever He please of His slaves? Had it not been that God was Gracious to us, He could have caused the earth to swallow us up also!” Know you not that the disbelievers will never be successful?

When the Egyptians and children of Israel examined the miracle, the conflict between Moses and Pharaoh again reached a crisis because Pharaoh believed that Moses was threatening his kingdom.

Pharaoh was afraid that the people would be misled by Moses. He suggested to his ministers and notable men that Moses be killed. We believe that Haman supported the idea along with a front of disbelievers. It was on the verge of approval, except for the vote of one of the notable men of the state, whose name is not mentioned in the Holy Book. The Holy Book says only that this man was a believer.

This believer spoke in the assembly where the idea of killing Moses had been introduced. He proved that it was not a good idea: “Moses did not say more than that God is his Lord. Later, he came with clear evidence that he is a messenger. There are two possibilities; either Moses is righteous or a liar. If he lies, he will be responsible for his lie. If he is righteous and we slay him, where is the guarantee that we will be rescued from the torment of God? Either way, he neither says nor does anything that merits our killing him.”

This angered Pharaoh and his counselors and they threatened to harm the man, but he refused to budge from his stance. Then they tried to woo him back, but he still warned them that they were inviting their doom. This angered Pharaoh more, and he now threatened to kill the man. However, God protected His believer.

Almighty God revealed their dialogue: Pharaoh said: “Leave me to kill Moses, and let him call his Lord (to stop me from killing him)! I fear that he may change your religion, or that he may cause mischief to appear in the land!”

Moses said: “Verily, I seek refuge in my Lord and your Lord from every arrogant who believes not in the Day of Reckoning!”

And a believing man of Pharaoh’s family, who hid his faith said: “Would you kill a man because he says: My Lord is God, and he has come to you with clear signs (proofs) from your Lord? And if he is a liar, upon him will be (the sin of) his lie; but if he is telling the truth, then some of that calamity wherewith he threatens you will befall on you. Verily, God guides not one who is a polytheist, or a murderer who shed blood without a right, or those who commit great sins, oppressor, transgressor, a liar! O my people! Yours is the kingdom this day, you are uppermost in the land. But, who will save us from the Torment of God, should it befall us?”

Pharaoh said: “I show you only that which I see correct and I guide you only to the path of right policy!”

And he who believed said: “O my people! Verily, I fear for you a fate like that day of disaster of the confederate of old! Like the fate of the people of Noah, and ‘Ad, and Thamud, and those who came after them. And God wills no injustice for His slaves. And, O my people! Verily! I fear for you the Day when there will be mutual calling between the people of Hell and of Paradise.”

A Day when you will turn your backs and flee having no protector from God, and whomsoever God sends astray, for him there is no guide. And indeed Joseph did come to you, in times gone by, with clear signs, but you ceased not to doubt in that which he did bring to you, till when he died you said: “No Messenger will God send after him.” Thus God leaves astray him who is a polytheist, oppressor, a criminal, sinner who commits great sins and one who doubts God’s warning and His Oneness. Those who dispute about the Signs of God, without any authority that has come to them, it is greatly hateful in the Sight of God and in the sigh of those who believe. Thus does God seal up the heart of every arrogant, tyrant. (So they cannot guide themselves to the Right Path).

And Pharaoh said: “O Haman! Build me a tower that I may arrive at the ways, – the ways of the heavens, and I may look upon the God of Moses but verily, I think him to be a liar.”

Thus it was made fair seeming, in Pharaoh’s eyes, the evil of his deeds, and he was hindered from the Right Path, and the plot of Pharaoh led to nothing but loss and destruction for him.

And the man who believed said: “O my people! Follow me, I will guide you to the way of right conduct. O my people! Truly, this life of the world is nothing but a (quick passing) enjoyment, and verily, the Hereafter that is the home that will remain forever. Whosoever does an evil deed, will not be requited except the like thereof, and whosoever does a righteous deed, whether male or female, and is a true believer (in the Oneness of God), such will enter Paradise, where they will be provided therein (with all things in abundance) without limit.”

“And O my people! How is it that I call you to salvation while you call me to the Fire! You invite me to disbelieve in God (and in His Oneness), and to join partners in worship with Him, of which I have no knowledge, and I invite you to the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving! No doubt you call me to worship one who cannot grant me my request or respond to my invocation in this world or in the Hereafter. And our return will be to God, and the transgressors! The shall be the dwellers of the Fire! And you will remember what I am telling you, and my affair I leave it to God. Verily, God is the All-Seer of His slaves.”

So God saved him from the evils that they plotted (against him), while an evil torment encompassed Pharaoh’s people.

Moses repeated his demand that Pharaoh release the children of Israel from slavery. In response, Pharaoh called his subjects, including the children of Israel, to a huge gathering where he reminded them that he was their lord and provided all their needs. Moses, he said, had no gold amulets nor angels following him; he was just a poor man.

Being a people who had been oppressed for a very long time, they lacked vision. Their judgment were limited to what they could see in the material world. They regarded their ruler to be wealthy and able to provide all their worldly needs. In ignorance, they obeyed Pharaoh and ignored Moses’ call. God commanded Moses to warn Pharaoh of a punishment in this world for his faithlessness and his persecution of the children of Israel. As a portent of the punishment which God would meet out, the Nile did not flood its banks to soak the dry land as it normally did. As a result, crops failed, leading to famine. However Pharaoh remained arrogant, so God caused a huge flood, which devastated the land.

As often as they were troubled grievously, they appealed to Moses thus: “O Moses! Invoke your Lord for us because of His Promise to you. IF you will remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the children of Israel go with you.” )

Moses prayed to his Lord and He relived the suffering caused by the flood. The surging water ceased and withdrew from the land, and it became cultivable. But when Moses bade them to fulfill their promise to release the children of Israel, they did not respond.

Then God sent swarms of locusts which ate whatever corps they had grown. The people hurried to Moses, asking him to invoke God to remove this affliction and promising they would send the children of Israel with him this time. The locusts departed, but they did not fulfill their promise.

Then another sign came, the sign of lice, which spread amongst the Egyptians, carrying diseases. Their refuge to Moses and their promise to him was repeated. His prayer to God was repeated and so, too, their breach of promise, as usual.

A sign of frogs was revealed. The land suddenly filled with frogs. They jumped on the food of the Egyptians, shared their houses, and distressed them greatly. The Egyptians went to Moses again, promising him to release the children of Israel. He prayed to his Lord, and God relieved them of the problem of the frogs, but they again broke their promise.

Then the last sign was revealed, the sign of blood. The Nile water was changed into blood. When Moses and his people drank the water, it was, for them, ordinary water. However, if any Egyptian filled his cup with the water, he discovered his cup full of blood. They hurried to Moses as usual, but as soon as everything returned to normal, they turned their backs on God.

Almighty God said: And indeed We punished the people of Pharaoh with years of drought, and shortness of fruits (crops, etc.), that they might remember (take heed). But whenever good came to them, they said: “Ours is this.” And if evil at them, they ascribed it to evil omens connected with Moses and those with him. Be informed! Verily, their evil omens are with God but most of them know not. They said to Moses: “Whatever Signs you may bring to us, to work there with your sorcery on us, we shall never believe in you.” So We sent on them: the flood, the locusts, the lice, the frogs, and the blood: (as a succession of) manifest signs, yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were Sinners.

Almighty God also said: But when We removed the punishment from them to a fixed term, which they had to reach, behold! They broke their word!

Pharaoh became ruder and more arrogant. He proclaimed to his people. “Pharaoh is the only god. Has he not the kingdom of Egypt and rivers flowing under it?” He declared that Moses was a liar, a magician, and a poor man who did not wear even one bracelet of gold.

Almighty God declared: And indeed We did sent Moses with Our Signs to Pharaoh and his chiefs (inviting them to God’s Religion of Islam). He said: “Verily! I am a Messenger of the Lord of the worlds.

But when he came to them with our Signs behold! They laughed at them. And not an Signs We showed them but it was greater than its fellow, and We seized them with torment in order that they might turn from their polytheism to God’s Religion.

And they said to Moses: “O you sorcerer! Invoke your Lord for us according to what He has covenanted with you. Verily, we shall guide ourselves a right.”

But when We removed the torment from them, behold! They broke their covenant (that they will believe if We remove the torment for them).

And Pharaoh proclaimed among his people, saying “O my people! Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and the rivers flowing underneath me. See you not then? Am I not better than this one (Moses), and who is the one (has no honor nor any respect, and is weak, and despicable) and can scarcely express himself clearly? Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him, or angels sent along with him?”

Thus he (Pharaoh) befooled and misled his people, and they obeyed him. Verily, they were disobedient to God.

So When they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all. And We made them a precedent (as a lesson for those coming after them), and an example to later generations.

It appeared that Pharaoh would never believe in Moses’ s message, nor would he stop the torture of the children of Israel. Therefore, Moses prayed to his Lord thus: “Our Lord! You have indeed bestowed on Pharaoh and his chiefs splendor and wealth in the life of this world, our Lord! That they may lead men astray from Your Path. Our Lord! Destroy their wealth, and harden their hearts, so that they will not believe until they see the painful torment.”

God said: “Verily, the invocation of you both is accepted. So you both keep to the Straight Way (keep on doing good deeds, and preaching God’s Message with patience), and follow not the path of those who know not (the truth, to believe in the Oneness of God, and also to believe in the Reward of God: Paradise etc.).”

God inspired Moses to conduct his people of Egypt, but only a few of his people believed in his message. God revealed: But none believed in Moses except the offspring of his people, because of the fear of Pharaoh and his chiefs lest they should persecute them; and verily, Pharaoh was an arrogant tyrant on the earth, he was indeed one of the sinners.

And Moses said: “O my people! If you have believed in God, then put your trust in Him if you are Believer (those who submit to God’s Will).”

They said: “In God we put our trust. Our Lord! Make us not a trial for the folk who are oppressors (do not make them overpower us). And save us by Your Mercy from the disbelieving folk.”

Almighty God decided to put an end to Pharaoh’s crimes after He had given him several chances. God commanded Moses to depart, and the children of Israel received reluctant permission from the Pharaoh to go out of the city for the feast. They prepared themselves to leave Egypt. This later became known as Exodus. They carried with them their jewels and borrowed a lot of jewels from the Egyptians.

In the darkness of night, Moses led his people towards the Red Sea, and in the morning they reached the beach. By then Pharaoh was aware of their departure, so he mobilized a huge army to pursue them.

The impatient children of Israel soon became agitated and Joshua, Son of Nun, exclaimed: “In front of us is this impassable barrier, the sea, and behind us the enemy; surely death cannot be avoided!”

Moses replied that he would wait for further guidance from God. These words filled them with some hope, but man is always impatient for results: they were willing to surrender themselves back into slavery. At that moment God revealed to Moses: “Smite the sea with your staff!” Moses did as he was commanded. A fierce wind blew, the sun shone brightly, and in a flash the sea parted, the crests of the waves standing like mountains on each side.

Moses led his people across. This miracle proved Moses’ oft-repeated claim. “Verily! My Lord is with me!” As they looked back, they saw Pharaoh and his army approaching, about to take the very path which had been opened for them. In great fear and panic, they pleaded with Moses to ask God to close the sea. However, God commanded Moses not to smite the sea with his staff again, for God’s decree was already in action.

Pharaoh and his army had seen the miracle, how the sea had parted, but being the pretender that he was, Pharaoh turned to his men and proclaimed: “Look! The sea has opened at my command so that I may follow those rebels and arrest them!” They rushed across the parted waters, and when they were midway, God commanded the sea to return to its former state.

Terror-stricken Pharaoh, realizing his end had come, declared out of fear: “I believe that there is no god worthy of worship except God in Whom the children of Israel believe, and I am of those who surrender to Him.” But God did not accept this declaration from the tyrant, and the waters closed over him, drowning him and his entire army.

Almighty God narrated: And We inspired Moses, saying: “Take away My slaves by night, verily, you will be pursued.” Then Pharaoh sent callers to all the cities. Saying: “Verily! These indeed are but a small band. And verily, they have done what has enraged us; but we are host all assembled, amply fore-warned.”

So, We expelled them from gardens and springs, treasures, and every kind of honorable place. Thus (We turned them Pharaoh’s people) out, and We caused the children of Israel to inherit them.

So they pursued them at sunrise. And when the two hosts saw each other, the people of Moses said: “We are sure to be overtaken.”

Moses said: “Nay, verily! With me is my Lord, He will guide me.”

Then We inspired Moses saying: “Strike the sea with your stick.” And it parted, and each separate (part of that sea water) became like the huge, firm mass of a mountain.

Then We brought near the others (Pharaoh’s party) to that place. And We saved Moses and all those with him. Then We drowned the others. Verily! In this is indeed a sign (or a proof), yet most of them are not believers. And verily, your Lord! He is truly the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.”

In another Chapter Almighty God narrated: And We took the children of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh with his hosts followed them in oppression and enmity, till when drowning overtook him, he said: “I believe that none has the right to be worshipped but He, in whom the children of Israel believe, and I am one of those who submit to God’s Will.”

Now (you believe) while you refused to believe before and you were one of the evildoers. So this day We shall deliver your dead body out from the sea that you maybe a sign to those who come after you! And verily, many among mankind are heedless or our Signs. The curtain fell on Pharaoh’s tyranny, and the waves threw his corpse up to the western seashore. The Egyptians saw him and knew that their god whom they worshipped and obeyed were mere slaves who could not keep death away from their own necks.

In spite of Pharaoh’s death, he left a bad influence on the souls of the children of Israel. It was difficult for the years of oppression and intense humility to pass easily. He had made them accustomed to humbling themselves and submitting to someone other than God. He had so suppressed their souls and spoiled their nature that they began to torture Moses out of ignorance and obstinacy.

The miracle of the parting of the sea was still fresh in their minds, damp sea sands were still stuck on their soles, when they passed by a people worshipping idols. Instead of manifesting their indignation at the idolaters’ oppression of the intellect by celebrating the praises of God for His guidance, they looked to Moses for him to specify a god for them to worship as those other people did. They were jealous of the other people and their idols, and they desired the same. They missed the ancient idolatry which they had lived with during the reign of Pharaoh.

God the Exalted revealed: And We brought the children of Israel (with safety) across the sea, and they came upon a people devoted to some of their idols (in worship). They said: “O Moses! Make for us an a god as they have gods.”

He said: “Verily, you are a people who know not (the Majesty and Greatness of God and what is obligatory upon you, to worship none but God Alone, the One and the Only God of all that exists).”

Moses added: “Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in idol-worship. And all that they are doing is in vain.” He said: “Shall I seek for you an a god other than God, while He has give you superiority over the mankind, and jinn of your time.”

And remember when We rescued you from Pharaoh’s people, who were afflicted you with the worst torment, killing your sons, and letting your women live. And in that was a great trial from your Lord.

The children of Israel were favored with God’s grace and bounty. They were saved from oppression and had witnessed the drowning of their cruel ruler Pharaoh. When they needed water in the dry land, God commanded Moses to strike a rock, which parted and sent forth twelve springs of water for the twelve different tribes so that they need not dispute over a shortage of water. God also kept the skies cloudy to protect them from the scorching sun. To relieve their hunger manna (the dried exudate of certain plants) and quail were provided for them.

In spite of God’s generosity, the mean spirited ones began to stir Moses’ people to object that they were disgusted with this food; they desired onions, garlic, beans, and lentils, which were the traditional Egyptian foods. That is why the children of Israel asked Prophet Moses to pray to God to make the earth produce these foods. Moses again admonished them for oppressing themselves and for their desire to return to a life of humiliation in Egypt. He also pointed out that they were ungrateful for the bet and most abundant food. They wanted the worst instead of the best.

God the Exalted said: Remember when Moses asked for water for his people, We said: “Strike the stone with your stick.” Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each group of people knew its own place for water. “Eat and drink of what which God had provided and do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth.”

And remember when you said: “O Moses! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to b ring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its Fum (wheat, or garlic), its lentils and its onions.” He said: “Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower? Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!”

God had also directed Moses to lea them to the Promised Land (Palestine) which had been promised to Abraham as a land in which the pious and God-fearing of his offspring would live and uphold God’s law. The children of Israel were an ungrateful people. In spite of all of God’s favors, they could not stay away from evil and continued to reject God’s Laws. When Moses ordered them to conquer the town of the Canaanites the Hittites (their enemies who had hounded them), the children of Israel were cowardly and made excuses: “O Moses, a great people dwell therein, We will not go in unless they leave.” Ancient books tell that they were six hundred thousand men. Moses did not find among them but two men who were ready to fight. These two said to the people: “Once we enter through the door, God will make us victorious.” However, all the children of Israel were an incarnation of cowardice and quivered from within.

Moses knew that his people were fit for nothing. Pharaoh was dead, but his effect upon their souls still remained. Their recovery needed a long period of time. Moses returned to his Lord, telling Him that he was responsible only for the actions of himself and his brother. He prayed to his Lord to judge between his people and himself.

God the Exalted issued His judgment against this generation whose nature was corrupted by the Egyptians: they must wander restlessly in the wilderness until this generation had died or become senile and had created another generation, a generation which had not been defeated from within and which could fight and score victory.

Almighty God revealed: And remember when Moses said to his people: “O my people! Remember the Favor of God to you, when He made Prophets among you, made you kings, and gave you what He had not give to any other among the mankind and jinn, in the past. O my people! Enter the holy land (Palestine) which God has assigned to you and turn not back in flight for then you will be returned as losers.”

They said: “O Moses! In it (this holy land) are a people of great strength, and we shall never enter it, till they leave it; when they leave, then we will enter.”

Two men of those who feared God and in whom God had His Grace said: “Assault them through the gate, for when you are in, victory will be yours, and put your trust in God if you are believers indeed.”

They said: “O Moses! We shall never enter it as long as they are there. So go you, and your Lord and fight you two, we are sitting right here.”

He (Moses) said: “O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother, so separate us from the people who are the rebellious and disobedient to God!”

God said: “Therefore it (this holy land) is forbidden to them for forty years; in distraction they will wander through the land. So be not sorrowful over the people who are the rebellious and disobedient to God.”

The days of restless wandering began. Each day ended where it began and began where it ended. They started walking to no destination, day and night, morning and evening. They entered Sinai. Moses came to the same place where he had spoke to God for the first time. He appealed to God for guidance in judging over his people. God instructed him to purify himself by fasting for thirty days, after which he was to go to Mount Sinai, where he would be given the law by which he would govern his people.

The ancients said that after Moses fasted thirty days, he hated to speak to his Lord because of the odor of his mouth. He ate a plant of the earth and then his Lord said to him: “Why did you break your fast?” Moses said: “O my Lord, I disliked to speak to You with my mouth not having a pleasant smell.” God said: “Do you not know, Moses, the odor of the fasting one’s mouth is more fragrant to Me than the rose. Go back and fast ten days; then come back to Me.” Moses did what God commanded.

Almighty God declared: And We appointed for Moses thirty nights and added to the period ten more, and he completed them term, appointed by his Lord, of forty nights. And Moses said to his brother Aaron: “Replace me among my people, act in the Right Way (by ordering the people to obey God and to worship Him Alone) and follow not the way of the mischief makers.”

And when Moses came the time and place appointed by Us, and his Lord spoke to him, he said: “O my Lord! Show me (yourself), that I may look upon You.”

God said: “You cannot see Me, but look upon the mountain if it stands still in its place then you shall see Me.” So when his Lord appeared to the mountain, He made it collapse to dust, and Moses fell down unconscious. Then when he recovered his senses he said: “Glory be to You, I turn to You in repentance and I am the first of the believers.”

God said: “O Moses, I have chosen you above men by My Messages, and by My speaking to you. So hold that which I have given you and be of the grateful.”

And We wrote for him on the Tablets the lesson to be drawn from all things and the explanation of all things (and said): “hold unto these with firmness, and enjoin your people to take the better therein, I shall show you the home of the rebellious, disobedient to God. I shall turn away from My Versus, those who behave arrogantly on the earth, in a wrongful manner, and even if they see all the Signs they will not believe in them. And if they see the way of righteousness (monotheism, piety, and good deeds), they will not adopt it as the Way, but if they see the way of error (polytheism, crimes, and evil deeds), they will adopt that way, that is because they have rejected Our Signs and were heedless to learn a lesson from them. Those who deny Our Signs and the Meeting in the Hereafter (Day of Resurrection), vain are their deeds. Do they expect to be rewarded with anything except what they used to do?” Earlier scholars said that The Ten Commandments of the Torah are included in two verses of the Holy Book. Say: “Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Join not anything in worship with Him; be good and dutiful to your parents; kill not your children because of poverty- We provide sustenance for you and for them; come not near to shameful sins (illegal sexual intercourse, etc.) whether committed openly or secretly; and kill not anyone whom God has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islamic law). This He has commanded you that you may understand. And come not near to the orphan’s property, except to improve it, until he or she attains the age of full strength; and give full measure and full weight with justice. We burden not any person but that which he can bear. And whenever you give your word (judge between men or give evidences, etc.) , say the truth even if a near relative is concerned, and fulfill the Covenant of God. This He commands you, that you may remember.”

Moses had been gone for forty days and his people were becoming restless, for they did not know that God had extended his time by a further ten days. Samiri, a man who was inclined towards evil, suggested that they find themselves another guide, as Moses had broken his promise. He said to them: “In order to find true guidance, you need a god, and I shall provide one for you.”

So he collected all their gold jewelry, dug a hole in which he placed the lot, and lit a huge fire to melt it down. During the casting, he threw a handful of dust, making actions like a magician’s to impress the ignorant. From the molten metal he fashioned a golden calf. It was hollow, and the wind passing through it produced a sound. Since superstition was imbedded in their past, they quickly linked the strange sound to something supernatural, as if it were a living god. Some of them accept the golden calf as their god.

Moses’ brother Aaron, who acted as their leader in Moses’ s absence, was grieved and spoke up: “O my people! You have been deceived. Your Lord is the Most Beneficent. Follow and obey me.”

They replied: “We shall stop worshipping this god only if Moses returns.”

Those who had remained steadfast in belief separated themselves from the pagans.

On his return Moses saw his people singing and dancing around the calf statue. Furious at their paganistic ritual, he flung down the Tablet of the Law he was carrying for them. He tugged Aaron’s beard and his hair, crying: “What held you back when you saw them going astray? Whey did you not fight this corruption?”

Aaron replied: “O son of my mother, let go of my beard! The fold considered me weak and were about to kill me. So make not the enemies rejoice over me, nor put me among the people who are wrong-doers.”

Moses’ s anger began to subside when he understood Aaron’s helplessness, and he began to handle the situation calmly and wisely.

Almighty God narrated: They said: “We broke not the promise to you, of our own will, but we were made to carry the weight of the ornaments of the Pharaoh’s people, then we cast them into the fire, and that was what Samiri suggested.”

Then he took out of the fire, for them a statue of a calf which seemed to low. They said: “This is your god, and the god of Moses, but Moses has forgotten (his god).”

Did they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer), and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good?

And Aaron indeed had said to them beforehand: “O my people! You are being tried in this, and verily, your Lord is God the Most Beneficent, so follow me and obey my order.”

They said: “We will not stop worshipping it (the calf) until Moses returns to us.”

God the Exalted revealed some of the dialogue that took place between Him and Moses on Mount Sinai: “And what made you hasten from your people, O Moses?”

He said: “They are close on my footsteps, and I hastened to You, O my Lord! That you might be pleased.”

God said: “Verily! We have tried your people in your absence, and Samiri has led them astray.”

Then Moses returned to his people in a state of anger and sorrow. He said: “O my people! Did not your Lord promise you a fair promise? Did then the promise seem to you long in coming? Or did you desire the Wrath should descend from your Lord on you, so you broke your promise to me (disbelieving in God and worshipping the calf)?”

God the Exalted revealed what happened further on Moses’ return. Moses said: “O Aaron! What stopped you when you saw them going astray, that you followed me not (according to my advice to you)? Have you then disobeyed my order?”

He (Aaron) said; “O my son of my mother! Seize me not by my beard, nor by my head! Verily, I feared lest you should say: ‘You have caused a division among the children of Israel, and you have not respected my word!'”

(Moses) said: “And what is the matter with you, O Samiri? (why did you do so?)”

Samiri said: “I saw what you saw not, so I took a handful of dust from the hoof print of the Messenger (Gabriel’s horse) and threw it (into the fire in which were put the ornaments of the Pharaoh’s people, or into the calf). Thus my inner-self suggested to me.”

Moses said: “Then go away! And verily, your punishment in this life will be that you will say: ‘Touch me not’ (you will live alone exiled away from mankind); and verily (for a future torment), you have a promise that will not fail. And look at your god, to which you have been devoted. We will certainly burn it, and scatter its particles in the sea.”

However, the punishment which was imposed upon the calf worshippers was severe, death. Remember when Moses said to his people: “O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf. So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill yourselves (the innocent kill the wrong doers among you), that will be better for you in the Sight of your Creator.” Then He accepted your repentance. Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.

Therefore, the crime of worshipping the calf did not pass unpunished. Moses commanded the elite of the children of Israel to pray to God for forgiveness and demonstrate their repentance. He chose seventy en out of them and ordered them: “Rush towards God and repent for what you did and ask His forgiveness for what you left.”

Moses returned to Mount Sinai with the seventy elders and there he communicated with God. The elders heard Moses speaking with his Lord. (God spoke to Moses directly.) This was, perhaps, the last miracle that they would see, and it was hoped that it would be sufficient enough to convey the religion to their hearts forever. However, the seventy elite who heard the miracles were dissatisfied. They said to Moses: “O Moses! We shall never believe in you till we see God plainly.”

This was a tragedy that amazes one. It was a tragedy that indicated those who were hard-hearted and who continued to hold onto sensual and material concerns. Their stubborn demand was rewarded with punishing lightning bolts and a violent quaking that stupefied their souls and bodies at once, leaving them dead.

Moses knew what had happened to the seventy elite and was filled with sorrow. He prayed to his Lord, entreating Him to forgive them, for they were fools. Foolishness is only expiated by death. God forgave the elders and revived them after their death.

God the Exalted declared: Moses chose out of his people seventy of the best men for Our appointed time and place of meeting, and when they were seized with a violent earthquake, he said: “O my Lord, if it had been Your Will, You could have destroyed them and me before; would You destroy us for the deeds of the foolish ones among us? It is only Your Trial by which You lead astray whom You will, and keep guided whom You will. You are our Protector, so forgive us and have Mercy on us, for You are the Best of Those who forgive. And ordain for us good in this world, and in the Hereafter. Certainly we have turned unto You.”

Moses stayed among his people calling them to God. It seems their souls were uneasy in a way that the observant eye could not mistake. Their obstinacy and chattering about what has become known as “The Story of the Cow” was unwarranted. This topic did not need so many negotiations between Moses and the people, nor did it need all their bias.

It was said that among the children of Israel there lived a pious man. He was poor but very careful about how he earned the living; it had to be honestly earned. Everything that he did was done for the sake of God, never for selfish gain. On his deathbed his last words were: “O God, I place my wife, my little son, and my only possession, a calf, in Your care.” Strangely, he asked his wife to lead the calf to the forest and leave it there. He did this because he did not trust the children of Israel, for they were a selfish and greedy folk.

After a few years when the boy had grown up, his mother told him: “Your father has left you a calf in the trust of God. It must have grown into a cow by now.” The son was surprised. He did not know of any calf all these years and asked his mother where it was. She replied: “Be like your father and say: ‘I trust in God,’ then go look for it.”

With a rope in his hand, he went to the forest and prostrated himself before God: “O God, Lord of Abraham and Jacob and Job, return to me my father’s trust. ” As he raised his head, he saw a cow coming towards him. It stopped submissively beside him. He tied the rope around its neck and led it to his house. The cow would not allow anyone else come near it except the young man.

The youth was as pious as his father. He earned his living by cutting wood. Whatever he earned he divided into three equal portions; one he gave to his mother, one he used for his needs, and the last he gave as charity. His nights, too, were divided into three parts; during the early part of the night he helped his mother, the middle part he devoted to the worship of God, and during the last part he rested.

About this a wealthy man died, leaving behind an only son, who inherited his father’s wealth. His cousins envied his good fortune, and secretly killed him so that they could inherit it.

The dead boy’s other relatives came to the Prophet Moses and asked his help in tracing the boy’s murderer. Moses instructed them to slaughter a cow, remove its tongue and place it on the corpse. This would reveal the murderer, he told them. They accused Moses of joking. He replied: “God forbid that I be foolish!” They questioned him about the type of cow they should slaughter, and he said: “This cow is neither young nor mature, but in between the two conditions, so do as you have been commanded.”

Instead of following his direction, they asked him more questions. “What color must it be?”

He replied: “Verily, it is yellow in color.”

They still were not satisfied with his answer and asked for more details. Moses replied: “It is an unyoked cow; it does not plow the soil nor water the till, and is entirely without marks.”

They went out in search of such a cow. The only one that matched the description was the one owned by the orphaned youth. They met him on the way and asked the price for which he would sell his cow. He told them he would have to consult his mother first, so they accompanied him to his house and offered her three gold coins. She refused their offer, saying that the cow was worth much more.

They were on increasing their offer and the mother kept on refusing. Finally the urged the son to speak to his mother to be reasonable. He told them: “I will not sell the cow without my mother’s approval, even if you offered me its skin filled with gold!” On hearing this, his mother smiled and said: “Let that be the price: its skin filled with gold.” They realized that no other cow would do; they had to have it at any price. They agreed to buy the cow and paid with its skin filled with gold.

God the Almighty narrated: And remember when Moses said to his people: “Verily, God commands you that you slaughter a cow.”

They said: “Do you make fun of us?”

He said: “I take God’s Refuge from being among the ignorants.”

They said: “Call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!”

He said: “He says, ‘Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young, but it is between the two conditions, so do what you are commanded.”

They said; “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us its color.”

He said: “He says, ‘It is a yellow cow bright in its color, pleasing to the beholders.'”

They said: “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is. Verily to us all cows are alike, and surely, if God wills, we will be guided.”

He (Moses) said: “He says, ‘It is a cow neither trained to till the soil nor water the fields, sound, having no other color except bright yellow.'”

They said: “Now you have brought the truth.” So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it.

Do you member when you killed a man and fell into dispute among yourselves to the crime. But God brought forth that which you were hiding. So We said: “Strike him (the dead man) with a piece of it (the cow).” Thus God brings the dead to life and shows you His Signs so that you may understand.

Then after that your hearts were hardened and became as stone or even worse in hardness. And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them stones which fall down for fear of God. And God is not unaware of what you do.

One day Moses delivered such an impressive sermon that all who heard it was deeply moved. Someone in the congregation asked: “O Messenger of God, is there another man on earth more learned than you?” Moses replied: “No!”, believing so, as God had given him the power of miracles and honored him with the Torah.

However, God revealed to Moses that no man could know all there is to know, nor would one messenger alone be the custodian of all knowledge. There would always be another who knew what others did not. Moses asked God: “O God, where is this man? I would like to meet him and learn from him.” He also asked for a sign to this person’s identity.

God instructed him to take a live fish in a water filled vessel. When the fish disappeared, he would find the man he sought. Moses set out on his journey, accompanied by a young man who carried the vessel with the fish. They reached a place where two rivers met and decided to rest there. Instantly, Moses fell asleep.

While he was asleep, his companion saw the fish wriggle out of the vessel into the river and swim away. However, he forgot to relate the incident to Moses. When he awoke, they continued their journey until they were exhausted and hungry. Moses asked for his morning meal. Only then did his companion recall that the fish they had brought with them had gotten away. Hearing this, Moses exclaimed: “This is exactly what we are seeking!”

They hurriedly retraced their steps to the place where the rivers met and where the fish had jumped out. There they found a man, his face partly covered with a hood. His bearing showed he was a saintly man. He was Al-The Guide, the Guide.

God the Almighty narrated: And remember when Moses said to his boy servant: “I will not give up (traveling) until I reach the junction of the two seas or until I spend years and years in traveling.”

But when they reached the junction of the two seas, they forgot their fish, and it took its way through the sea as in a tunnel. So when they had passed further on (beyond that fixed place), Moses said to his boy servant: “Bring us our morning meal; truly, we have suffered much fatigue in this, our journey.”

He said: “Do you remember when we betook ourselves to the dock? I indeed forgot the fish, none but Satan made me forget to remember it. It took its course into the sea in a strange way!”

Moses said: “That is what we have been seeking.” So they went back retracing their footsteps.

Then they found one of Our slaves, unto whom We had bestowed mercy from Us, and whom We had taught knowledge from Us.

Moses said to him (The Guide) “May I follow you so that you teach me something of that knowledge (guidance, and true path) which you have been taught by God?”

He (The Guide) said: “Verily! You will not be able to have patience with me! And how can you have patience about a thing which you know not?”

Moses said; “If God will, you will find me patience, and I will not disobey you in aught.”

He (The Guide) said: “Then, if you follow me, ask me not about anything till I myself mention it to you.”

So they both proceeded, till, when they were in the ship, he (The Guide) scuttled it. Moses said: “Have you scuttled it in order to drown its people? Verily, you have done dreadful thing.”

He (The Guide) said: “Did I not tell you, that you would not be able to have patience with me?”

Moses said: “Cal me not to account for what I forgot, and be not hard upon me for my affair with you.”

Then they both proceeded, till they met a boy, he (The Guide) killed him. Moses said: “Have you killed an innocent person who had killed none? Verily, you have done a great dreadful thing!”

The Guide said: “Did I not tell you that you can have no patience with me?”

Moses said: “If I ask you anything after this, keep me not in your company, you have received an excuse from me.”

Then they both proceeded, till, when they came to the people of a town, they asked them for food, but they refused to entertain them. Then they found therein a wall about to collapse and he (The Guide) set it up straight. Moses said: “If you had wished, surely you could have taken wages for it!”

The Guide said: “This is the parting between me and you, I will tell you the interpretation of those things over which you were unable to hold patience.

“As for the ship, it belonged to poor people working in the sea. So I wished to make a defective damage in it, as there was a king after them, who seized every ship by force.

“And as for the boy, his parents were believers, and we feared lest he should oppress them by rebellion and disbelief. So we intended that their Lord should change him for them for one better in righteousness and near to mercy.

“And as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys in the town; and there was under it a treasure belonging to them; and their father was a righteous man, and your Lord intended that they should attain their age of full strength and take out their treasure as a mercy from your Lord. And I did it not of my own accord. That is the interpretation of those (things) over which could not hold patience.

The story of Moses and The Guide is also told in a Tradition. Once Moses stood up and addressed Children of Israel. He was asked who was the most learned man amongst the people. He said: “I am.” God admonished him as he did not attribute absolute knowledge to Him (God). So, God said to him: “Yes, at the junction of the two seas there is a slave of Mine who is more learned than you.” Moses said; “O my Lord! How can I meet him?” God said: “Take a fish and put it in a large basket and you will find him at the place where you will lose the fish.”

Moses took a fish and put it in a basket and proceeded along with his servant boy, Joshua, till they reached the rock where they laid their heads (lay down). Moses slept, and the fish, moving out of the basket, fell into the sea. It took its way into the sea straight as in a tunnel. God stopped the flow of water over the fish and it became like an arch (the Prophet pointed out this arch with his hands). They traveled the rest of the night, and the next day Moses said to his boy servant: “Give us our food, for indeed, we have suffered much fatigue in this journey of ours.” Moses did not feel tired till he crossed that place which God had ordered him to seek after. His boy said to him: “Do you know that when we were sitting near that rock, I forgot the fish, and none but Satan caused me to forget to tell you about it, and it took its course into the sea in an amazing way?” So there was a path for the fish and that astonished them. Moses said: “That was what we were seeking after.”

So both of them retraced their footsteps till they reached the rock. There they saw a man lying covering with a garment. Moses greeted him, and he replied saying: “How do people greet each other in your land?” Moses said: “I am Moses.”

The man asked: “Moses of son of Israel?” Moses said: “yes, I have come to you so that you may teach me from those things which God has taught you.” He said: “O Moses! I have some of the knowledge of God which God has taught me and which you do not know, you have some of the knowledge of God which God has taught you and which I do not know.” Moses asked: “May I follow you?” He said: “But you will not be able to remain patient with me, for how can you be patient about things which you will not be able to understand?” Moses said: “You will find me, if God so will, truly patient, and I will not disobey you in aught.”

So both of them set out walking along the seashore. A boat passed by them, and they asked the crew of the boat to take them on board. The crew recognized The Guide, so they took them on board without fare. When they were on board the boat, a sparrow came and stood on the edge of the boat and dipped its beak once or twice into the sea. The Guide said to Moses: “O Moses! My knowledge and your knowledge have not decreased God’s knowledge except as much as this sparrow has decreased the water of the sea with its beak.” Then suddenly The Guide took an adz and pulled up a plank, and Moses did not notice it till he had pulled up a plank with the adz. Moses said to him: “What have you done? They took us on board charging us nothing; yet you have intentionally made a hole in their boat as to drown its passengers. Verily, you have done a dreadful thing.” The Guide replied: “Did I not tell you that you would not be able to remain patient with me?” Moses replied: “Do not blame me for what I have forgotten, and do not be hard upon me for my fault.” So the first excuse of Moses was that he had forgotten.

When they had left the sea, they passed by a boy playing with other boys. The Guide took a hold of the boy’s head and plucked it with his fingertips as if he were plucking some fruit. Moses said to him: “Have you killed an innocent person who has not killed any person? You have really done a horrible thing.” The Guide said: “Did I not tell you that you could not remain patient with me?” Moses said: “If I ask you about anything after this, don’t accompany me. You have received an excuse from me.”

Then both of them went on till they came to some people of a village, and they asked its inhabitants for food but they refused to entertain them as guests. Then they saw therein a wall which was just going to collapse and The Guide repaired it just by touching it with his hands. Moses said: “These are the people whom we have called on, but they neither gave us food, nor entertained us as guests, yet you have repaired their wall. If you had wished, you could have taken wages for it.”

The Guide said: “This is the parting between you and me, and I shall tell you the explanation of those things on which you could not remain patient.”

The Prophet added: “We wish that Moses could have remained patient by virtue of which God might have told us more about their story.”

The children of Israel mistreated Moses a lot. His agony was not limited to mutiny, stupidity, chattering, ignorance, and idolatry; it exceeded this and went as far as inflicting personal harm on him.

Almighty God commanded: O you who believe! Be not like those who annoyed Moses, but God cleared him of that which they alleged, and he was honorable in God’s sight!

The God’s Messenger said: “Prophet Moses was a shy person and used to cover his body completely because of his extensive shyness. One of the children of Israel hurt him by saying: ‘He covers his body in this way only because of some defect in his skin, either leprosy or scrotal hernia, or he has some other defect.’

God wished to clear Moses of what they said about him, so one day while Moses was in seclusion, he took his clothes and put them on a s tone and started taking a bath. When he had finished the bath, he moved towards his clothes so as to take them, but the stone took his clothes and fled. Moses picked up his stick and ran after the stone saying: ‘O stone! Give me my garment!’ till he reached a group of children of Israel who saw him naked then, and found him in the best shape of what God had created, and God cleared him of what they had accused him of. The stone stopped there, and Moses took and put on his garment and started hitting the stone with his stick. By God, the stone still has some traces of the hitting, three, four, or five marks. This was what God the Almighty refers to in His saying: O you who believe! Be not like those who annoyed Moses, but God cleared him of that which they alleged, and he was honorable in God’s sight!”

Aaron died shortly before Moses. His people were still wandering in the wilderness when he died.

Moses, Prophet of God and the one to whom God spoke to directly, met his death with a contented soul and a faithful heart that looked forward to righteousness and made haste to meet with Him Who bore tidings of peace.

Story Of Moses-2

Story Of Moses-2

He (God) said: “Fear not, Verily! I am with you both, Hearing and Seeing. So go you both to him, and say: “Verily, we are Messengers of your Lord, so let the children of Israel go with us, and torment them not; indeed, we have come with a sign from your Lord! And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance! Truly, it has been revealed to us that the torment will be for him who denies (believes not in the Oneness of God, and in His Messengers), and turns away’ (from the truth, and obedience of God).”

Moses and Aaron went together to Pharaoh and delivered their message. Moses spoke to him about God, His mercy and His Paradise and about the obligations of monotheism and His worship.

Pharaoh listened to Moses’ speech with disdain. He thought that Moses was crazy because he dared to question his supreme position. Then he raised his hand and asked: “What do you want?”

Moses answered: “I want you to send the children of Israel with us.”

Pharaoh asked: “Why should I send them, as they are my slaves?”

Moses replied: “They are the slaves of God, Lord of the Worlds.”

Pharaoh then inquired sarcastically if his name was Moses. Moses said “Yes.”

“Are you not the Moses whom we picked up from the Nile as a helpless baby? Are you not the Moses whom we reared in this palace, who ate and drank from our provisions and whom our wealth showered with charity? Are you not the Moses who is a fugitive, the killer of an Egyptian man, if my memory does not betray me? It is said that killing is an act of disbelief. Therefore, you were a disbeliever when you killed. You are a fugitive from justice and you come to speak to me! What were you talking about Moses, I forgot?”

Moses knew that Pharaoh’s mentioning his past, his upbringing, and his receiving Pharaoh’s charity was Pharaoh’s way of threatening him. Moses ignored his sarcasm and explained that he was not a disbeliever when he killed the Egyptian, he only went astray and God the Almighty had not yet given him the revelation at that time. He made Pharaoh understand that he fled from Egypt because he was afraid of their revenge upon him, even though the killing was an accident. He informed him that God had granted him forgiveness and made him one of the messengers.

God the Almighty revealed to us part of the dialogue between Moses and Pharaoh: God said: “Nay! Go you both with Our Signs, Verily! We shall be with you, listening. And when you both come to Pharaoh, say: “We are the Messengers of ‘the Lord and Cherisher of the worlds’ and So allow the children of Israel to go with us.”

Pharaoh said to Moses: “Did we not bring you up among us as a child? And you did dwell many years of your life with us. And you did your deed which you did (the crime of killing a man) and you are one of the ingrates.”

Moses said: “I did it then, when I was an ignorant (as regards my Lord and His Message). So I fled from you when I feared you. But my Lord has granted me judgment (and wisdom), and appointed me as one of the Messengers. And this is the past favor with which you reproach me, and that you have enslaved the children of Israel.”

Pharaoh said: “And what is the Lord of ‘the Lord and Cherisher of the worlds’ ?”

Moses replied: “Lord of the heavens, and the earth, and all that is between them, if you seek to be convinced with certainty.”

Pharaoh said to those around: “Do you not hear what he says?”

Moses said: “Your Lord and the Lord of your ancient fathers!”

Pharaoh said: “Verily, your Messenger who has been sent to you is a madman!”

Moses said: “Lord of the east, and the west, and all that is between them, if you did but understand!”

Pharaoh said: “If you choose an a god other than me, I will certainly put you among the prisoners.”

Moses said: “Even if I bring you something manifest (and convincing).”

Pharaoh said: “Bring it forth then, if you are of the truthful!”

The degree of the conflict expressed in this dialogue reached its apex; thus, the tone of dialogue changed. Moses used a convincing intellectual argument against Pharaoh. However, Pharaoh escaped from the circle of dialogue based on the logic and began a dialogue of another type, a type which Moses could not bear to follow; a dialogue of menacing and threatening. Pharaoh deliberately adopted the style of the absolute ruler. He asked Moses how he dared to worship God! Did he not know that Pharaoh was a god?

After declaring his divinity, Pharaoh asked Moses how he dared to worship another god. The punishment for this crime was imprisonment. It was not permitted for anyone to worship anyone other than the Pharaoh. Moses understood that the intellectual arguments did not succeed. The calm dialogue was converted from sarcasm to mentioning charity, then to scorn, then to the threat of imprisonment.

Moses said: “Even if I bring you something manifest and convincing.” Pharaoh said; “Bring it forth, then, if you are of the truthful!” So Moses threw his stick, and behold, it was a serpent, manifest. And he drew out his hand, and behold, it was white to all beholders!

Moses By Wikipedia

Moses

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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mhtml:file://H:\05152012\Slife%20Studies%2005122012\jesus-M\Moses%20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.mht!http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Moses041.jpg/230px-Moses041.jpgMoses (Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה‎, ModernMoshe TiberianMōšéh ISO 259-3 Moše; Greek: Mωϋσῆς Mōüsēs; Arabic: موسىٰ Mūsa) was, according to the Hebrew Bible and Qur’an, a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed. Also called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew (מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ, Lit. “Moses our Teacher/Rabbi”), he is the most important prophet in Judaism,[1][2] and is also considered an important prophet in Christianity and Islam, as well as a number of other faiths.

The existence of Moses as well as the veracity of the Exodus story is disputed amongst archaeologists and Egyptologists, with experts in the field of biblical criticism citing logical inconsistencies, new archaeological evidence, historical evidence, and related origin myths in Canaanite culture.[3][4][5] Other historians maintain that the biographical details, and Egyptian background, attributed to Moses imply the existence of a historical political and religious leader who was involved in the consolidation of the Hebrew tribes in Canaan towards the end of the Bronze Age.

According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was born in a time when his people, the Children of Israel, were increasing in number and the Egyptian Pharaoh was worried that they might help Egypt’s enemies. Moses’ Hebrew mother, Jochebed, hides him when the Pharaoh ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed, and the child is adopted as a foundling by the Egyptian royal family. After killing an Egyptian slave-master, Moses flees across the Red Sea to Midian where he has his encounter with the God of Israel in the form of the “burning bush“. God sends Moses to request the release of the Israelites. After the Ten Plagues, Moses leads the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt and across the Red Sea, after which they base themselves at Mount Sinai, where Moses receives the Ten Commandments. After 40 years of wandering in the desert, Moses dies aged 120, within sight of the Promised Land.

Rabbinical Judaism calculated a lifespan of Moses corresponding to 1391–1271 BCE;[6] Christian tradition has tended to assume an earlier date.[7]

Name

The biblical text explains the name Mošeh משה as a derivation of the rootmšh משה “to draw”, in Exodus 2:10:

“[…] she called his name Moses (משה): and she said, Because I drew him (משיתהו) out of the water.” (KJV).[8]

The name is thus suggested to relate to drawing out in a passive sense, “the one who was drawn out”. Those who depart from this tradition derive the name from the same root but in an active sense, “he who draws out”, in the sense of “saviour, deliverer”.[9] The form of the name as recorded in the Masoretic text is indeed the expected form of the Biblical Hebrew active participle.[10] Some scholarly suggestions have followed this in deriving the name from Coptic terms mo “water” and `uses “save, deliver”, suggesting a meaning “saved from the water”.[11]

Another suggestion has connected the name with the Egyptian ms, as found in Tuth-mose and Ra-messes, meaning “born” or “child”.[8][12]

Biblical narrative

mhtml:file://H:\05152012\Slife%20Studies%2005122012\jesus-M\Moses%20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.mht!http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/MosesRescued_FromTheNile.JPG/240px-MosesRescued_FromTheNile.JPG

Moses rescued from the Nile, 1638, by Nicolas Poussin

In the Hebrew Bible, the narratives of Moses are in Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was a son of Amram, a member of the Levite tribe of Israel descended from Jacob, and his wife, Jochebed.[13] Jochebed (also Yocheved) was kin to Amram’s father Kehath (Exodus 6:20). Moses had one older (by seven years) sister, Miriam, and one older (by three years) brother, Aaron.[13] According to Genesis 46:11, Amram’s father Kehath immigrated to Egypt with 70 of Jacob’s household, making Moses part of the second generation of Israelites born during their time in Egypt.[14]

In the Exodus account, the birth of Moses occurred at a time when an unnamed Egyptian Pharaoh had commanded that all male Hebrew children born be killed by drowning in the river Nile. Jochebed, the wife of the Levite Amram, bore a son and kept him concealed for three months.[13][15][16] When she could keep him hidden no longer, rather than deliver him to be killed, she set him adrift on the Nile River in a small craft of bulrushes coated in pitch.[15] Moses’ sister Miriam observed the progress of the tiny boat until it reached a place where Pharaoh’s daughter (Bithiah,[13] Thermuthis [17]) was bathing with her handmaidens. It is said that she spotted the baby in the basket and had her handmaiden fetch it for her. Miriam came forward and asked Pharaoh’s daughter if she would like a Hebrew woman to nurse the baby.[13] Thereafter, Jochebed was employed as the child’s nurse. He grew up and was brought to Pharaoh’s daughter and became her son and a younger brother to the future Pharaoh of Egypt. Moses would not be able to become Pharaoh because he was not the ‘blood’ son of Bithiah, and he was the youngest.[18][better source needed]

Shepherd in Midian

After Moses had reached adulthood, he went to see how his brethren were faring.[15] Seeing an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, he killed the Egyptian and buried the body in the sand, supposing that no one who knew about the incident would be disposed to talk about it.[15] The next day, seeing two Hebrews quarreling, he endeavored to separate them, whereupon the Hebrew who was wronging the other taunted Moses for slaying the Egyptian.[19] Moses soon discovered from a higher source that the affair was known, and that Pharaoh was likely to put him to death for it; he therefore made his escape over the Sinai Peninsula.[15] In Midian he stopped at a well, where he protected seven shepherdesses from a band of rude shepherds. The shepherdesses’ father Hobab adopted him as his son, gave his daughter Zipporah to him in marriage, and made him the superintendent of his herds.[15][20][21] There he sojourned forty years, following the occupation of a shepherd, during which time his son Gershom was born.[15][22] One day, Moses led his flock to Mount Horeb (Exodus 3), usually identified with Mount Sinai — a mountain that was thought in the Middle Ages to be located on the Sinai Peninsula. While tending the flocks of Jethro at Mount Horeb, he saw a burning bush. The bush was not consumed and when Moses turned aside to look more closely at the marvel, God spoke to him from the bush, revealing his name to Moses.[15]

Egypt: the Plagues and the Exodus

God commanded Moses to go to Egypt and deliver his fellow Hebrews from bondage.[23] On the way Moses was nearly killed by God because his son was not circumcised. He was met on the way by his elder brother, Aaron, and gained a hearing with his oppressed kindred after they returned to Egypt, who believed Moses and Aaron after they saw the signs that were performed in the midst of the Israelite assembly.[24] Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and told him that the Lord God of Israel wanted Pharaoh to permit the Israelites to celebrate a feast in the wilderness. Pharaoh replied that he did not know their God and would not permit them to go. They gained a second hearing with Pharaoh and changed Moses’ rod into a serpent, but Pharaoh’s magicians did the same with their rods. Moses and Aaron met Pharaoh at the Nile riverbank, and Moses had Aaron turn the river to blood, but Pharaoh’s magicians could do the same. Moses obtained a fourth meeting, and had Aaron bring frogs from the Nile to overrun Egypt, but Pharaoh’s magicians were able to do the same thing. Pharaoh asked Moses to remove the frogs and promised to let the Israelites go observe their feast in the wilderness in return. Pharaoh decided against letting the Israelites leave to observe the feast.[25] Eventually Pharaoh let the Hebrews depart after Moses’ God sent ten plagues upon the Egyptians. The third and fourth were the plague of gnats and flies. The fifth was diseases on the Egyptians’ cattle, oxen, goats, sheep, camels, and horses. The sixth was boils on the skins of Egyptians. Seventh, fiery hail and thunder. The eighth plague was locusts. The ninth plague was total darkness. The tenth plague was the slaying of the Egyptian male first-born children, whereupon such terror seized the Egyptians that they ordered the Hebrews to leave. The events are commemorated as Passover, referring to how the plague “passed over” the houses of the Israelites while smiting the Egyptians.[26]

The crossing of the Red Sea

Moses then led his people eastward, beginning the long journey to Canaan. The procession moved slowly, and found it necessary to encamp three times before passing the Egyptian frontier — some believe at the Great Bitter Lake, while others propose sites as far south as the northern tip of the Red Sea. Meanwhile, Pharaoh had a change of heart, and was in pursuit of them with a large army. Shut in between this army and the sea, the Israelites despaired, but Exodus records that God divided the waters so that they passed safely across on dry ground. There is some contention about this passage, since an earlier incorrect translation of Yam Suph to Red Sea was later found to have meant Reed Sea.[27] When the Egyptian army attempted to follow, God permitted the waters to return upon them and drown them.

The people then continued to Marsa marching for three days along the wilderness of the Shur [28] without finding water. Then they came to Elim where twelve water springs and 70 Palm trees greeted them.[29] From Elim they set out again and after 45 days they reached the wilderness of Sin between Elim and Sinai.

From there they reached the plain of Rephidim, completing the crossing of the Red Sea.

Mount Sinai and the Ten Commandments

According to the Bible, after crossing the Red Sea and leading the Israelites towards the desert, Moses was summoned by God to Mount Sinai, also referred to as Mount Horeb, the same place where Moses had first talked to the Burning Bush, tended the flocks of Jethro his father-in-law, and later produced water by striking the rock with his staff and directed the battle with the Amalekites.

Moses stayed on the mountain for 40 days and nights, a period in which he received the Ten Commandments directly from God. Moses then descended from the mountain with intent to deliver the commandments to the people, but upon his arrival he saw that the people were involved in the sin of the Golden Calf. In terrible anger, Moses broke the commandment tablets[30] and ordered his own tribe (the Levites) to go through the camp and kill everyone, including family and friends,[31] upon which the Levites killed about 3,000 people.[32] God later commanded Moses to inscribe two other tablets, to replace the ones Moses smashed,[33] so Moses went to the mountain again, for another period of 40 days and nights, and when he returned, the commandments were finally given.

In Jewish tradition, Moses is referred to as “The Lawgiver” for this singular achievement of delivering the Ten Commandments.

The years in the wilderness

When the people arrived at Marah, the water was bitter, causing the people to murmur against Moses. Moses cast a tree into the water, and the water became sweet.[34][35] Later in the journey the people began running low on supplies and again murmured against Moses and Aaron and said they would have preferred to die in Egypt, but God’s provision of manna from the sky in the morning and quail in the evening took care of the situation.[36][37] When the people camped in Rephidim, there was no water, so the people complained again and said, “Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?” Moses struck a rock with his staff, and water came forth.[38][39]

Amalekites arrived and attacked the Israelites. In response, Moses bade Joshua lead the men to fight while he stood on a hill with the rod of God in his hand. As long as Moses held the rod up, Israel dominated the fighting, but if Moses let down his hands, the tide of the battle turned in favor of the Amalekites. Because Moses was getting tired, Aaron and Hur had Moses sit on a rock. Aaron held up one arm, Hur held up the other arm, and the Israelites routed the Amalekites.[40][41]

Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, came to see Moses and brought Moses’ wife and two sons with him. After Moses had told Jethro how the Israelites had escaped Egypt, Jethro went to offer sacrifices to the Lord, and then ate bread with the elders. The next day Jethro observed how Moses sat from morning to night giving judgement for the people. Jethro suggested that Moses appoint judges for lesser matters, a suggestion Moses heeded.[42]

When the Israelites came to Sinai, they pitched camp near the mountain. Moses commanded the people not to touch the mountain. Moses received the Ten Commandments orally (but not yet in tablet form) and other moral laws. He then went up with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of the elders to see the God of Israel. Before Moses went up the mountain to receive the tablets, he told the elders to direct any questions that arose to Aaron or Hur. While Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving instruction on the laws for the Israelite community, the Israelites went to Aaron and asked him to make gods for them. After Aaron had received golden earrings from the people, he made a golden calf and said, “These are your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of Egypt.” A “solemnity of the Lord” was proclaimed for the following day, which began in the morning with sacrifices and was followed by revelry.

After Moses had persuaded the Lord not to destroy the people of Israel, he went down from the mountain and was met by Joshua. Moses destroyed the calf and rebuked Aaron for the sin he had brought upon the people. Seeing that the people were uncontrollable, Moses went to the entry of the camp and said, “Who is on the Lord’s side? Let him come unto me.” All the sons of Levi rallied around Moses, who ordered them to go from gate to gate slaying the idolators.[43][44]

Following this, according to the last chapters of Exodus, the Tabernacle was constructed, the priestly law ordained, the plan of encampment arranged both for the Levites and the non-priestly tribes, and the Tabernacle consecrated. Moses was given eight prayer laws that were to be carried out in regards to the Tabernacle. These laws included light, incense and sacrifice.[45]

Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses on account of his marriage to an Ethiopian, Josephus explains the marriage of Moses to this Ethiopian in the Antiquities of the Jews[46][better source needed] and about him being the only one through whom the Lord spoke. Miriam was punished with leprosy for seven days.[47]

The people left Hazeroth and pitched camp in the wilderness of Paran.[48] (Paran is a vaguely defined region in the northern part of the Sinai peninsula, just south of Canaan) Moses sent twelve spies into Canaan as scouts, including most famously Caleb and Joshua. After forty days, they returned to the Israelite camp, bringing back grapes and other produce as samples of the regions fertility. Although all the spies agreed that the land’s resources were spectacular, only two of the twelve spies (Joshua and Caleb) were willing to try to conquer it, and are nearly stoned for their unpopular opinion. The people began weeping and wanted to return to Egypt. Moses turned down the opportunity to have the Israelites completely destroyed and a great nation made from his own offspring, and instead he told the people that they would wander the wilderness for forty years until all those twenty years or older who had refused to enter Canaan had died, and that their children would then enter and possess Canaan. Early the next morning, the Israelites said they had sinned and now wanted to take possession of Canaan. Moses told them not to attempt it, but the Israelites chose to disobey Moses and invade Canaan, but were repulsed by the Amalekites and Canaanites.[49]

The Tribe of Reuben, led by Korah, Dathan, Abiram, and 250 Israelite princes accused Moses and Aaron of raising themselves over the rest of the people. Moses told them to come the next morning with a censer for every man. Dathan and Abiram refused to come when summoned by Moses. Moses went to the place of Dathan and Abiram’s tents. After Moses spoke the ground opened up and engulfed Dathan and Abiram’s tents, after which it closed again. Fire consumed the 250 men with the censers. Moses had the censers taken and made into plates to cover the altar. The following day, the Israelites came and accused Moses and Aaron of having killed his fellow Israelites. The people were struck with a plague that killed 14,700 persons, and was only ended when Aaron went with his censer into the midst of the people.[50] To prevent further murmurings and settle the matter permanently, Moses had each of the chief princes of the non-Levitic tribes write his name on his staff and had them lay them in the sanctuary. He also had Aaron write his name on his staff and had it placed in the tabernacle. The next day, when Moses went into the tabernacle, Aaron’s staff had budded, blossomed, and yielded almonds.[51]

After leaving Sinai, the Israelites camped in Kadesh. After more complaints from the Israelites, Moses struck the stone twice, and water gushed forth. However, because Moses and Aaron had not shown the Lord’s holiness, they were not permitted to enter the land to be given to the Israelites.[52] This was the second occasion Moses struck a rock to bring forth water; however, it appears that both sites were named Meribah after these two incidents.

Now ready to enter Canaan, the Israelites abandoned the idea of attacking the Canaanites head-on in Hebron, a city in the southern part of Canaan. Having been informed by spies that they were too strong, it was decided that they wwould flank Hebron by going further East, around the Dead Sea. This required that they pass through Edom, Moab, and Ammon. These three tribes were considered Hebrews by the Israelites as descendants of Lot, and therefore could not be attacked. However they werealso rivals, and did not therefore give permission to allow the Israelites to pass openly through their territory. So Moses lead his people carefully along the eastern border of Edom, the southernmost of these territories. While the Israelites were making their journey around Edom, they complained about the manna. After many of the people had been bitten by serpents and died, Moses made the brass serpent and mounted it on a pole, and if those who were bitten looked at it, they did not die.[53] According to the Biblical Book of Kings this brass serpent remained in existence until the days of King Hezekiah, who destroyed it after persons began treating it as an idol.[54] When they reached Moab, it was revealed that Moab had been attacked and defeated by the Amorites led by a king named Sihon. The Amorites were a non-Hebrew Canaanic people who once held power in the Fertile Crescent. When Moses asked the Amorites for passage and it was refused, Moses attacked the Amorites (as non-Hebrews, the Israelites had no reservations in attacking them), presumably weakened by conflict with the Moabites, and defeated them.[55] The Israelites, now holding the territory of the Amorites just north of Moab, desired to expand their holdings by acquiring Bashan, a fertile territory north of Ammon famous for its oak trees and cattle. It was led by a king named Og. Later rabbinical legends made Og a survivor of the flood, suggesting the he had sat on the Ark and was fed by Noah. The Israelites fought with Og’s forces at Edrei, on the southern border of Bashan, where the Israelites were victorious and slew every man, woman, and child of his cities and took spoil for their bounty.[55]

Balak, king of Moab, having heard of the Israelites’ conquests, feared that his territory might be next. Therefore he sent elders of Moab, and of Midian, to Balaam (apparently a powerful and respected prophet), son of Beor (Bible), to induce him to come and curse the Israelites. Balaam’s location is unclear. Balaam sent back word that he could only do what God commands, and God has, via a dream, told him not to go. Moab consequently sent higher ranking priests and offers Balaam honours, and so God tells Balaam to go with them. Balaam thus set out with two servants to go to Balak, but an Angel tried to prevent him. At first the Angel is seen only by the ass Balaam is riding. After Balaam started to punish the ass for refusing to move, it is miraculously given the power to speak to Balaam, and it complains about Balaam’s treatment. At this point, Balaam was allowed to see the angel, who informed him that the ass is the only reason the Angel did not kill Balaam. Balaam immediately repented, but is told to go on.[56]

Balak met with Balaam at Kirjath-huzoth, and they went to the high places of Baal, and offered sacrifices at seven altars, leading to Balaam being given a prophecy by God, which Balaam relates to Balak. However, the prophecy blesses Israel; Balak remonstrated, but Balaam reminded him that he can only speak the words put in his mouth, so Balak taook him to another high place at Pisgah, to try again. Building another seven altars here, and making sacrifices on each, Balaam provided another prophecy blessing Israel. Balaam was finally taken by a now very frustrated Balak to Peor, and, after the seven sacrifices there, decided not to seek enchantments but instead looked on the Israelites from the peak. The spirit of God came upon Balaam and he delivered a third positive prophecy concerning Israel. Balak’s anger rose to the point where he threatened Balaam, but Balaam merely offered a prediction of fate. Balaam then looked on the Kenites, and Amalekites and offered two more predictions of fate. Balak and Balaam then go to their respective homes. Later, Balaam informed Balak and the Midianites that, if they wished to overcome the Israelites for a short interval, they needed to seduce the Israelites to engage in idolatry.[57][better source needed] The Midianites sent beautiful women to the Israelite camp to seduce the young men to partake in idolatry, and the attempt proved successful.[58]

God then commanded Moses to kill and hang the heads of everyone who had engaged in idolatry, and Moses ordered the judges to carry out the mass execution. At the same time, one of the Israelites brought home a Midianitish woman in the sight of the congregation. Upon seeing this, Phinehas, the grandson of Aaron, took a javelin in his hand and thrust through both the Israelite and the Midianitish woman, which turned away the wrath of God. By that time, however, the plague inflicted on the Israelites had already killed about twenty-four thousand persons. Moses was then told that because Phinehas had averted the wrath of God from the Israelites, Phinehas and his descendents were given the pledge of an everlasting priesthood.[59] After Moses had taken a census of the people, he sent an army to avenge the perceived evil brought on the Israelites by the Midianites. Numbers 31 says Moses instructed the Israelite soldiers to kill every Midianite woman, boy, and non-virgin girl, although virgin girls were shared amongst the soldiers.[60] The Israelites killed Balaam, and the five kings of Midian: Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, and Reba.[61]

Moses appointed Joshua, son of Nun, to succeed him as the leader of the Israelites.[62] Moses then died at the age of 120.[63]

Death

Moses was warned that he would not be permitted to lead the Israelites across the Jordan river, because of his trespass at the waters of Meribah (Deut. 32:51) but would die on its eastern shores (Num. 20:12).[64] He therefore assembled the tribes, and delivered to them a parting address, which is taken to form the Book of Deuteronomy.[64]

When Moses finished, he sang a song and pronounced a blessing on the people. He then went up Mount Nebo to the top of Pisgah, looked over the promised land of Israel spread out before him, and died, at the age of one hundred and twenty, according to Talmudic legend on 7 Adar, his 120th birthday exactly.[65] God Himself buried him in an unknown grave in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Bethpeor (Deut. 34:6).[16][64]

Moses was thus the human instrument in the creation of the nation of Israel by communicating to it the Torah.[64] More humble than any other man (Num. 12:3), he enjoyed unique privileges, for “there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom YHWH knew face to face” (Deut. 34:10).[64] See also Jude 1:9 and Zechariah 3.

Mosaic law

The Book of Kings relates how a “law of Moses” was discovered in the Temple during the reign of King Josiah (r. 641–609 BC). This book is mostly identified as an early version of the Book of Deuteronomy, perhaps chapters 5-26 and chapter 28 of the extant text. This text contains a number of laws, dated to the 8th century BC kingdom of Judah, a time when a minority Yahwist faction was actively attacking mainstream polytheism, succeeding in establishing official monolatry of the God of Israel under Josiah by the late 7th century BC.

The law attributed to Moses, specifically the laws set out in Deuteronomy, as a consequence came to be considered supreme over all other sources of authority (the king and his officials), and the Levite priests were the guardians and interpreters of the law.[66]

The Book of Deuteronomy (Deuteronomy 31:9 and Deuteronomy 31:24–26) describes how Moses writes “torah” (instruction) on a scroll and lays it beside the Ark of the Covenant.[67] Similar passages include, for example, Exodus 17:14, “And YHWH said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua, that I will utterly blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven;” Exodus 24:4, “And Moses wrote all the words of YHWH, and rose up early in the morning, and built an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel;” Exodus 34:27, “And Yahweh said unto Moses, Write thou these words, for after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel;”[68] and Leviticus 26:46 “These are the decrees, the laws and the regulations that the LORD established on Mount Sinai between himself and the Israelites through Moses.”

Based on this tradition, “Mosaic law” came to refer to the entire legal content of the Pentateuch, not just the Ten Commandments explicitly connected to Moses in the biblical narrative. The content of this law was excerpted and codified in Rabbinical Judaism as the 613 Mitzvot. By Late Antiquity, the tradition of Moses being the source of the law in the Pentateuch also gave rise to the tradition of Mosaic authorship, the interpretation of the entire Torah as the work of Moses.

Moses in Hellenistic literature

Non-biblical writings about Jews, with references to the role of Moses, first appear at the beginning of the Hellenistic period, the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world, from 323 BCE to about 146 BCE. Shmuel notes that “a characteristic of this literature is the high honour in which it holds the peoples of the East in general and some specific groups among these peoples.”[69]:1102 In addition to the Judeo-Roman or Judeo-Hellenic historians Artapanus, Eupolemus, Josephus, and Philo, a few non-Jewish historians including Hecataeus of Abdera (quoted by Diodorus Siculus), Alexander Polyhistor, Manetho, Apion, Chaeremon of Alexandria, Tacitus and Porphyry also make reference to him. The extent to which any of these accounts rely on earlier sources is unknown.[69]:1103 Moses also appears in other religious texts such as the Mishnah (c. 200 AD), Midrash (AD 200 – 1200),[70] and the Qur’an (c. 610—653).

The figure of Osarseph in Hellenistic historiography is a renegade Egyptian priest who leads an army of lepers against the pharaoh and is finally expelled from Egypt, changing his name to Moses.

In Hecataeus

The earliest existing reference to Moses in Greek literature occurs in the Egyptian history of Hecataeus of Abdera (4th century BC). All that remains of his description of Moses are two references made by Diodorus Siculus, wherein, writes historian Arthur Droge, “he describes Moses as a wise and courageous leader who left Egypt and colonized Judaea.”[71]:18 Among the many accomplishments described by Hecataeus, Moses had founded cities, established a temple and religious cult, and issued laws:

After the establishment of settled life in Egypt in early times, which took place, according to the mythical account, in the period of the gods and heroes, the first . . . to persuade the multitudes to use written laws was Mneves [Moses], a man not only great of soul but also in his life the most public-spirited of all lawgivers whose names are recorded.[71]:18

Droge also points out that this statement by Hecataeus was similar to statements made subsequently by Eupolemus[71]:18

In Artapanus

The Jewish historian Artapanus of Alexandria (2nd century BCE), portrayed Moses as a cultural hero, alien to the Pharaonic court. According to theologian John Barclay, the Moses of Artapanus “clearly bears the destiny of the Jews, and in his personal, cultural and military splendor, brings credit to the whole Jewish people.”[72]

Jealousy of Moses’ excellent qualities induced Chenephres to send him with unskilled troops on a military expedition to Ethiopia, where he won great victories. After having built the city of Hermopolis, he taught the people the value of the ibis as a protection against the serpents, making the bird the sacred guardian spirit of the city; then he introduced circumcision. After his return to Memphis, Moses taught the people the value of oxen for agriculture, and the consecration of the same by Moses gave rise to the cult of Apis. Finally, after having escaped another plot by killing the assailant sent by the king, Moses fled to Arabia, where he married the daughter of Raguel [Jethro], the ruler of the district.” [73]

Artapanus goes on to relate how Moses returns to Egypt with Aaron, and is imprisoned, but miraculously escapes through the name of YHWH in order to lead the Exodus. This account further testifies that all Egyptian temples of Isis thereafter contained a rod, in remembrance of that used for Moses’ miracles. He describes Moses as 80 years old, “tall and ruddy, with long white hair, and dignified.”

Some historians, however, point out the “apologetic nature of much of Artapanus’ work,”[74]:40 with his addition extra-biblical details, as with references to Jethro: The non-Jewish Jethro expresses admiration for Moses’ gallantry in helping his daughters, and chooses to adopt Moses as his son.[74]:133

In Strabo

Strabo, a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher, in his Geography (c. AD 24), wrote in detail about Moses, whom he considered to be an Egyptian who deplored the situation in his homeland, and thereby attracted many followers who respected the deity. He writes, for example, that Moses opposed the picturing of the deity in the form of man or animal, and was convinced that the deity was an entity which encompassed everything – land and sea:[69]:1132

35. An Egyptian priest named Moses, who possessed a portion of the country called the Lower Egypt, being dissatisfied with the established institutions there, left it and came to Judaea with a large body of people who worshipped the Divinity. He declared and taught that the Egyptians and Africans entertained erroneous sentiments, in representing the Divinity under the likeness of wild beasts and cattle of the field; that the Greeks also were in error in making images of their gods after the human form. For God [said he] may be this one thing which encompasses us all, land and sea, which we call heaven, or the universe, or the nature of things. . . .

36. By such doctrine Moses persuaded a large body of right-minded persons to accompany him to the place where Jerusalem now stands. . . . ”[75]

In Strabo’s writings of the history of Judaism as he understood it, he describes various stages in its development: from the first stage, including Moses and his direct heirs; to the final stage where “the Temple of Jerusalem continued to be surrounded by an aura of sanctity.” Strabo’s “positive and unequivocal appreciation of Moses’ personality is among the most sympathetic in all ancient literature.” [69]:1133 His portrayal of Moses is said to be similar to the writing of Hecataeus who “described Moses as a man who excelled in wisdom and courage.”[69]:1133

Egyptologist Jan Assmann concludes that Strabo was the historian “who came closest to a construction of Moses’ religion as monotheism and as a pronounced counter-religion.” It recognized “only one divine being whom no image can represent. . . [and] the only way to approach this god is to live in virtue and in justice.”[76]:38

In Tacitus

The Roman historian Tacitus (ca. 56—120 AD) refers to Moses by noting that the Jewish religion was monotheistic and without a clear image. His primary work, wherein he describes Jewish philosophy, is his Histories (ca. 100), where, according to Murphy, as a result of the Jewish worship of one God, “pagan mythology fell into contempt.”[77] Tacitus states that, despite various opinions current in his day regarding the Jews’ ethnicity, most of his sources are in agreement that there was an Exodus from Egypt. By his account, the Pharaoh Bocchoris, suffering from a plague, banished the Jews in response to an oracle of the god Hammon.

A motley crowd was thus collected and abandoned in the desert. While all the other outcasts lay idly lamenting, one of them, named Moses, advised them not to look for help to gods or men, since both had deserted them, but to trust rather in themselves, and accept as divine the guidance of the first being, by whose aid they should get out of their present plight.[78]

In this version, Moses and the Jews wander through the desert for only six days, capturing the Holy Land on the seventh.[78]

In Longinus

The Septuagint, the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, influenced Longinus, who may have been the author of the great book of literary criticism, On the Sublime, although the true author is still unknown for certain. However, most scholars agree that the author lived in the time of Augustus or Tiberius, the first and second Roman Emperors.

The writer quotes Genesis in a “style which presents the nature of the deity in a manner suitable to his pure and great being,” however he does not mention Moses by name, but instead calls him “the Lawgiver of the Jews.” Besides its mention of Cicero, Moses is the only non-Greek writer quoted in the work, and he is described “with far more admiration than even Greek writers who treated Moses with respect, such as Hecataeus and Strabo.[69]:1140

In Josephus

In Josephus‘ (37 – c. 100 AD) Antiquities of the Jews, Moses is mentioned throughout. For example Book VIII Ch. IV, describes Solomon’s Temple, also known as the First Temple, at the time the Ark of the Covenant was first moved into the newly built temple:

When King Solomon had finished these works, these large and beautiful buildings, and had laid up his donations in the temple, and all this in the interval of seven years, and had given a demonstration of his riches and alacrity therein; … he also wrote to the rulers and elders of the Hebrews, and ordered all the people to gather themselves together to Jerusalem, both to see the temple which he had built, and to remove the ark of God into it; and when this invitation of the whole body of the people to come to Jerusalem was everywhere carried abroad, … The Feast of Tabernacles happened to fall at the same time, which was kept by the Hebrews as a most holy and most eminent feast. So they carried the ark and the tabernacle which Moses had pitched, and all the vessels that were for ministration to the sacrifices of God, and removed them to the temple… Now the ark contained nothing else but those two tables of stone that preserved the ten commandments, which God spake to Moses in Mount Sinai, and which were engraved upon them…[79]

According to Feldman, Josephus also attaches particular significance to Moses’ possession of the “cardinal virtues of wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice.” He also includes piety as an added fifth virtue. In addition, he “stresses Moses’ willingness to undergo toil and his careful avoidance of bribery. Like Plato‘s philosopher-king, Moses excels as an educator.”[74]:130

In Numenius

Numenius, a Greek philosopher who was a native of Apamea, in Syria, wrote during the latter half of the 2nd century AD. Historian Kennieth Guthrie writes that “Numenius is perhaps the only recognized Greek philosopher who explicitly studied Moses, the prophets, and the life of Jesus . . . “[80]:194 He describes his background:

Numenius was a man of the world; he was not limited to Greek and Egyptian mysteries, but talked familiarly of the myths of Brahmins and Magi. It is however his knowledge and use of the Hebrew scriptures which distinguished him from other Greek philosophers. He refers to Moses simply as “the prophet”, exactly as for him Homer is the poet. Plato is described as a Greek Moses.[80]:101

In Justin Martyr

The Christian saint and religious philosopher Justin Martyr (103–165 AD) drew the same conclusion as Numenius, according to other experts. Theologian Paul Blackham notes that Justin considered Moses to be “more trustworthy, profound and truthful because he is older than the Greek philosophers.”[81] He quotes him:

I will begin, then, with our first prophet and lawgiver, Moses . . . that you may know that, of all your teachers, whether sages, poets, historians, philosophers, or lawgivers, by far the oldest, as the Greek histories show us, was Moses, who was our first religious teacher.[81]

Historicity

The tradition of Moses as a lawgiver and culture hero of the Israelites can be traced to 8th or 7th century BCE in the Kingdom of Judah. Moses is a central figure in the Deuteronomist account of the origins of the Israelites, cast in a literary style of elegant flashbacks told by Moses. The Deuteronomist relies on earlier material that may date to the United Monarchy, so that the biblical narrative would be based on traditions that can be traced to about four centuries after the supposed lifetime of Moses.

The question of the historicity of the Exodus (specifically, the Pharaoh of the Exodus, identification of which would connect the biblical narrative to Egyptological chronology) has long been debated, without conclusive result. Many biblical scholars are prepared to admit that there may be a historical core beneath the Exodus and Sinai traditions, even if the biblical narrative dramatizes by portraying as a single event what was more likely a gradual process of migration and conquest. Thus, the motif of “slavery in Egypt” reflects the historical situation of imperialist control of the Egyptian Empire over Canaan after the conquests of Ramesses II, which declined gradually during the 12th century under the pressure from the Sea Peoples and the general Bronze Age collapse[citation needed]. Israel Finkelstein points to the appearance of settlements in the central hill country around 1200 as the earliest of the known settlements of the Israelites.[82] A cyclical pattern to these highland settlements, corresponding to the state of the surrounding cultures, suggests that the local Canaanites combined an agricultural and nomadic lifestyles. When Egyptian rule collapsed after the invasion of the Sea Peoples, the central hill country could no longer sustain a large nomadic population, so they went from nomadism to sedentism.[83][clarification needed]

While the general narrative of the Exodus and the conquest of the Promised Land may be remotely rooted in historical events, the figure of Moses as a leader of the Israelites in these events cannot be substantiated.[84][85][86][87]William Dever agrees with the Canaanite origin of the Israelites but allows for the possibility of some immigrants from Egypt among the early hilltop settlers, leaving open the possibility of a Moses-like figure in Transjordan ca 1250-1200.[88]

Martin Noth holds that two different groups experienced the Exodus and Sinai events, and each group transmitted its own stories independently of the other one, writing that “The biblical story tracing the Hebrews from Egypt to Canaan resulted from an editor’s weaving separate themes and traditions around a main character Moses, actually an obscure person from Moab.”[89]

William Albright held a more favorable view towards the traditional views regarding Moses, and accepted the essence of the biblical story, as narrated between Exodus 1:8 and Deuteronomy 34:12, but recognized the impact that centuries of oral and written transmission have had on the account, causing it to acquire layers of accretions.[89]

Biblical minimalists such as Philip Davies and Niels Peter Lemche regard the Exodus as a fiction composed in the Persian period or even later, without even the memory of a historical Moses. [90][91]

Moses in religious traditions

Judaism

There is a wealth of stories and additional information about Moses in the Jewish apocrypha and in the genre of rabbinical exegesis known as Midrash, as well as in the primary works of the Jewish oral law, the Mishnah and the Talmud. Moses is also given a number of bynames in Jewish tradition. The Midrash identifies Moses as one of seven biblical personalities who were called by various names.[92] Moses’ other names were: Jekuthiel (by his mother), Heber (by his father), Jered (by Miriam), Avi Zanoah (by Aaron), Avi Gedor (by Kohath), Avi Soco (by his wet-nurse), Shemaiah ben Nethanel (by people of Israel).[93] Moses is also attributed the names Toviah (as a first name), and Levi (as a family name) (Vayikra Rabbah 1:3), Heman,[94] Mechoqeiq (lawgiver)[95] and Ehl Gav Ish (Numbers 12:3)[96]

Jewish historians who lived at Alexandria, such as Eupolemus, attributed to Moses the feat of having taught the Phoenicians their alphabet,[97] similar to legends of Thoth. Artapanus of Alexandria explicitly identified Moses not only with Thoth / Hermes, but also with the Greek figure Musaeus (whom he calls “the teacher of Orpheus“), and ascribed to him the division of Egypt into 36 districts, each with its own liturgy. He names the princess who adopted Moses as Merris, wife of Pharaoh Chenephres.[98]

Ancient sources mention an Assumption of Moses and a Testimony of Moses. A Latin text was found in Milan in the 19th century by Antonio Ceriani who called it the Assumption of Moses, even though it does not refer to an assumption of Moses or contain portions of the Assumption which are cited by ancient authors, and it is apparently actually the Testimony. The incident which the ancient authors cite is also mentioned in the Epistle of Jude.

To Orthodox Jews, Moses is called Moshe Rabbenu, `Eved HaShem, Avi haNeviim zya”a. He is defined “Our Leader Moshe”, “Servant of God”, and “Father of all the Prophets”. In their view, Moses not only received the Torah, but also the revealed (written and oral) and the hidden (the `hokhmat nistar teachings, which gave Judaism the Zohar of the Rashbi, the Torah of the Ari haQadosh and all that is discussed in the Heavenly Yeshiva between the Ramhal and his masters). He is also considered the greatest prophet.[99]

Arising in part from his age, but also because 120 is elsewhere stated as the maximum age for Noah’s descendants (one interpretation of Genesis 6:3), “may you live to 120” has become a common blessing among Jews.

Christianity

For Christians, Moses — mentioned more often in the New Testament than any other Old Testament figure — is often a symbol of God’s law, as reinforced and expounded on in the teachings of Jesus. New Testament writers often compared Jesus’ words and deeds with Moses’ to explain Jesus’ mission. In Acts 7:39–43, 51–53, for example, the rejection of Moses by the Jews who worshiped the golden calf is likened to the rejection of Jesus by the Jews that continued in traditional Judaism.

Moses also figures in several of Jesus’ messages. When he met the Pharisees Nicodemus at night in the third chapter of the Gospel of John, he compared Moses’ lifting up of the bronze serpent in the wilderness, which any Israelite could look at and be healed, to his own lifting up (by his death and resurrection) for the people to look at and be healed. In the sixth chapter, Jesus responded to the people’s claim that Moses provided them manna in the wilderness by saying that it was not Moses, but God, who provided. Calling himself the “bread of life”, Jesus stated that He was provided to feed God’s people.

Moses, along with Elijah, is presented as meeting with Jesus in all three Gospel accounts of the Transfiguration of Jesus in Matthew 17, Mark 9, and Luke 9, respectively. Later Christians found numerous other parallels between the life of Moses and Jesus to the extent that Jesus was likened to a “second Moses.” For instance, Jesus’ escape from the slaughter by Herod in Bethlehem is compared to Moses’ escape from Pharaoh’s designs to kill Hebrew infants. Such parallels, unlike those mentioned above, are not pointed out in Scripture. See the article on typology.

His relevance to modern Christianity has not diminished. Moses is considered to be a saint by several churches; and is commemorated as a prophet in the respective Calendars of Saints of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Roman Catholic Church, and Lutheran churches on September 4.[103] He is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 30.

Mormonism

Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (colloquially called Mormons) generally view Moses in the same way that other Christians do. However, in addition to accepting the Biblical account of Moses, Mormons include Selections from the Book of Moses as part of their scriptural canon.[104] This book is believed to be the translated writings of Moses, and is included in the Pearl of Great Price.[105] Latter-day Saints are also unique in believing that Moses was taken to heaven without having tasted death (translated). In addition, Joseph Smith, Jr. and Oliver Cowdery stated that on April 3, 1836, Moses appeared to them in the Kirtland Temple in a glorified, immortal, physical form and bestowed upon them the “keys of the gathering of Israel from the four parts of the earth, and the leading of the ten tribes from the land of the north.”[106]

Islam

mhtml:file://H:\05152012\Slife%20Studies%2005122012\jesus-M\Moses%20-%20Wikipedia,%20the%20free%20encyclopedia.mht!http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/b/ba/Nabi_Musa_jerico-Jerusalam.jpg/220px-Nabi_Musa_jerico-Jerusalam.jpg

Maqam El-Nabi Musa, Jericho

Moses is mentioned more in the Quran than any other individual and his life is narrated and recounted more than that of any other prophet.[107] In general, Moses is described in ways which parallel the prophet Muhammad,[108] and “his character exhibits some of the main themes of Islamic theology,” including the “moral injunction that we are to submit ourselves to God.”

Moses is defined in the Qur’an as both prophet (nabi) and messenger (rasul), the latter term indicating that he was one of those prophets who brought a scripture and law to his people.

Huston Smith (1991) describes an account in the Qur’an of meetings in heaven between Moses and Muhammad, which Huston states were “one of the crucial events in Muhammad’s life,” and resulted in Muslims observing 5 daily prayers.[109]

Moses is mentioned 502 times in the Qur’an; passages mentioning Moses include 2.49-61, 7.103-160, 10.75-93, 17.101-104, 20.9-97, 26.10-66, 27.7-14, 28.3-46, 40.23-30, 43.46-55, 44.17-31, and 79.15-25. and many others. Most of the key events in Moses’ life which are narrated in the Bible are to be found dispersed through the different Surahs of Qur’an, with a story about meeting Khidr which is not found in the Bible.[107]

In the Moses story related by the Qur’an, Jochebed is commanded by God to place Moses in an ark and cast him on the waters of the Nile, thus abandoning him completely to God’s protection.[107][110] Pharaoh’s wife Asiya, not his daughter, found Moses floating in the waters of the Nile. She convinced Pharaoh to keep him as their son because they were not blessed with any children.

The Qur’an’s account has emphasized Moses’ mission to invite the Pharaoh to accept God’s divine message[111] as well as give salvation to the Israelites.[107][112] According to the Qur’an, Moses encourages the Israelites to enter Canaan, but they are unwilling to fight the Canaanites, fearing certain defeat. Moses responds by pleading to Allah that he and his brother Aaron be separated from the rebellious Israelites.[113]

According to Islamic tradition, Moses is buried at Maqam El-Nabi Musa, Jericho.

Notes

1.       ^Deuteronomy 34:10

2.       ^Maimonides, 13 principles of faith, 7th principle

3.       ^“Princeton University Press Press Reviews, retrieved 6th June 2009”. Press.princeton.edu. 2011-11-06. http://press.princeton.edu/titles/5036.html. Retrieved 2012-04-03.

4.       ^The Quest for the Historical Israel: Debating Archeology and the History of Early Israel, 2007, Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta, ISBN 978-1-58983-277-0.

5.       ^John Van Seters, “The life of Moses”, ISBN 903900112X

6.       ^Seder Olam Rabbah[Full citation needed]

7.       ^Jerome‘s Chronicon (4th century) gives 1592 for the birth of Moses,[citation needed] the 17th-century Ussher chronology calculates 1619 BC (Annals of the World, 1658)

8.       ^ abNew World Dictionary-Concordance to the New American Bible. World Publishing. 1970. p. 461. ISBN 0-529-04540-0.

9.       ^HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament

10.    ^Lambdin, T.O., Intro. to Biblical Hebrew. NY:Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1971. pp. 18-19

11.    ^Gesenius’ Lexicon (1906), s.v. מֹשֶׁה‎ ; Gesenius was sympathetic towards the Coptic etymology. So also Jones’ Dictionary of Old Testament Proper Names

12.    ^So BDB Theological Dictionary and HAW Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament; see “Meaning, origin and etymology of the name Moses”. http://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Moses.html.

13.    ^ abcdeEaston, Matthew George (1897). Illustrated Bible Dictionary. London ; New York: T. Nelson. ISBN 1157582583. “Moses”.

14.    ^Genesis 46

15.    ^ abcdefgh“Biblical data on Moses”. http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#0.

16.    ^ ab“Moses”. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10596a.htm.

17.    ^“Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, Chapter 9, Paragraph 5”. http://www.nalanda.nitc.ac.in/resources/english/etext-project/history/antiqjews/book-2chapter9.html.

18.    ^“Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, Chapter 8, Paragraph 7”. http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=2359&pageno=61.

19.    ^Flavius Josephus does not mention this incident in his account, so it is uncertain as to its chronological relationship to Moses’ expedition against the Ethiopians.

20.    ^“Antiquities of the Jews, Book II, Chapter 11, Paragraph 2”. http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=2359&pageno=63.

21.    ^No further mention is made of Moses’ first wife Tharbis in either Exodus or Flavius Josephus except in the case where Aaron and Miriam taunted Moses about it.

22.    ^“Exodus 2:16–22”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%202:16-22;&version=9;.

23.    ^“Exodus 4:2–9”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%204:2-9;&version=9;.

24.    ^“Exodus 4:20–31”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%204:20-31;&version=9;.

25.    ^“Exodus 8:13-15”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%208:13-15;&version=9;.

26.    ^“Judaism 101: Pesach; Passover”. http://www.jewfaq.org/holidaya.htm.

27.    ^“The Yam Suph: “Red Sea” or “Sea of Reeds””. Cresourcei.org. 2006-07-20. http://www.cresourcei.org/yamsuph.html. Retrieved 2010-03-02.

28.    ^Shore

29.    ^Elim and Elat are plurals of the word El in Phoenician and again associated with Asherah worship. The words Elim and Elat refer to the power of the high and mighty terebinth trees that the Phoenicians used for masts and Asherah poles. William Albright has associated Asherah groves with the incense trade spices and perfumes such as frankincense and myrrh.

30.    ^Exodus 32:19

31.    ^Exodus 32:27

32.    ^Exodus 32:28

33.    ^Exodus 34:1, 34:27–28

34.    ^“Exodus 15:23–25”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%2015:23-25;&version=9;.

35.    ^Chaim Dovid Green. “Project Genesis: Parshas B’Shalach — Rough Beginnings”. http://www.torah.org/learning/dvartorah/5761/beshalach.html. Retrieved 2008-07-16.

36.    ^“Ex. 16”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%2016;&version=9;.

37.    ^Eliyahu Hoffmann. “Project Genesis: Parshas Beshalach — Man or Mon?”. http://www.torah.org/learning/olas-shabbos/5766/beshalach.html. Retrieved 2008-07-16.

38.    ^“Ex. 17:1–7”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%2017:1-7;&version=9;.

39.    ^Pinchas Avruch. “Project Genesis: Parshas Beshalach — Never Forget”. http://www.torah.org/learning/kolhakollel/5765/beshalach.html. Retrieved 2008-07-16.

40.    ^“Ex. 17:8–13”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%2017:8-13;&version=9;.

41.    ^Dovid Rosenfeld. “Project Genesis: Pirkei Avos – Exhilarating Fear”. http://www.torah.org/learning/pirkei-avos/chapter6-65-8.html. Retrieved 2008-07-16.

42.    ^“Ex. 18”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?book_id=2&chapter=18&version=9.

43.    ^“Exodus 32”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Exodus%2032%20;&version=9;.

44.    ^Mordechai Kamenetzky. “Project Genesis: Parshas Ki Sisa — Masked Emotions”. http://www.torah.org/learning/drasha/5758/kisisa.html. Retrieved 2008-07-16.

45.    ^“The Tabernacle of Israel; Court”. http://www.glencairnmuseum.org/tabernacle/court.htm.

46.    ^“Antiquities of the Jews page 61”. http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?pageno=61&fk_files=2359.

47.    ^“Numbers 12:1–15”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2012:1-15;&version=9;.

48.    ^“Numbers 12:16”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2012:16;&version=9;.

49.    ^“Numbers 13–14”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2013-14;&version=9;.

50.    ^“Numbers 16”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?book_id=4&chapter=16&version=9.

51.    ^“Numbers 17:1–8”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2017:1-8;&version=9;.

52.    ^“Num. 20:1–13”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2020:1-13;&version=9;.

53.    ^“Num. 21:4–9”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2021:4-9;&version=31;.

54.    ^“2 Kings 18:1–4”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=2%20Kings%2018:1-4;&version=31;.

55.    ^ abTromp, Johnannes (1993). The Assumption of Moses: A Critical Edition with Commentary. Brill. ISBN 9004097791.

56.    ^“The Story of Balaam”. http://www.thenazareneway.com/story_of_balaam.htm.

57.    ^“Antiquities of the Jews, Book IV, Chapter VI, Paragraph 6”. http://www.gutenberg.org/catalog/world/readfile?fk_files=2359&pageno=114.

58.    ^Deuteronomy 23:3–6 summarises these incidents, and further states that the Ammonites were associated with the Moabites. Joshua, in his farewell speech, also makes reference to it. Nehemiah, Micah, and Joshua continue in the historical account of Balaam, who next advises the Midianites how to bring disaster on the Israelites by seducing the people with idols and beautiful women, which proves partly successful.

59.    ^“Num. 25:1–13”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2025:1-13;&version=9;.

60.    ^“Num. 31:17-18”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=numbers%2031;&version=50;.

61.    ^“Num. 31:8”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2031:8;&version=9;.

62.    ^“Num. 27:15–23”. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Numbers%2027:15-23;&version=9;.

63.    ^Deuteronomy 34 7

64.    ^ abcde“Death of Moses”. http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#2846.

65.    ^Talmud Bavli, Megilah 13b, Sotah 12b, Kidushin 38a, Beshallaḥ, Wayassa’, 5 [ed. Weiss, p. 60a]; comp. Josephus, l.c. iv. 8, § 49. According to the Seder Olam in the year 2488 (corresponding to ca. Feb-Mar 1271 BCE; Seder Olam’s calendar starts two years later than the one currently used by Jews.)[citation needed]

66.    ^Graham, M.P, and McKenzie, Steven L., “The Hebrew Bible today: an introduction to critical issues” (Westminster John Knox Press, 1998) p.19ff

67.    ^Deuteronomy.

68.    ^“Exodus”. Quod.lib.umich.edu. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/r/rsv/rsv-idx?type=DIV1&byte=217012. Retrieved 2012-04-03.

69.    ^ abcdefShmuel, Safrai, M. Stern (ed) The Jewish People in the First Century, Van Gorcum Fortress Press (1976)

70.    ^Hammer, Reuven. The Classic Midrash: Tannaitic Commentaries on the Bible, Paulist Press (1995) p. 15

71.    ^ abcDroge, Arthur J. Homer or Moses?: Early Christian Interpretations of the History of Culture, Mohr Siebeck (1989)

72.    ^Barclay, John M. G. Jews in the Mediterranean diaspora: from Alexander to Trajan (323 BCE – 117 CE), University of California Press (1996) p. 130

73.    ^“Moses”. JewishEncyclopedia.com. http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=830&letter=M&search=moses#3. Retrieved 2010-03-02.

74.    ^ abcFeldman, Louis H. Josephus’s Interpretation of the Bible, University of California Press (1998)

75.    ^Strabo. The Geography of Strabo, XVI 35, 36, Translated by H.C. Hamilton and W. Falconer, pp. 177-178,

76.    ^ abAssmann, Jan (1997). Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-58738-3. See also Y. Yerushalmi’s monograph on Freud’s Moses.

77.    ^Tacitus, Cornelius. The works of Cornelius Tacitus: With an essay on his life and genius by Arthur Murphy, Thomas Wardle Publ. (1842) p. 499

78.    ^ abTacitus, Cornelius. Tacitus, The Histories, Volume 2, Book V. Chapters 5, 6 p. 208.

79.    ^Josephus, Flavius. The works of Flavius Josephus: Comprising the Antiquities of the Jews, trans. by William Whiston, (1854) Book VIII, Ch. IV, pp. 254-255

80.    ^ abGuthrie, Kenneth Sylvan. Numenius of Apamea: The Father of Neo-Platonism, George Bell & Sons (1917)

81.    ^ abBlackham, Paul; ed. Paul Louis Metzger. Trinitarian Soundings in Systematic Theology, in essay: “The Trinity in the Hebrew Scriptures”, Continuum International Publ. Group (2005) p. 39

82.    ^I Finkelstein and N. Na’aman, eds., From Nomadism to Monarchy (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1994)

83.    ^Finkelstein, Israel and Silberman, Neil Asher (2001). The Bible Unearthed. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-684-86912-8.

84.    ^Who Were the Early Israelites? by William G. Dever (William B. Eerdmans Publishing, Grand Rapids, MI, 2003)

85.    ^The Bible Unearthed by Neil Asher Silberman and Israel Finkelstein (Simon and Schuster, New York, 2001)

86.    ^“”False Testament”by Daniel Lazare (Harper’s Magazine, New York, May 2002)”. Harpers.org. http://harpers.org/archive/2002/03/0079105. Retrieved 2010-10-11.

87.    ^“Archaeology and the Hebrew Scriptures”. http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_arhs.htm.

88.    ^Dever, William G. (2002). What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8028-2126-X.

89.    ^ ab“Moses.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online

90.    ^Stead, Michael R.; John W. Raine (2009). The Intertextuality of Zechariah 1-8: Ideals and Realities. T.& T.Clark Ltd. p. 42. ISBN 978-0567291721.

91.    ^Meyers, Carol (2005). Exodus. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0521002912.

92.    ^Midrash Rabbah, Ki Thissa, XL. 3-3, Lehrman, P.463

93.    ^Yalkut Shimoni, Shemot 166 to Chronicles I 4:18, 24:6; also see Vayikra Rabbah 1:3; Chasidah p.345

94.    ^Rashi to Bava Batra 15s, Chasidah p.345

95.    ^Bava Batra 15a on Deuteronomy 33:21, Chasidah p.345

96.    ^Rashi to Berachot 54a), Chasidah p.345

97.    ^Eusebius, Præparatio Evangelica ix. 26

98.    ^Eusebius, l.c. ix. 27

99.    ^“Judaism 101: Moses, Aaron and Miriam”. Jewfaq.org. http://www.jewfaq.org/moshe.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-02.

100.^This title is held specifically in Islam.

101.^This is a specifically Jewish title

102.^Moses is commemorated as a forefather, along with the patriarchs, in the Armenian Apostolic Church

103.^Great Synaxaristes: (Greek) Ὁ Προφήτης Μωϋσῆς. 4 Σεπτεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.

104.^“About Mormons”. About Mormons. http://www.aboutmormons.com/bom.php. Retrieved 2010-03-02.

105.^“The Book of Moses”. Lightplanet.com. http://www.lightplanet.com/mormons/basic/scripture/moses.html. Retrieved 2010-03-02.

106.^The Doctrine and Covenants 110:11

107.^ abcdAnnabel Keeler, “Moses from a Muslim Perspective”, in: Solomon, Norman; Harries, Richard; Winter, Tim (eds.), Abraham’s children: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in conversation, by . T&T Clark Publ. (2005), pp. 55 – 66.

108.^Keeler (2005) describes Moses from the Muslim perspective:

”Among prophets, Moses has been described as the one ‘whose career as a messenger of God, lawgiver and leader of his community most closely parallels and foreshadows that of Muhammad’, and as ‘the figure that in the Koran was presented to Muhammad above all others as the supreme model of saviour and ruler of a community, the man chosen to present both knowledge of the one God, and a divinely revealed system of law’. We find him clearly in this role of Muhammad’s forebear in a well-known tradition of the miraculous ascension of the Prophet, where Moses advises Muhammad from his own experience as messenger and lawgiver.”

109.^Smith, Huston. The world’s religions HarperCollins, (1991) p. 245

110.^Quran 28:7

111.^Quran 79:17–19

112.^Quran 20:47–48

113.^Quran 5:20

Story Of Moses

Story Of Moses

Story Of MosesMoses’ mother was pregnant with Aaron in a year that boys were spared; thus she gave birth to the child publicly and safely. During a year in which boys were to be slain, she gave birth to Moses; thus his birth caused her much terror. She was afraid he would be slain, so she nursed him secretly.

God the Almighty revealed: These are Verses of the manifest Book (that makes clear truth from falsehood, good from evil). We recite to you some of the news of Moses and Pharaoh in truth, for a people who believe (those who believe in this Holy Book, and in the Oneness of God). Verily, Pharaoh exalted himself in the land and made its people sects, weakening (oppressing) a group (children of Israel) among them, killing their sons, and letting their females live. Verily, he was of the oppressors.

And we wished to do a favor to those who were weak (and oppressed) in the land, and to make them rulers and to make them the inheritors, and to establish them in the land, and We let Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts receive from them that which they feared. And We inspired the mother of Moses, saying: “Suckle him (Moses), but when you fear for him, then cast him into the river and fear not, nor grieve. Verily! We shall bring him back to you, and shall make him one of (Our) Messengers.”

No sooner had the divine revelation finished that she obeyed the sacred and merciful call. She was commanded to make a basket for Moses. She nursed him, put him into the basket, then went to the shore of the Nile and threw it into the water. Her mother’s heart, the most merciful one in the world, grieved as she threw her son into the Nile. However, she was aware that God was much more merciful to Moses than to her, that He loved him more than her. God was his Lord and the Lord of the Nile.

Hardly had the basket touched the water of the Nile than God issued His command to the waves to be calm and gentle while carrying the child would one day be a prophet. She instructed her daughter to follow the course of the basket and to report back to her. As the daughter followed the floating basket along the riverbank, she found herself right in the palace grounds and saw what was unfolding before her eyes.

The basket came to rest at the riverbank, which skirted the king’s palace. The palace servants found the basket with the baby and took it to the Pharaoh and his queen. When the queen beheld the lovely infant, God instilled in her a strong love for this baby. Pharaoh’s wife was very different from Pharaoh. He was a disbeliever; she was a believer. He was cruel; she was merciful. He was a tyrant; she was delicate and goodhearted. She was sad because she was infertile and had hoped to have a son. Hardly had she held the baby than she kissed him.

Pharaoh was much amazed when he saw his wife hugging this baby to her breast. He was much astonished because his wife was weeping with joy, something he had never seen her do before. She requested her husband: “Let me keep the baby and let him be a son to us.”

Almighty God said; Then the household of Pharaoh picked him up, that he might become for them an enemy and a cause of grief. Verily! Pharaoh, Haman, and their hosts were sinners. And the wife of Pharaoh said; “A comfort of the eye for me and for you. Kill him not, perhaps he maybe of a benefit to us, or we may adopt him as a son.” And they perceived not (the result of that).

The queen summoned a few wet nurses to suckle the baby Moses, but he would not take any of their breasts. The queen was distressed and sent for more wet nurses. Moses’ sister was also worried, as her baby brother was without milk for a long time. Seeing the queen’s anxiety, she blurted that she knew jut the mother who would suckle the child affectionately. They asked her why she was following the floating basket. She said she did so out of curiosity. Her excuse sounded reasonable, so they believed her. They ordered her to rush and fetch the woman she was talking about. Her mother also was waiting with a heavy heart, worried about the fate of her baby. Just then her daughter rushed in with the good news. Her heart lifted and she lost no time in reaching the palace.

God the Almighty narrated: And the heart of the mother of Moses became empty (from every thought, except the thought of Moses). She was very near to disclose his (case, the child is her son), had We not strengthened her heart (with Faith), so that she might remain as one of the believers. And she said to his (Moses’) sister: “Follow him.” So she (his sister) watched him from a far place secretly, while they perceived not.

And We had already forbidden (other) foster suckling mothers for him, until she (his sister came up and) said: “Shall I direct you to a household who will rear him for you, and sincerely they will look after him in a good manner?”

So did We restore him to his mother, that she might be delighted, and that she might not grieve, nor that she might know that the promise of God is true. But most of them know not.

As the child was put to her breast, he immediately started suckling. Pharaoh was astonished and asked; “Who are you? This child has refused to take any other breast but yours.”

Had she told the truth, Pharaoh would have known that the child was an Israelite and would have killed Moses instantly. However, God gave her inner strength and she replied: “I am a woman of sweet milk and sweet smell, and no child refuses me.” This answer satisfied Pharaoh.

She was appointed as Moses’ wet nurse. She continued to breast-feed him for a long time. When he was bigger and was weaned, she was allowed the privilege of visiting him. Moses was raised in the palace as a prince.

“And when he attained his full strength, and was perfect (in manhood), We bestowed on him Prophethood with right judgment of the affairs and religious knowledge (of the religion of his forefathers). And thus do We reward the Good-doers.”

God had granted Moses good health, strength, knowledge, and wisdom. The weak and oppressed turned to him for protection and justice.

One day in the main city, he saw two men fighting. One was an Israelite, who was being beaten by the other, an Egyptian. On seeing Moses, the Israelite begged him for help. Moses became involved in the dispute and, in a state of anger, struck a heavy blow on the Egyptian, who died on the spot. Upon realizing that he had killed a human being, Moses’ heart was filled with deep sorrow, and immediately he begged God for forgiveness.

He had not intended to kill the man. He pleaded with Almighty God to forgive him, and he felt a sense of peace filling his whole being. Thereafter Moses began to show more patience and sympathy towards people.

The next day he saw the same Israelite involved in another fight. Moses went to him and said: “You seem to be a quarrelsome fellow. You have a new quarrel with one person or another each day.” Fearing that Moses might strike him, the Israelite warned Moses: “Would you kill me as you killed the wretch yesterday?”

The Egyptian with whom the Israelite was fighting overheard this remark and reported Moses to the authorities. Soon thereafter, as Moses was passing through the city, a man approached and alerted him: “O Moses, the chiefs have taken counsel against you. You are to be tried and killed. I would advise you to escape.”

Moses knew that the penalty for killing an Egyptian was death. God the Exalted recounted: And he entered the city at a time of unawareness of its people, and he found there two men fighting, one of his party (his religion, from the children of Israel), and the other of his foes. The man of his own party asked him for help against his foe, so Moses struck him with his fist and killed him. He said, “This is of Satan’s doing, verily, he is a plain misleading enemy.”

He said: “My Lord! Verily, I have wronged myself, so forgive me.” Then He forgave him. Verily, He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.

He said: “My Lord! For that with which You have favored me, I will never more be a helper for the Sinners!”

So he became afraid, looking about in the city (waiting as to what will be the result of his crime of killing), when behold, the man who had sought his help the day before, called for his help again. Moses said to him: “Verily, you are a plain misleader!” Then when he decided to seize the man, who was an enemy to both of them, the man said: “O Moses! Is it your intention to kill me as you killed a man yesterday? Your aim is nothing but to become a tyrant in the land, and not to be one of those who do right.”

And there came a man running, from the farthest end of the city. He said: “O Moses! Verily, the chiefs are taking counsel together about you, to kill you, so escape. Truly, I am to you of those who give sincere advice.”

So he escaped from there, looking about in a state of fear. He said: “My Lord! Save me from the people who are Wrong-doers!”

Moses left Egypt in a hurry without going to Pharaoh’s palace or changing his clothes. Nor was he prepared for traveling. He did not have a beast of burden upon which to ride, and he was not in a caravan. Instead, he left as soon as the believer came and warned him of Pharaoh’s plans.

He traveled in the direction of the country of Midian, which was the nearest inhabited land between Syria and Egypt. His only companion in this hot desert was God, and his only provision was piety. There was not a single root to pick to lessen his hunger. The hot sand burned the soles of his feet. However, fearing pursuit by Pharaoh’s men, he forced himself to continue on. He traveled for eight nights, hiding during the day. After crossing the main desert, he reached a watering hole outside Midian where shepherds were watering their flocks.

No sooner had Moses reached the Midian than he threw himself under a tree to rest. He suffered from hunger and fatigue. The soles of his feet felt as if they were worn out from hard walking on sand and rocks and from the dust. He did not have any money to buy a new pair of sandals, nor to buy food or drink. Moses noticed a band of shepherds watering their sheep. He went to the spring, where he saw two young women preventing their sheep from mixing with the others.

Moses sensed that the women were in need of help. Forgetting his thirst, he drew nearer to them and asked if he could help them in any way.

The older sister said: “We are waiting until the shepherds finish watering their sheep, then we will water ours.”

Moses asked again: “Why are you waiting?”

The younger one: “We cannot push men.”

Moses was surprised that women were shepherding, as only men were supposed to do it. It is hard and tiresome work, and one needs to be on the alert. Moses asked: “Why are you shepherding?”

The younger sister said: “Our father is an old man; his health is too poor for him to go outdoors for pasturing sheep.”

Moses said: “I will water the sheep for you.”

When Moses approached the water, he saw that the shepherds had put over the mouth of the spring an immense rock that could only be moved by ten men. Moses embraced the rock and lifted it out of the spring’s mouth, the veins of his neck and hands standing out as he did so. Moses was certainly strong. He watered their sheep and put the rock back in its place.

He returned to sit in the shade of the tree. At this moment he realized that he had forgotten to drink. His stomach was sunken because of hunger.

Almighty God described this event: And when he arrived at the water of Midian he found there a group of men watering their flocks, and besides them he found two women who were keeping back their flocks. He said: “What is the matter with you?” They said: “We cannot water (our flocks) until the shepherds take their flocks. And our father is a very old man.”

So he watered their flocks for them, then he turned back to shade and said: “My Lord! Truly, I am in need of whatever good that You bestow on me!”

The young ladies returned home earlier than usual, which surprised their father. They related the incident at the spring, which was the reason that they were back early. Their father sent one of his daughters to invite the stranger to his home. Bashfully, the woman approached Moses and delivered the message. “My father is grateful for what you have done for us. He invites you to our home so that he may thank you personally.”

Moses welcomed this invitation and accompanied the maiden to her father. Moses could see that they lived comfortably as a happy and peaceful household. He introduced himself and told the old man about the misfortune that he had befallen him and had compelled him to flee from Egypt. The old man comforted him: “Fear not, you have escaped from the wrong-doers.”

Moses’ gentle behavior was noticed by the father and his daughters. The king man invited him to stay with them. Moses felt at home with this happy household, for they were friendly and feared God.

One of the daughters suggested to her father that he employ Moses, as he was strong and trustworthy. They needed someone like him, especially at the water hole, which was visited by ruffians.

The father asked her how she could be sure of his trustworthiness in such a short time. She replied: “When I bade him to follow me to our home, he insisted that I walk behind him so he would not observe my form (to avoid sexual attraction).”

The old man was pleased to hear this. He approached Moses and said: “I wish to marry you to one of my daughters on condition that you agree to work for me for a period of eight years.”

This offer suited Moses well, for being a stranger in this country; he would soon have to search for shelter, and work. Moses married the Midianite’s daughter and looked after the old man’s animals for ten long years.

Almighty God recounted: Then there came to him one of the two women, walking shyly. She said: “Verily, my father calls you that he may reward you for having watered our flocks for us.” So when he came to him and narrated the story, he said; “Fear you not. You have escaped from the people who are Wrong-doers.” And said one of them (the two women): “O my father! Hire him! Verily, the best of men for you to hire is the strong, the trustworthy.” He said: “I intend to wed one of these two daughters of mine to you, on condition that you serve me for eight years, but if you complete ten years, it will be a favor from you. But I intend not to place you under a difficulty. If God wills, you will find me one of the righteous.” He (Moses) said: “That is settled between me and you whichever of the two terms I fulfill, there will be no injustice to me, and God is Surety over what we say.”

Time passed, and he lived in seclusion far from his family and his people. This period of ten years was of importance in his life. It was a period of major preparation. Certainly Moses’ mind was absorbed in the stars every night. He followed the sunrise and the sunset every day. He pondered on the plant and how it splits and soil and appears thereafter. He contemplated water and how the earth is revived by it and flourishes after its death.

Of course, he was immersed in the Glorious Book of God, open to the insight and heart. He was immersed in the existence of God. All these became latent within him. The religion of Moses was the same as that of Jacob, which was Islamic monotheism. His forefather was Jacob the grandson of Abraham. Moses, therefore, was one of the descendants of Abraham and every prophet who came after Abraham was one of Abraham’s successors. In addition to physical preparation, there was a similar spiritual preparation. It was made in complete seclusion, in the middle of the desert, and in the places of pasture. Silence was his way of life, and seclusion was his vehicle. God the Almighty prepared for His prophet the tools he would need later on to righteously bear the commands of God the Exalted.

One day after the end of this period, a vague homesickness arose in Moses’ heart. He wanted to return to Egypt. He was fast and firm in making his decision, telling his wife: “Tomorrow we shall leave for Egypt.” His wife said to herself. “There are a thousand dangers in departing that have not yet been revealed.” However, she obeyed her husband.

Moses himself did not know the secret of the quick and sudden decision to return to Egypt. After all, he had fled from their ten years ago with a price on his head. Why should he go back now? Did he look forward to seeing his mother and brother? Did he think of visiting Pharaoh’s wife who had raised him and who loved him as if she were his mother?

No one knows what went through Moses’ mind when he returned to Egypt. All we know is that a mute obedience to God’s destinies impelled him to make a decision and he did. These supreme destinies steered his steps towards a matter of great importance.

Moses left Midian with his family and traveled through the desert until he reached Mount Sinai. There, Moses discovered that he had lost his way. He sought God’s direction and was shown the right course. At nightfall they reached Mount Sinai. Moses noticed a fire in the distance. “I shall fetch a firebrand to warm us.”

As he neared the fire, he heard a sonorous voice calling him: “O Moses, I am God, the Lord of the Universe.” Moses was bewildered and looked around. He again heard the strange voice. “And what is in you right hand, O Moses?”

Shivering, Moses answered: “This is my staff on which I lean, and with which I beat down branches for my sheep, and for which I find other uses.” (This question was asked so that Moses’ attention would focus on the staff and to prepare him for the miracle which was to happen. This was the beginning of Moses’ mission as a prophet).

The same voice commanded him: “Throw down your staff!” He did so, and at once the staff became a wriggling snake. Moses turned to run, but the voice again addressed him: “Fear not and grasp it; We shall return it to its former state.” The snake changed back into his staff. Moses’ fear subsided and was replaced by peace, for he realized that he was witnessing the Truth.

Next, God commanded him to thrust his hand into his robe at the armpit. When he pulled it out, the hand had a brilliant shine. God then commanded Moses; “You have two signs from Your Lord; go to Pharaoh and his chiefs, for they are an evil gang and have transgressed all bounds.”

However, Moses feared that he would be arrested by Pharaoh, so he turned to God saying: “My Lord! I have killed a man among them and I fear that they will kill me.”

God assured him of his safety and set his heart at rest.

Almighty God narrated this event: And has there come to you the story of Moses? When he saw a fire, he said to his family: “Wait! Verily, I have seen a fire, perhaps I can bring you some burning brand there from, or find some guidance at the fire.”

And when he came to it the fire, he was called by name: “O Moses! Verily! I am your Lord! So take off your shoes, you are in the sacred valley, Tuwa. And I have chosen you. So listen to that which is inspired to you. Verily! I am God! There is no God but Me, so worship Me, and offer prayers perfectly, for My Remembrance. Verily, the Hour is coming – and My Will is to keep it hidden – that every person may be rewarded for that which he strives. Therefore, let the one who believes not therein (in the Day of Resurrection, Reckoning, Paradise and Hell) but follows his own lusts, divert your therefrom lest you perish. And what is that in your right hand, O Moses?”

He said: “This is my stick, whereon I lean, and wherewith I beat down branches for my sheep and wherein I find other uses.”

God said: “Cast it down, O Moses!”

He cast it down, and behold! It was a snake, moving quickly.

God said: “Grasp it, and fear not, We shall return it to its former state, and press your right hand to your left side, it will come forth white and shining, and without any disease as another sign, that We may show you some of Our Greater Signs.

“Go To Pharaoh! Verily! He has transgressed (all bounds in disbelief and disobedience, and has behaved as an arrogant, and as a tyrant).”

Moses said: “O my Lord! Open for me my chest (grant me self-confidence, contentment, and boldness). And ease my task for me; and make loose the knot (the defect) from my tongue, (remove the incorrectness of my speech) that they understand my speech, and appoint for me a helper from my family, Aaron, my brother; increase my strength with him, and let him share my task (of conveying God’s Message and Prophethood), and we may glorify You much, and remember You much, Verily! You are of us Ever a Well-Seer.”

God said: “You are granted your request, O Moses! And indeed We conferred a favor on you another time before. When We inspired your mother with that which We inspired, saying: “Put him (the child) into the chest and put him into the river (Nile), and then the river shall cast it up on the bank, and there, an enemy of Mine and an enemy of his shall take him.’ And I endured you with love from Me, in order that you maybe brought up under My Eye, when your sister went and said; “Shall I show you one who will nurse him?’ So We restored you to your mother, that she might cool her eyes and she should not grieve. Then you did kill a man, but We saved you from a great distress and tried you with a heavy trial. Then you stayed a number of years with the people of Midian. Then you came here according to the term which I ordained (for you), O Moses!

“And I have chosen you (for My Inspiration and My Message) for Myself. Go you and your brother with My Sign, and do not, you both, slacken and become weak in My Remembrance.

“Go, both of you, to Pharaoh, verily, he has transgressed all bounds in disbelief and disobedience and behaved as an arrogant and as a tyrant. And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear God.”

They said: “Our Lord! Verily! We fear lest he should hasten to punish us or lest he should transgress all bounds against us.”

Knot On Moses Tongue

Knot On Moses Tongue

As for Moses, on receiving the order to go to Pharaoh, he supplicated:

“My Lord, open my breast (relieve my mind and make me so persevering as to tolerate every impudence and bear every hardship), and ease for me my task. Make loose a knot upon my tongue so that they may understand my words ( 20:25–8).”

Some commentators have misunderstood Moses’ supplication, Make loose a knot from my tongue, and asserted that he suffered difficulty in speaking. According to the story they narrate, Moses once pulled Pharaoh’s beard while being brought up in his palace. Angered at what the child did, Pharaoh wanted to have him killed, but his wife, in order to save the child, offered Pharaoh to test him whether he was fit to judge or decide in his favor. They put a piece of gold in one of the scales of a balance and embers in the other. The child took the embers and put them in his mouth. This made him a stammerer. So, by supplicating Make loose a knot from my tongue, Moses petitioned God to restore him the ability of articulation.

An invented story can be no basis for the interpretation of any The Holy Book’s verses. If Moses had had a speech impediment due to the burning of his tongue, he should have said, ‘Make loose the knot’, not ‘a knot, from my tongue’. What Moses meant by Make loose a knot from my tongue, was that he was not as eloquent as his brother Aaron ( 28:34), and therefore desired to be more articulate in delivering God’s Message in Pharaoh’s palace.

In conclusion, all the Prophets were perfect both mentally and physically, with nothing to suggest any defect. However, some of them may, in some respects, have been superior to others: And those Messengers, some We have preferred above others; some there are to whom God spoke [directly], and some He raised in rank ( 2:253).

Islamic View Of Moses By Wikipedia

Islamic view of Moses

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lineage of six prominent prophets according to Islamic tradition

Adem (Adam)

 

 

 

Nuh (Noah)

 

 

 

Ibrahim (Abraham)

 

 

 

 

Ishmael

Is’haq (Isaac)

 

 

 

 

Musa (Moses)

 

 

 

 

Maryam (Mary)

 

 

 

 

Isa (Jesus)

 

 

 

 

Abdul Muttalib

 

 

 

 

Muhammad

 

 

Dotted lines indicate multiple generations

Musa (Arabic: موسى‎; meaning Drawn out of water), known as Moses in the Old Testament, is considered an Islamic prophet, messenger, lawgiver and leader in Islam.[1] Moses is mentioned more in the Quran than any other individual, and his life is narrated and recounted more than that of any other prophet.[2] According to Islam, all Muslims must have faith in every mentioned prophet (nabi) and messengers (rasul) in the Quran, which includes Moses and his brother Aaron (Harun). The Quran states:

Also mention in the Book (the story of) Moses: for he was specially chosen, and he was a messenger (and) a prophet.
And we called him from the right side of Mount (Sinai), and made him draw near to Us, for mystic (converse).
And, out of Our Mercy, We gave him his brother Aaron, (also) a prophet.

—Quran, sura 19 (Maryam), ayat 51-53[1]

Many authors and scholars have generally attributed the tale of Moses as a spiritual parallel to the life of Muhammad, since many aspects of their lives are shared. Moses is also believed by Muslims to have foretold the coming of Muhammad, who would be the last prophet (Family tree with prophets on right).

Moses is revered in Islam as one of the greatest men of all time and, although the Quran mentions his full narrative, there are many sayings of Muhammad related to Moses and his life and tasks. Muslims also acknowledge that Moses was given a revealed book from God known as the Tawrat (Torah). According to Islamic tradition, Moses was one of the many prophets Muhammad met in the event of the Mi’raj, when he ascended through the seven heavens.[3]

Counterparts

The Quranic Musa is the same figure as the Moses of the Bible.

Story of Musa

According to Islamic tradition, Musa was born into a family of Israelites living in Egypt.

When he was young

The ruling Pharaoh on the advice of his soothsayers, ordered the killing of all new-born Israelite males.

In the basket

To protect her son, Musa’s mother put him in a basket and set him adrift on the Nile. He was discovered by the Pharaoh’s wife, Asiya, who adopted him.[4]

Finding out if Musa is a prophet

The Pharaoh was still wondering if this was the Israelite boy that would cause him to lose power, so he asked his advisers for help. They told him to bring two bowls, one with fireballs and the other with gems. If he were a normal baby, he would go for the fire, if he were a prophet, he would go for the gems. Then they brought baby Musa and put him near the two bowls. Musa was reaching for the gems when God made his hands change direction and go to the fire. Then like all babies, he swallowed the fire; therefore, he stammered.

Growing up

Musa grew up as a member of the Pharaoh’s household, sleeping in the Pharaoh’s palace, and for some days of the week, he went to his mother’s house, where he learned about worshipping God.

Having to leave

When Musa became an adult, he saw an Egyptian fighting with an Israelite. Musa interceded and killed the Egyptian. When he found out what he had done, he prayed to God for forgiveness. The next day Musa saw the Israelite whom he saved. “Do you intend to kill me as you killed the Egyptian?” he asks. Pharaoh tried to have Musa killed and Musa fled.

After travelling in the desert for a long time, he arrived in Midian and came into the company of an old man (some Muslims say he was the prophet Shuayb or Jethro), who recognized Musa as a man of God. He arranged a marriage between Musa and his daughter (Zipporah in Biblical and Hebrew tradition) and then Musa worked for him for eight to ten years.

Preaching

God calls Musa

Ten years later, Musa became very homesick. He approached his wife and told her his plans. They would leave in the morning for Egypt. After briefly reassuring her fears, they left the next morning traveling through the desert until he reached Mount Sinai. At nightfall they reached Mount Tur. Musa noticed a fire in the distance. He told his family to stay in their tents and that he would get fire to warm them.

He traveled through the dark finding a small burning bush. Musa approached cautiously. A voice suddenly called out to him, and he heard God speaking to him. God told him to return to Egypt and free the Jewish people. Musa, however, was fearful of the Pharaoh, and wanted signs.[5]

God ordered Musa to throw his staff onto the ground. As a sign to Musa from God, the staff was transformed into a snake. Musa became scared, but God ordered Musa to pick it up, as it would change back to its original form. He also ordered Musa to press his right hand to his left side and it would shine in a bright, white radiant light. Musa admitted that he was afraid of getting arrested on the previous murder charge, and also because he could not speak fluently due to a speech impediment.[6] God told him that his brother, Harun, could accompany him in his tasks, help in preaching to the Israelites and speak for him in general.[7]

Musa and Harun arrive at Pharaoh’s Court

Musa thus embarked for Egypt and faced the Fir’awn. Musa and Harun arrived in the court of the Pharaoh and admonished the Pharaoh and his chief minister, Haman, by informing him that his claim of godhood was false, for there is but one God who created both the Pharaohs and their subjects. He controls all that is in this world and beyond. Musa warned the Pharaoh about God’s punishment and told him that he had come with a clear sign and asked for the release of his people from their bondage in Egypt.

Musa and the magicians of Pharaoh

To this, the Pharaoh demanded to see the sign to clarify the truth. Musa threw his staff to the floor and it turned into a serpent. He then drew out his hand and it shined in white. The Pharaoh’s counselors advised him that this was sorcery and on their advice he summoned the best sorcerers of the town. On the day of the festival of Egypt, the summoned sorcerers threw their rods on the floor on Musa’ offer and it too changed into snakes. However, when Musa reacted likewise with his rod, the serpent from his rod devoured all the wriggling snakes. At once the sorcerers, who had come to compete against Musa and win a reward from the Pharaoh, realized this was not magic and believed in the message of Musa despite threats from the Pharaoh. They were then crucified by the orders of Pharaoh for their firmness in their faith.

Pharaoh’s arrogance

Although the magic of the Pharaoh was beaten, he would not relent to the power of God. He defiantly refused to allow Israelites to leave Egypt. As a result, God decreed punishments over him and his people. These punishments came in the form of floods that demolished their dwellings, swarms of locust that destroyed the crops, pestilence of lice that made life miserable, toads that croaked and sprang everywhere, plagues, and the turning of all drinking water into blood. Each time the Pharaoh was subjected to humiliation, his defiance became greater. Finally a great plague happened (not mentioned in detail in the Quran) and the Pharaoh gave up his defiance. However, Pharaoh was angry and wanted to chase the Israelites after realizing that they have left during night time.

Splitting of the Red Sea

Upon seeing the Pharaoh and his army approaching the Israelites started to run but stopped at the seafront where they could not go any further. Here Musa used his staff to part the sea that allowed the Israelites to pass through, then the Pharaoh also followed but the sea closed on him drowning and killing Pharaoh and his entire army.

The Ten Commandments and the Golden Calf

Musa led his people on the Exodus to Mount Sinai. Musa told the people that Harun was to be the leader while he was gone. Musa then climbed the mountain.

Musa returned to the spot where he had first received his miracles from God. He took off his shoes as before and went down into subjugation to The Creator. He prayed to God for guidance. He was given the Ten Commandments at this session. Before leaving, he begged God to be revealed to him. God told him that it would not be possible for him to see God, but that God will reveal himself to the mountain stating: “By no means canst thou see Me (direct); But look upon the mount; if it abide in its place, then shalt thou see Me.” When God revealed himself to the mountain it instantaneously turned into ashes. Musa lost consciousness. When he recovered, he went down in total submission and asked forgiveness of God.[8]

Having thus received the scriptures for his people, Musa came down from the mountain and returned to his people. However, he was shocked to find that the Israelites had revolted against his brother Harun and started worshiping a golden calf fashioned by a person named Samiri.[9]

Shortly thereafter, the elders asked to see the God of Musa, so he took them up the mountain. While climbing, a white bolt of lightning struck their path, and they all bowed in submission. Musa prayed for their forgiveness, and they returned to camp and set up a tent dedicated to worshipping God as Harun taught them from the Torah.

They resumed their journey towards the promised land, but ran out of food. God gave them a gift of food called Manna, but eventually the people became restless and asked for a variety of foods such as vegetables. Musa became angry with them and admonished them for their lack of gratitude.

Arrival at Canaan

They eventually reached Canaan, the promised land, and decided to send spies[10] to see the land. While two pious and believing men (Joshua and Caleb) told the Israelites to put their trust in God and enter, telling them the best tactics to assault the Canaanites, the people believed it was too dangerous and refused to enter the promised land. Musa pleaded to them to come, but they refused.

God says in the Quran:

They said: “O Musa! In this land are a people of exceeding strength: Never shall we enter it until they leave it: if (once) they leave, then shall we enter.”
(But) among (their) Allah-fearing men were two on whom Allah had bestowed His grace: They said: “Assault them at the (proper) Gate: when once ye are in, victory will be yours; But on Allah put your trust if ye have faith.”
They said: “O Musa! while they remain there, never shall we be able to enter, to the end of time. Go thou, and thy Lord, and fight ye two, while we sit here (and watch).”
He said: “O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother: so separate us from this rebellious people!”
Allah said: “Therefore will the land be out of their reach for forty years: In distraction will they wander through the land: But sorrow thou not over these rebellious people.

—Quran, sura 5 (Al-Ma’ida), ayah 22-26[10]

Burial place

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Grave, Nabi Musa, Jerico-Jerusalam

Certain Muslims believe that the grave of Moses is located at Maqam El-Nabi Musa which lies 11 km (6.8 mi) south of Jericho and 20 km (12 mi) east of Jerusalem in the Judean wilderness. A side road to the right of the main Jerusalem-Jericho road, about 2 km (1.2 mi) beyond the sign indicating sea level, leads to the site. Fatimid/Taiyabi/Dawoodi Bohra also believe in the same.

The main body of the present shrine, mosque, minaret and some rooms were built during the reign of Baibars, a Mamluk Sultan, in 1270 AD. Over the years Nebi Musa was expanded, protected by walls, and includes 120 rooms in its two levels which hosted the visitors. A large open cemetery is located around the complex.

References

1.       ^ abQuran 19:51–53

2.       ^Annabel Keeler, “Moses from a Muslim Perspective”, in: Solomon, Norman; Harries, Richard; Winter, Tim (eds.), Abraham’s children: Jews, Christians, and Muslims in conversation, T&T Clark Publ. (2005), pp. 55–66.

3.       ^Sahih Muslim, 1:309, 1:314

4.       ^Quran 28:7–9: “So We sent this inspiration to the mother of Musa: “Suckle (thy child), but when thou hast fears about him, cast him into the river, but fear not nor grieve: for We shall restore him to thee, and We shall make him one of Our messengers.”
Then the people of Pharaoh picked him up (from the river): (It was intended) that (Musa) should be to them an adversary and a cause of sorrow: for Pharaoh and Haman and (all) their hosts were men of sin.
The wife of Pharaoh said: “(Here is) joy of the eye, for me and for thee: slay him not. It may be that he will be use to us, or we may adopt him as a son.” And they perceived not (what they were doing)!”

5.       ^The Story of Musa

6.       ^Quran 20:24–28: “‘Go thou to Pharaoh, for he has indeed transgressed all bounds.’
(Musa) said: ‘O my Lord! expand me my breast;
Ease my task for me;
And remove the impediment from my speech,
So they may understand what I say:'”

7.       ^Quran 20:29–36: [Musa said] “‘And give me a Minister from my family,
Harun, my brother.
Add to my strength through him,
And make him share my task:
That we may glorify Thee much
And much remember Thee.
For Thou art He that (ever) regardeth us’
(Allah) said: ‘Granted is thy prayer, O Musa!'”

8.       ^Quran 7:143: “When Musa came to the place appointed by Us, and his Lord addressed him, He said: ‘O my Lord! show (Thyself) to me, that I may look upon thee.’ Allah said: ‘By no means canst thou see Me (direct); But look upon the mount; if it abide in its place, then shalt thou see Me.’ When his Lord manifested His glory on the Mount, He made it as dust. And Musa fell down in a swoon. When he recovered his senses he said: ‘Glory be to Thee! to Thee I turn in repentance, and I am the first to believe.'”

9.       ^Quran 20:85–88: “(Allah) said: ‘We have tested thy people in thy absence: the Samiri has led them astray.’
So Musa returned to his people in a state of indignation and sorrow. He said: ‘O my people! did not your Lord make a handsome promise to you? Did then the promise seem to you long (in coming)? Or did ye desire that Wrath should descend from your Lord on you, and so ye broke your promise to me?’
They said: ‘We broke not the promise to thee, as far as lay in our power: but we were made to carry the weight of the ornaments of the (whole) people, and we threw them (into the fire), and that was what the Samiri suggested’.
Then he brought out (of the fire) before the (people) the image of a calf: It seemed to low: so they said: ‘This is your god, and the god of Musa, but (Musa) has forgotten!'”

10.    ^ abQuran 5:22–26

Endowment Of Moses And Jesus

Endowment Of Moses And Jesus

Since, due to their historical conditions, the messages of all the previous Prophets were restricted to a certain people and period, certain principles had prominence in those messages. Also, God bestowed some special favors on each Prophet and community according to the dictates of the time. For example was favored with knowledge of the ‘names’, that is, the keys to all branches of knowledge. Noah was endowed with steadfastness and perseverance. Abraham was honored with intimate friendship with God and being the father of numerous Prophets. Moses was given the capability of administration and exalted through being the direct addressee of God, and Jesus was distinguished with patience, tolerance and compassion. All the Prophets have, however, some share in the praiseworthy qualities mentioned, but each of them surpasses, on account of his mission, the others in one or more than one of those qualities.Endowment Of Moses And Jesus

When the Prophet Moses was raised as a Prophet, the Israelites were leading a wretched existence under the rule of the Pharaohs in Egypt. Because of the despotic role and oppression of the Pharaohs, slavery was ingrained in the souls of the Israelites and had become a part of their character. In order to reform them, to equip them with such lofty feelings and values as freedom and independence, and to re-build their character and free them from subservience to the Pharaohs, the Prophet Moses came with a message containing stern and rigid rules and measures. This is why the Book given to Moses was called the Torah, meaning Law. Again, as a requirement of his mission, the Prophet Moses was a reformer and educator of somewhat unyielding and stern character. Therefore, it was quite natural for him to pray in reference to Pharaoh and his chieftains: ‘Our Lord, destroy their riches and harden their hearts so that they will not believe until they see the painful chastisement.’

In the time when Jesus came, the Israelites had abandoned themselves to worldly pleasures and led a materialistic life. The Holy Book (9:34) states that not only the common people but also, and more so, the rabbis and scribes consumed the goods of others in vanity and barred people from God’s way. They exploited religion for worldly advantage:

You see many of them vying in sin and enmity and how they consume the unlawful; evil is the thing they have been doing. Why do the masters and rabbis not forbid them to utter sin, and consume the unlawful? Evil is the thing they have been doing (5:62-3).

A similar sentiment is to be found in the Gospels, attributed to Jesus:

You snakes—how can you say good things when you are evil. For the mouth speaks what the heart is full of. A good person brings good things out of his treasure of good things; a bad person brings bad things out of his treasure of bad things (Matthew, 12:34-5).

Take care: be on your guard against the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees. The teachers of the law and the Pharisees are the authorised interpreters of Moses’ Law. So you must obey and follow everything they tell you to do; do not, however, imitate their actions, because they don’t practise what they preach. They tie onto people’s backs loads that are heavy and hard to carry, yet they aren’t willing even to lift a finger to help them carry those loads. They do everything so that people will see them. . . They love the best places at feasts and the reserved seats in the synagogues; they love to be greeted with respect in the market places and to have people call them ‘Teacher’. . . How terrible for you, teachers of the Law and the Pharisees. You hypocrites. . . You give to God one tenth of the seasoning herbs, such as mint, dill and cumin, but you neglect to obey the really important teachings of the Law, such as justice and mercy and honesty. These you should practise, without neglecting the others (Matthew: 23, 13, and 12).

When Jesus was sent to the Israelites, the spirit of the Religion had been dwindled away and the Religion itself reduced to a device for its exponents to rob the common people. So, before proceeding to put the Law into effect, Jesus concentrated on faith, justice, mercy humility, peace, love, repentance for one’s sins and begging God’s forgiveness, helping others, purity of heart and intention and sincerity:

Happy are those who know they are spiritually poor: The Kingdom of heaven belongs to them.

Happy are those who mourn: God will comfort them.

Happy are those who are humble: They will receive what God promised.

Happy are those whose greatest desire is to do what God requires: God will satisfy them fully.

Happy are those who are merciful to others: God will be merciful to them.

Happy are the poor in heart: They will see God (Matthew: 5:3-10).

A reformer and educator Prophet Moses

A reformer and educator Prophet MosesThe pharaoh who ruled Egypt was a tyrant who oppressed the descendants of Jacob, known as the children of Israel. He used every means to demean and disgrace them. They were kept in bondage and forced to work for him for small wages or nothing. Under this system the people obeyed and worshipped the pharaoh, and the ruling class carried out his orders, thereby authorizing his tyranny and crazy whims.

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