Unidentified Flying Objects By United States Department Of Defense

Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs)

by United States Department of Defense

This issue is no longer being investigated by the Defense Department. As you may know, the United States Air Force began investigating UFOs in 1948 under a program called Project Sign. Later the program’s name was changed to Project Grudge, and in 1953 it was changed again to Project Blue Book. On December 17, 1969, the Secretary of the Air Force announced the termination of Project Blue Book.

The decision to discontinue UFO investigations was based on a number of factors, including reports and studies by the University of Colorado and the National Academy of Sciences, as well as past UFO studies and the Air Force’s two decades of experience investigating UFO reports.

As a result of these investigations, studies, and experience, the conclusions of Project Blue Book were:

Between 1948 and 1969 the Air Force investigated 12,618 reported UFO sightings. Of these, 11,917 were found to have been caused by material objects such as balloons, satellites, and aircraft; immaterial objects such as lightning, reflections, and other natural phenomena; astronomical objects such as stars, planets, the sun, and the moon; weather conditions; and hoaxes. Only 701 reported sightings remain unexplained.

All documentation regarding the former Blue Book investigation was permanently transferred to the Military Reference Branch, National Archives and Records Administration, 8th and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, DC 20408, and is available for public review. A list of private organizations interested in aerial phenomena can be found in Gale’s Encyclopedia of Associations, available in the reference section of many libraries. Air Force Fact Sheets on this topic may be viewed, including one about the so-called Roswell Incident . The Naval Historical Center has compiled a bibliography.

http://www.defense.gov/faq/pis/16.html

Unidentified Flying Object By Wiki

Unidentified Flying Object

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Page semi-protected

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/df/PurportedUFO2.jpg/220px-PurportedUFO2.jpg

 

Photograph of an alleged UFO in New Jersey, taken on July 31, 1952

An unidentified flying object, often abbreviated UFO or U.F.O., is an unusual apparent anomaly in the sky that is not readily identifiable to the observer as any known object.

Extraterrestrial hypothesis

While technically a UFO refers to any unidentified flying object, in modern popular culture the term UFO has generally become synonymous with alien spacecraft[1]; however, the term ETV (ExtraTerrestrial Vehicle) is sometimes used to separate this explanation of UFOs from totally earthbound explanations.[2]

Proponents argue that because these objects appear to be technological and not natural phenomenon, and are alleged to display flight characteristics or have shapes seemingly unknown to conventional technology, the conclusion is then that they must not be from Earth.[3][4][5][6] Though UFO sightings have occurred throughout recorded history, modern interest in them dates from World War II (see foo fighter), further fueled in the late 1940s by Kenneth Arnold‘s coining of the term flying saucer and the Roswell UFO Incident. Since then governments have investigated UFO reports, often from a military perspective- and UFO researchers have investigated, written about, and created organizations devoted to the subject. One such investigation, The UK’s Project Condign report, notes that Russian, Former Soviet Republics, and Chinese authorities have made a co-ordinated effort to understand the UFO topic and that State military organizations, particularly in Russia, have done “considerably more work (than is evident from open sources)” on military applications which have stemmed from their UFO research. The report also noted that “several aircraft have been destroyed and at least four pilots have been killed ‘chasing UFOs’.”[7]

Studies

Studies have established that the majority of UFO observations are misidentified conventional objects or natural phenomena—most commonly aircraft, balloons, noctilucent clouds, nacreous clouds, or astronomical objects such as meteors or bright planets with a small percentage even being hoaxes.[8] After excluding incorrect reports, however, it is acknowledged that between 5% and 20% of reported sightings remain unexplained, and as such can be classified as unidentified in the strictest sense. Many reports have been made by trained observers such as pilots, police, and the military; some involve radar traces, so not all reports are visual.[9] Proponents of the extraterrestrial hypothesis believe that these unidentified reports are of alien spacecraft, though various other hypotheses have been proposed.

While UFOs have been the subject of extensive investigation by various governments, and some scientists support the extraterrestrial hypothesis, few scientific papers about UFOs have been published in peer-reviewed journals.[10] There has been some debate in the scientific community about whether any scientific investigation into UFO sightings is warranted.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17]

The void left by the lack of institutional scientific study has given rise to independent researchers and groups, most notably MUFON (Mutual UFO Network) [18] and CUFOS (Center for UFO Studies).[19] The term “Ufology” is used to describe the collective efforts of those who study reports and associated evidence of unidentified flying objects. According to MUFON, as of 2011 the number of UFO reports to their worldwide offices has increased by 67% from the previous 3 years, which now average around 500 reported sightings per month.[20]

UFOs have become a relevant theme in modern culture,[21] and the social phenomena have been the subject of academic research in sociology and psychology.[10]

Terminology

The first publicized sightings were usually referred to using the term mystery airships, which were commonly seen and described as such during the latter part of the 19th century and the early 20th.[22]

The term foo fighters was used by American fighter pilots during World War II to refer to UFOs.

The first widely publicized U.S. sighting, reported by private pilot Kenneth Arnold in June 1947, gave rise to the popular terms “flying saucer” and “flying disc”, of which the former is still sometimes used, even though Arnold said the most of the objects he saw were not totally circular and one was crescent-shaped (see Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting for details). In addition, the infamous Roswell UFO Incident occurred at about the same time, which only served to further fuel public interest in the topic.

The term “UFO” was first suggested in 1952 by Cpt. Edward J. Ruppelt, who headed Project Blue Book, then the USAF’s official investigation of UFOs. Ruppelt felt that “flying saucer” did not reflect the diversity of the sightings. He suggested that UFO should be pronounced as a word – you-foe. However it is now usually pronounced by forming each letter: U.F.O. His term was quickly adopted by the United States Air Force, which also briefly used “UFOB”. The Air Force initially defined UFOs as those objects that remain unidentified after scrutiny by expert investigators,[23] though today the term UFO is often used for any unexplained sighting regardless of whether it has been investigated.

Because the term UFO is ambiguous – referring either to any unidentified sighting, or in popular usage to alien spacecraft – and the public and media ridicule sometimes associated with the topic, some investigators now prefer to use other terms such as unidentified aerial phenomenon (or UAP).[24]

The equivalent acronym for UFO in Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Italian is OVNI (Objeto Volador No Identificado, Objeto Voador Não Identificado, Objet volant non identifié or Oggetto Volante Non Identificato), a term that is pronounced as one word (ov-nee).

Early history

Unexplained aerial observations have been reported throughout history. Some were undoubtedly astronomical in nature: comets, bright meteors, one or more of the five planets that can be seen with the naked eye, planetary conjunctions, or atmospheric optical phenomena such as parhelia and lenticular clouds. An example is Halley’s Comet, which was recorded first by Chinese astronomers in 240 B.C. and possibly as early as 467 B.C. Such sightings throughout history were often treated as supernatural portents, angels, or other religious omens. Some current-day UFO researchers have noticed similarities between some religious symbols in medieval paintings and UFO reports[25] though the canonical and symbolic character of such images is documented by art historians placing more conventional religious interpretations on such images.[26]

Denison Daily News wrote that local farmer John Martin had reported seeing a large, dark, circular flying object resembling a balloon flying “at wonderful speed.” Martin also said it appeared to be about the size of a saucer, the first known use of the word “saucer” in association with a UFO.[27] On February 28, 1904, there was a sighting by three crew members on the USS Supply 300 miles west of San Francisco, reported by Lt. Frank Schofield, later to become Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Battle Fleet. Schofield wrote of three bright red egg-shaped and circular objects flying in echelon formation that approached beneath the cloud layer, then changed course and “soared” above the clouds, departing directly away from the earth after two to three minutes. The largest had an apparent size of about six suns.[28] 1916 and 1926: The three oldest known pilot UFO sightings, of 1305 cataloged by NARCAP. On January 31, 1916, a UK pilot near Rochford reported a row of lights, like lighted windows on a railway carriage, that rose and disappeared. In January 1926, a pilot reported six “flying manhole covers” between Wichita, Kansas and Colorado Springs, Colorado. In late September 1926, an airmail pilot over Nevada was forced to land by a huge, wingless cylindrical object.[29] On August 5, 1926, while traveling in the Humboldt Mountains of Tibet‘s Kokonor region, Nicholas Roerich reported that members of his expedition saw “something big and shiny reflecting the sun, like a huge oval moving at great speed. Crossing our camp the thing changed in its direction from south to southwest. And we saw how it disappeared in the intense blue sky. We even had time to take our field glasses and saw quite distinctly an oval form with shiny surface, one side of which was brilliant from the sun.”[30] Another description by Roerich was, “…A shiny body flying from north to south. Field glasses are at hand. It is a huge body. One side glows in the sun. It is oval in shape. Then it somehow turns in another direction and disappears in the southwest.”[31] In the Pacific and European theatres during World War II, “Foo-fighters” (metallic spheres, balls of light and other shapes that followed aircraft) were reported and on occasion photographed by Allied and Axis pilots. Some proposed Allied explanations at the time included St. Elmo’s Fire, the planet Venus, hallucinations from oxygen deprivation, or German secret weapons.[32][33] On February 25, 1942, U.S. Army observers reported unidentified aircraft both visually and on radar over the Los Angeles, California region. Antiaircraft artillery was fired at what was presumed to be Japanese planes. No readily apparent explanation was offered, though some officials dismissed the reports of aircraft as being triggered by anxieties over expected Japanese air attacks on California. However, Army Chief of Staff Gen. George C. Marshall and Secretary of War Henry Stimson insisted real aircraft were involved. The incident later became known as the Battle of Los Angeles, or the West coast air raid. In 1946, there were over 2000 reports, collected primarily by the Swedish military, of unidentified aerial objects in the Scandinavian nations, along with isolated reports from France, Portugal, Italy and Greece, then referred to as “Russian hail”, and later as “ghost rockets“, because it was thought that these mysterious objects were possibly Russian tests of captured German V1 or V2 rockets. Although most were thought to be natural phenomena like meteors, over 200 were tracked on radar and deemed to be “real physical objects” by the Swedish military. In a 1948 top secret document, the Swedish military told the USAF Europe in 1948 that some of their investigators believed them to be extraterrestrial in origin.

The Kenneth Arnold sightings

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d1/Arnold_AAF_drawing.jpg/220px-Arnold_AAF_drawing.jpg

 

This shows the report Kenneth Arnold filed in 1947 about his UFO sighting.

The post World War II UFO phase in the United States began with a famous sighting by American businessman Kenneth Arnold on June 24, 1947 while flying his private plane near Mount Rainier, Washington. He reported seeing nine brilliantly bright objects flying across the face of Rainier.

Although there were other 1947 U.S. sightings of similar objects that preceded this, it was Arnold’s sighting that first received significant media attention and captured the public’s imagination. Arnold described what he saw as being “flat like a pie pan”, “shaped like saucers and were so thin I could barely see them… “, “half-moon shaped, oval in front and convex in the rear. … they looked like a big flat disk” (see Arnold’s drawing at right), and flew “like a saucer would if you skipped it across the water”. (One of the objects, however, he would describe later as crescent-shaped, as shown in illustration at left.) Arnold’s descriptions were widely reported and within a few days gave rise to the terms flying saucer and flying disk.[34] Arnold’s sighting was followed in the next few weeks by hundreds of other reported sightings, mostly in the U.S., but in other countries as well. After reports of the Arnold sighting hit the media, other cases began to be reported in increasing numbers. In one instance a United Airlines crew sighting of nine more disc-like objects over Idaho on the evening of July 4. At the time, this sighting was even more widely reported than Arnold’s and lent considerable credence to Arnold’s report.[35]

American UFO researcher Ted Bloecher, in his comprehensive review of newspaper reports (including cases that preceded Arnold’s), found a sudden surge upwards in sightings on July 4, peaking on July 6–8. Bloecher noted that for the next few days most American newspapers were filled with front-page stories of the new “flying saucers” or “flying discs”. Speculation as to what the flying saucers were was rampant in the newspapers. Theories ranged from hallucinations, mass hysteria, optical illusions, hoaxes, reflections off airplanes, unusual atmospheric conditions, and weather balloons to byproducts of atomic testing or U.S./Russian secret weapons, to even more esoteric interdimensional or interplanetary visitors. Reports began to rapidly tail off after July 8,[36] when officials began issuing press statements on the Roswell UFO incident, in which they explained debris found on the ground by a rancher as being that of a weather balloon.[37]

Over several years in the 1960s, Bloecher (aided by physicist James E. McDonald) discovered 853 flying disc sightings that year from 140 newspapers from Canada, Washington D.C, and every U.S. state except Montana.[38]

Investigations

UFOs have been subject to investigations over the years that vary widely in scope and scientific rigor. Governments or independent academics in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, Peru, France, Belgium, Sweden, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Mexico, Spain, and the Soviet Union are known to have investigated UFO reports at various times. These official reports refer to the UFO of military term, and not, to the supposed alien crafts. It does not mean that the above-mentioned governments recognized supposed human contact with alien civilization.

Among the best known government studies are the ghost rockets investigation by the Swedish military (1946–1947), Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the United States Air Force from 1947 until 1969, the secret U.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951), the secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report #14[39] by the Battelle Memorial Institute, and Brazilian Air Force Operation Saucer (1977). France has had an ongoing investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN) within its space agency CNES since 1977, as has Uruguay since 1989.

Project Sign

Project Sign in 1948 wrote a highly classified opinion (see Estimate of the Situation) that the best UFO reports probably had an extraterrestrial explanation, as did the private but high-level French COMETA study of 1999. A top secret Swedish military opinion given to the USAF in 1948 stated that some of their analysts believed the 1946 ghost rockets and later flying saucers had extraterrestrial origins. (see Ghost rockets for document). In 1954, German rocket scientist Hermann Oberth revealed an internal West German government investigation, which he headed, that arrived at an extraterrestrial conclusion, but this study was never made public.

Project Magnet

Classified, internal reports by the Canadian Project Magnet in 1952 and 1953 also assigned high probability to extraterrestrial origins. Publicly, however, Project Magnet, nor later Canadian defense studies, ever stated such a conclusion.

Project Grudge

Project Sign was dismantled and became Project Grudge at the end of 1948. Angered by the low quality of investigations by Grudge, the Air Force Director of Intelligence reorganized it as Project Blue Book in late 1951, placing Ruppelt in charge. Blue Book closed down in 1970, using the Condon Commission’s negative conclusion as a rationale, ending the official Air Force UFO investigations. However, a 1969 USAF document, known as the Bolender memo, plus later government documents revealed that nonpublic U.S. government UFO investigations continued after 1970. The Bollender memo first stated that “reports of unidentified flying objects that could affect national security… are not part of the Blue Book system,” indicating that more serious UFO incidents were already handled outside of the public Blue Book investigation. The memo then added, “reports of UFOs which could affect national security would continue to be handled through the standard Air Force procedures designed for this purpose.”[40] In addition, in the late 1960s, there was a chapter on UFOs at the U.S. Air Force Academy in their Space Sciences course, giving serious consideration to possible extraterrestrial origins. When word of the curriculum became public, the Air Force in 1970 put out a statement the book was outdated and that cadets were now being informed of Condon’s negative conclusion instead.[41]

USAF Regulation 200-2

The initially classified USAF Regulation 200-2, first issued in 1953 after the Robertson Panel, which first defined UFOs and how information was to be collected, stated explicitly that the two reasons for studying the unexplained cases were for national security reasons and for possible technical aspects involved, implying physical reality and concern about national defense, but without opinion as to origins. (For example, such information would also be considered important if UFOs had a foreign or domestic origin.) The first two known classified USAF studies in 1947 also concluded real physical aircraft were involved, but gave no opinion as to origins. (See American investigations immediately below) These early studies led to the creation of the USAF’s Project Sign at the end of 1947, the first semi-public USAF study.

Air Force Regulation 200-2,[42] issued in 1953 and 1954, defined an Unidentified Flying Object (“UFOB”) as “any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object.” The regulation also said UFOBs were to be investigated as a “possible threat to the security of the United States” and “to determine technical aspects involved.” As to what the public was to be told, “it is permissible to inform news media representatives on UFOB’s when the object is positively identified as a familiar object,” but “For those objects which are not explainable, only the fact that ATIC [Air Technical Intelligence Center] will analyze the data is worthy of release, due to many unknowns involved.”[43][44]

Project Bluebook

Allen Hynek was a trained astronomer who participated in Project Bluebook after doing research as a federal government employee. He formed the opinion that some UFO reports could not be scientifically explained. Through his founding of the Center for UFO Studies and participation at CUFOs he spent the rest of his life researching and documenting UFOs. The movie Close Encounters of the Third Kind had a character loosely based on Hynek. Another group studying UFOs is Mutual UFO Network. MUFON is a grass roots based organization known for publishing one of the first UFO investigators handbooks. This handbook went into great detail on how to document alleged UFO sightings.

Jacques Vallée, a scientist and prominent UFO researcher, has argued that most UFO research is scientifically deficient, including many government studies such as Project Blue Book, and that mythology and cultism are frequently associated with the phenomenon. Vallée states that self-styled scientists often fill the vacuum left by the lack of attention paid to the UFO phenomenon by official science, but also notes that several hundred professional scientists continue to study UFOs in private, what he terms the “invisible college”. He also argues that much could be learned from rigorous scientific study, but that little such work has been done.[21]

Scientific studies

There has been little mainstream scientific study of UFOs, and the topic has received little serious attention or support in mainstream scientific literature. Official studies ended in the U.S. in December 1969, subsequent to the statement by Edward Condon that the study of UFOs probably could not be justified in the expectation that science would be advanced.[13] The Condon report and these conclusions were endorsed by the National Academy of Scientists, of which Condon was a member. However, a scientific review by the UFO subcommittee of the AIAA disagreed with Condon’s conclusion, noting that at least 30% of the cases studied remained unexplained, and that scientific benefit might be gained by continued study.

It has been claimed that all UFO cases are anecdotal[45] and that all can be explained as prosaic natural phenomena. On the other hand, it has been argued that there is limited awareness among scientists of observational data, other than what is reported in the popular press.[21][46]

No official government investigation has ever publicly concluded that UFOs are indisputably real, physical objects, extraterrestrial in origin, or of concern to national defense. These same negative conclusions also have been found in studies that were highly classified for many years, such as the UK’s Flying Saucer Working Party, Project Condign, the US CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel, the US military investigation into the green fireballs from 1948 to 1951, and the Battelle Memorial Institute study for the USAF from 1952 to 1955 (Project Blue Book Special Report #14).

Some public government conclusions have indicated physical reality but stopped short of concluding extraterrestrial origins, though not dismissing the possibility. Examples are the Belgian military investigation into large triangles over their airspace in 1989–1991 and the recent 2009 Uruguay Air Force study conclusion (see below).

Some private studies have been neutral in their conclusions, but argued the inexplicable core cases called for continued scientific study. Examples are the Sturrock Panel study of 1998 and the 1970 AIAA review of the Condon Report.

United States

US investigations into UFOs include:

Interplanetary Phenomenon Unit (IPU), established by the US Army sometime in the 1940s, and about which little is known. In 1987, British UFO researcher Timothy Good received a letter confirming the existence of the IPU from the Army Director of Counter-intelligence, in which it was stated, “… the aforementioned Army unit was disestablished during the late 1950s and never reactivated. All records pertaining to this unit were surrendered to the U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations in conjunction with operation BLUEBOOK.” The IPU records have never been released.[47] Project Blue Book, previously Project Sign and Project Grudge, conducted by the United States Air Force from 1947 until 1969 The secret U.S. Army/Air Force Project Twinkle investigation into green fireballs (1948–1951) Ghost rockets investigations by the Swedish, U.K., U.S., and Greek militaries (1946–1947) The secret CIA Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) study (1952–53) The secret CIA Robertson Panel (1953) The secret USAF Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14 by the Battelle Memorial Institute (1951–1954) The Brookings Report (1960), commissioned by NASA The public Condon Committee (1966–1968) The private, internal RAND Corporation study (1968)[48] The private Sturrock Panel (1998)

Thousands of documents released under FOIA also indicate that many U.S. intelligence agencies collected (and still collect) information on UFOs, including the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), FBI, CIA, National Security Agency (NSA), as well as military intelligence agencies of the Army and Navy, in addition to the Air Force.[49]

The investigation of UFOs has also attracted many civilians, who in the U.S formed research groups such as National Investigations Committee On Aerial Phenomena (NICAP, active 1956–1980), Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO, 1952–1988), Mutual UFO Network (MUFON, 1969–), and Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS, 1973–).

In November 2011, the White House released an official response to two petitions asking the U.S. government to acknowledge formally that aliens have visited Earth and to disclose any intentional withholding of government interactions with extraterrestrial beings. According to the response, “The U.S. government has no evidence that any life exists outside our planet, or that an extraterrestrial presence has contacted or engaged any member of the human race.”[50][51] Also, according to the response, there is “no credible information to suggest that any evidence is being hidden from the public’s eye.”[50][51] The response further noted that efforts, like SETI, the Kepler space telescope and the NASA Mars rover, continue looking for signs of life. The response noted “odds are pretty high” that there may be life on other planets but “the odds of us making contact with any of them—especially any intelligent ones—are extremely small, given the distances involved.”[50][51]

After 1947 sightings

Following the large U.S. surge in sightings in June and early July 1947, on July 9, 1947, Army Air Force (AAF) intelligence, in cooperation with the FBI, began a formal investigation into selected best sightings with characteristics that could not be immediately rationalized, which included Kenneth Arnold’s and that of the United Airlines crew. The AAF used “all of its top scientists” to determine whether or not “such a phenomenon could, in fact, occur”. The research was “being conducted with the thought that the flying objects might be a celestial phenomenon,” or that “they might be a foreign body mechanically devised and controlled.”[52] Three weeks later in a preliminary defense estimate, the air force investigation decided that, “This ‘flying saucer’ situation is not all imaginary or seeing too much in some natural phenomenon. Something is really flying around.”[53]

A further review by the intelligence and technical divisions of the Air Materiel Command at Wright Field reached the same conclusion, that “the phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious,” that there were objects in the shape of a disc, metallic in appearance, and as big as man-made aircraft. They were characterized by “extreme rates of climb [and] maneuverability,” general lack of noise, absence of trail, occasional formation flying, and “evasive” behavior “when sighted or contacted by friendly aircraft and radar,” suggesting a controlled craft. It was thus recommended in late September 1947 that an official Air Force investigation be set up to investigate the phenomenon. It was also recommended that other government agencies should assist in the investigation.[54]

Project Sign

This led to the creation of the Air Force’s Project Sign at the end of 1947, one of the earliest government studies to come to a secret extraterrestrial conclusion. In August 1948, Sign investigators wrote a top-secret intelligence estimate to that effect. The Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg ordered it destroyed. The existence of this suppressed report was revealed by several insiders who had read it, such as astronomer and USAF consultant J. Allen Hynek and Capt. Edward J. Ruppelt, the first head of the USAF’s Project Blue Book.[55]

Another highly classified U.S. study was conducted by the CIA’s Office of Scientific Investigation (OS/I) in the latter half of 1952 after being directed to do so by the National Security Council (NSC). They concluded UFOs were real physical objects of potential threat to national security. One OS/I memo to the CIA Director (DCI) in December read, “…the reports of incidents convince us that there is something going on that must have immediate attention… Sightings of unexplained objects at great altitudes and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of major U.S. defense installations are of such a nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or any known types of aerial vehicles.” The matter was considered so urgent, that OS/I drafted a memorandum from the DCI to the NSC proposing that the NSC establish an investigation of UFOs as a priority project throughout the intelligence and the defense research and development community. They also urged the DCI to establish an external research project of top-level scientists to study the problem of UFOs, now known as the Robertson Panel, to further analyze the matter. The OS/I investigation was called off after the Robertson Panel’s negative conclusions in January 1953.[56]

Condon Committee

A public research effort conducted by the Condon Committee for the USAF, which arrived at a negative conclusion in 1968, marked the end of the US government’s official investigation of UFOs, though documents indicate various government intelligence agencies continue unofficially to investigate or monitor the situation.[57]

Controversy has surrounded the Condon report, both before and after it was released. It has been claimed that the report was “harshly criticized by numerous scientists, particularly at the powerful AIAA … [who] recommended moderate, but continuous scientific work on UFOs”.[13] In an address made to the AAAS, James E. McDonald stated that he believed science had failed to mount adequate studies of the problem, criticizing the Condon report and prior studies by the US Air Force for being scientifically deficient. He also questioned the basis for Condon’s conclusions[58] and argued that the reports of UFOs have been “laughed out of scientific court.”[12] J. Allen Hynek, an astronomer whose position as USAF consultant from 1948 made him perhaps the most knowledgeable scientist connected with the subject, sharply criticized the report of the Condon Committee and later wrote two nontechnical books that set forth the case for investigating seemingly baffling UFO reports.

Ruppelt recounted his experiences with Project Blue Book in his memoir, The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects (1956).[59]

Notable cases

Roswell Incident (1947) involved New Mexico residents, local law enforcement officers, and the US military, the latter of whom allegedly collected physical evidence from the UFO crash site. Mantell UFO Incident January 7, 1948 Betty and Barney Hill abduction (1961) was the first reported abduction incident. Kecksburg Incident, Pennsylvania (1965), residents reported seeing a bell shaped object crash in the area. Police officers, and possibly military personnel, were sent to investigate. Travis Walton abduction case (1975): The movie Fire in the Sky was based on this event, but embellished greatly the original account. Phoenix Lights” March 13, 1997

Canada

In Canada, the Department of National Defence has dealt with reports, sightings and investigations of UFOs across Canada. In addition to conducting investigations into crop circles in Duhamel, Alberta, it still considers “unsolved” the Falcon Lake incident in Manitoba and the Shag Harbour incident in Nova Scotia.[60]

Early Canadian studies included Project Magnet (1950–1954) and Project Second Story (1952–1954), supported by the Defence Research Board. These studies were headed by Canadian Department of Transport radio engineer Wilbert B. Smith, who later publicly supported extraterrestrial origins.

In the Shag Harbour incident, a large object sequentially flashing lights was seen and heard to dive into the water by multiple witnesses. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police and many local residents also witnessed a light floating on the water immediately afterward, and a large patch of unusual yellow foam when a water search was initiated. Multiple government agencies were eventually involved in trying to identify the crashed object and searching for it. Canadian naval divers later purportedly found no wreckage. In official documents, the object was called a “UFO” because no conventional explanation for the crashed object was discovered. Around the same time, both the Canadian and US military were involved in another UFO-related search at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, approximately 30 miles from Shag Harbour.

France

On March 2007, the French Centre National d’Études Spatiales (CNES) published an archive of UFO sightings and other phenomena online.[61]

French studies include GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN (1977–), within the French space agency CNES, the longest ongoing government-sponsored investigation. About 14% of some 6000 cases studied remained unexplained. The official opinion of GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN has been neutral or negative, but the three heads of the studies have gone on record in stating that UFOs were real physical flying machines beyond our knowledge or that the best explanation for the most inexplicable cases was an extraterrestrial one.[62]

The French COMETA panel (1996–1999) was a private study undertaken mostly by aerospace scientists and engineers affiliated with CNES and high-level French Air Force military intelligence analysts, with ultimate distribution of their study intended for high government officials. The COMETA panel likewise concluded the best explanation for the inexplicable cases was the extraterrestrial hypothesis and went further in accusing the United States government of a massive cover-up.[63]

United Kingdom

The UK’s Flying Saucer Working Party published its final report in 1951, which remained secret for over 50 years. The Working Party concluded that all UFO sightings could be explained as misidentifications of ordinary objects or phenomena, optical illusions, psychological misperceptions/aberrations, or hoaxes. The report stated: “We accordingly recommend very strongly that no further investigation of reported mysterious aerial phenomena be undertaken, unless and until some material evidence becomes available.”

Eight file collections on UFO sightings, dating from 1978 to 1987, were first released on May 14, 2008, to the UK National Archives by the Ministry of Defence.[64] Although kept secret from the public for many years, most of the files have low levels of classification and none are classified Top Secret. 200 files are set to be made public by 2012. The files are correspondence from the public sent to government officials, such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. The MoD released the files under the Freedom of Information Act due to requests from researchers.[65] These files include, but are not limited to, UFOs over Liverpool and the Waterloo Bridge in London.[66]

On October 20, 2008 more UFO files were released. One case released detailed that in 1991 an Alitalia passenger aircraft was approaching Heathrow Airport when the pilots saw what they described as a “cruise missile” fly extremely close to the cockpit. The pilots believed that a collision was imminent. UFO expert David Clarke says that this is one of the most convincing cases for a UFO he has come across.[67]

A secret study of UFOs was undertaken for the UK’s Ministry of Defence (MoD) between 1996 and 2000 and was code-named Project Condign. The resulting report, titled “Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Defence Region”, was publicly released in 2006, but the identity and credentials of whomever constituted Project Condign remains classified. The report confirmed earlier findings that the main causes of UFO sightings are misidentification of man-made and natural objects. The report noted: “No artefacts of unknown or unexplained origin have been reported or handed to the UK authorities, despite thousands of UAP reports. There are no SIGINT, ELINT or radiation measurements and little useful video or still IMINT.” It concluded: “There is no evidence that any UAP, seen in the UKADR [UK Air Defence Region], are incursions by air-objects of any intelligent (extraterrestrial or foreign) origin, or that they represent any hostile intent.” A little-discussed conclusion of the report was that novel meteorological plasma phenomenon akin to Ball Lightning are responsible for “the majority, if not all” of otherwise inexplicable sightings, especially reports of Black Triangle UFOs.[68]

In August 2009 The Black Vault internet archive announced the release by the British government of more than 4,000 pages of declassified records.[69] The records include information on the Rendlesham Forest incident, crop circles, a UFO attack on a cemetery and even reports of alien abduction claims.[70]

On December 1, 2009, the British Ministry of Defense (MoD) quietly closed down its UFO investigations unit. The unit’s hotline and email address were suspended by the Ministry of Defense on that date. The MoD said there was no value in continuing to receive and investigate sightings in a release, stating

“… in over fifty years, no UFO report has revealed any evidence of a potential threat to the United Kingdom. The MoD has no specific capability for identifying the nature of such sightings. There is no Defence benefit in such investigation and it would be an inappropriate use of defence resources. Furthermore, responding to reported UFO sightings diverts MoD resources from tasks that are relevant to Defence.”

The Guardian reported that the MoD claimed the closure would save the Ministry around £50,000 a year. The MoD said that it would continue to release UFO files to the public through the National Archives.[71]

Notable cases

Winston Churchill banned the reporting for 50 years of an alleged UFO incident because of fears it could create mass panic. Reports given to Churchill claimed the incident allegedly involved an RAF reconnaissance plane returning from a mission in France or Germany toward the end of the Second World War. It was over or near the English coastline when it was allegedly suddenly intercepted by a strange metallic object that matched the aircraft’s course and speed for a time before accelerating away and disappearing. The plane’s crew were reported to have photographed the object, which they said had “hovered noiselessly” near the aircraft, before moving off.[72] According to the documents, details of the coverup emerged when the man wrote to the government in 1999 seeking to find out more about the incident. He described how his grandfather, who had served with the Royal Air Force (RAF) in the Second World War, was present when Churchill and U.S. General Dwight Eisenhower discussed how to deal with the UFO encounter.[73][74] The files come from more than 5,000 pages of UFO reports and letters and drawings from members of the public, as well as questions raised by MPs in Parliament. They are available to download for free for a month from The National Archives website.[75] In April 1957 the West Freugh Incident (named after RAF West Freugh in Scotland, the principal military base involved) occurred. Two unidentified objects flying very high over the UK were tracked by radar operators. The objects were reported to operate at speeds and perform maneuvers beyond the capability of any known craft. Also significant is their alleged size which – based on the radar returns – was closer to that of a ship than an aircraft. In the Rendlesham Forest incident of December 1980, US military personnel witnessed UFOs in the forest near the air base at Woodbridge, Suffolk, over a period of three nights. On one night the deputy base commander, Col. Charles Halt, and other personnel followed one or more UFOs which were moving in and above the forest for several hours. He made an audio recording while this was happening, and subsequently wrote an official memorandum summarizing the incident. After his retirement he said that he deliberately downplayed the importance of the event at the time (which was headed ‘Unexplained Lights’ in the memorandum) to avoid damaging his career. Other base personnel claim to have observed one of the UFOs which had landed in the forest from close quarters for a long time, and even gone up to and touched it.

Uruguay

The Uruguayan Air Force has been conducting an ongoing UFO investigation since 1989 and analyzed 2100 cases, of which they regard only 40 (about 2%) as definitely lacking any conventional explanation. All files have recently been declassified. The unexplained cases include military jet interceptions, abductions, cattle mutilations, and physical landing trace evidence. Colonel Ariel Sanchez, who currently heads the investigation, summarized its findings as follows: “The commission managed to determine modifications to the chemical composition of the soil where landings are reported. The phenomenon exists. It could be a phenomenon that occurs in the lower sectors of the atmosphere, the landing of aircraft from a foreign air force, up to the extraterrestrial hypothesis. It could be a monitoring probe from outer space, much in the same way that we send probes to explore distant worlds. The UFO phenomenon exists in the country. I must stress that the Air Force does not dismiss an extraterrestrial hypothesis based on our scientific analysis.”[76]

Astronomer reports

The United States Air Force’s Project Blue Book files indicate that approximately 1 %[77] of all unknown reports came from amateur and professional astronomers or other users of telescopes (such as missile trackers or surveyors). In 1952, astronomer J. Allen Hynek, then a consultant to Blue Book, conducted a small survey of 45 fellow professional astronomers. Five reported UFO sightings (about 11%). In the 1970s, astrophysicist Peter A. Sturrock conducted two large surveys of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and American Astronomical Society. About 5 % of the members polled indicated that they had had UFO sightings.

Astronomer Clyde Tombaugh, who admitted to six UFO sightings, including three green fireballs, supported the Extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) for UFOs and stated he thought scientists who dismissed it without study were being “unscientific”. Another astronomer was Lincoln LaPaz, who had headed the Air Force’s investigation into the green fireballs and other UFO phenomena in New Mexico. LaPaz reported two personal sightings, one of a green fireball, the other of an anomalous disc-like object. (Both Tombaugh and LaPaz were part of Hynek’s 1952 survey.) Hynek himself took two photos through the window of a commercial airliner of a disc-like object that seemed to pace his aircraft.[78] Even later UFO debunker Donald Menzel filed a UFO report in 1949.

In 1980, a survey of 1800 members of various amateur astronomer associations by Gert Helb and Hynek for the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS) found that 24 % responded “yes” to the question “Have you ever observed an object which resisted your most exhaustive efforts at identification?”[79]

Identification of UFOs

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0b/Fata_Morgana_of_islands.jpg/200px-Fata_Morgana_of_islands.jpg

 

Fata Morgana, a type of mirage in which objects located below the astronomical horizon appear to be hovering in the sky, may be responsible for some UFO sightings. Fata Morgana can also magnify the appearance of distant objects or distort them to be unrecognizable.[80]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3c/Lenticulariswolke.jpg/200px-Lenticulariswolke.jpg

 

Lenticular clouds have been reported as UFOs due to their peculiar shape.

Studies show that after careful investigation, the majority of UFOs can be identified as ordinary objects or phenomena (see Identification studies of UFOs). The most commonly found identified sources of UFO reports are:

meteors, re-entering man-made spacecraft, artificial satellites, and the moon) Aircraft (Aerial advertising and other aircraft, missile launches) Balloons (weather balloons, prank balloons, large research balloons) Other atmospheric objects and phenomena (birds, unusual clouds, kites, flares) Light phenomena (mirages, Fata Morgana, moon dogs, searchlights and other ground lights, etc.) Hoaxes

A 1952–1955 study by the Battelle Memorial Institute for the US Air Force included these categories as well as a “psychological” one. However, the scientific analysts were unable to come up with prosaic explanations for 21.5 % of the 3200 cases they examined and 33 % of what were considered the best cases remained unexplained, double the number of the worst cases. (See full statistical breakdown in Identification studies of UFOs). Of the 69 % identifieds, 38 % were deemed definitely explained while 31 % were thought to be “questionable.” About 9 % of the cases were considered to have insufficient information to make a determination.

The official French government UFO investigation (GEPAN/SEPRA/GEIPAN), run within the French space agency CNES between 1977 and 2004, scientifically investigated about 6000 cases and found that 13.5 % defied any rational explanation, 46 % were deemed definitely or likely identifiable, while 41 % lacked sufficient information for classification.

An individual 1979 study by CUFOS researcher Allan Hendry found, as did other investigations, that only a small percentage of cases he investigated were hoaxes (<1 %) and that most sightings were actually honest misidentifications of prosaic phenomena. Hendry attributed most of these to inexperience or misperception.[81] However, Hendry’s figure for unidentified cases was considerably lower than many other UFO studies such as Project Blue Book or the Condon Report that have found rates of unidentified cases ranging from 6 % to 30 %. Hendry found that 88.6 % of the cases he studied had a clear prosaic explanation, and he discarded a further 2.8 % due to unreliable or contradictory witnesses or insufficient information. The remaining 8.6 % of reports could not definitively be explained by prosaic phenomena, although he felt that a further 7.1 % could possibly be explained, leaving only the very best 1.5 % without plausible explanation.

Associated claims

Besides anecdotal visual sightings, reports sometimes include claims of other kinds of evidence, including cases studied by the military and various government agencies of different countries (such as Project Blue Book, the Condon Committee, the French GEPAN/SEPRA, and Uruguay’s current Air Force study).

A comprehensive scientific review of cases where physical evidence was available was carried out by the 1998 Sturrock UFO panel, with specific examples of many of the categories listed below.[82]

Radar contact and tracking, sometimes from multiple sites. These have included military personnel and control tower operators, simultaneous visual sightings, and aircraft intercepts. One such recent example were the mass sightings of large, silent, low-flying black triangles in 1989 and 1990 over Belgium, tracked by NATO radar and jet interceptors, and investigated by Belgium’s military (included photographic evidence).[83] Another famous case from 1986 was the JAL 1628 case over Alaska investigated by the FAA. Photographic evidence, including still photos, movie film, and video. Claims of physical trace of landing UFOs, including ground impressions, burned and/or desiccated soil, burned and broken foliage, magnetic anomalies[specify], increased radiation levels, and metallic traces. See, e. g. Height 611 UFO Incident or the 1964 Lonnie Zamora‘s Socorro, New Mexico encounter of the USAF Project Blue Book cases). A well-known example from December 1980 was the USAF Rendlesham Forest Incident in England. Another occurred in January 1981 in Trans-en-Provence and was investigated by GEPAN, then France’s official government UFO-investigation agency. Project Blue Book head Edward J. Ruppelt described a classic 1952 CE2 case involving a patch of charred grass roots. Physiological effects on people and animals including temporary paralysis, skin burns and rashes, corneal burns, and symptoms superficially resembling radiation poisoning, such as the Cash-Landrum incident in 1980. Animal/cattle mutilation cases, that some feel are also part of the UFO phenomenon. Biological effects on plants such as increased or decreased growth, germination effects on seeds, and blown-out stem nodes (usually associated with physical trace cases or crop circles) Electromagnetic interference (EM) effects. A famous 1976 military case over Tehran, recorded in CIA and DIA classified documents, was associated with communication losses in multiple aircraft and weapons system failure in an F-4 Phantom II jet interceptor as it was about to fire a missile on one of the UFOs.[84] Apparent remote radiation detection, some noted in FBI and CIA documents occurring over government nuclear installations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1950, also reported by Project Blue Book director Ed Ruppelt in his book. Claimed artifacts of UFOs themselves, such as 1957, Ubatuba, Brazil, magnesium fragments analyzed by the Brazilian government and in the Condon Report and by others. The 1964 Socorro/Lonnie Zamora incident also left metal traces, analyzed by NASA.[85] A more recent example involves “the Bob White object” a tear drop shaped object recovered by Bob White and was featured in the TV show UFO Hunters. Angel hair and angel grass, possibly explained in some cases as nests from ballooning spiders or chaff.

Reverse engineering

Attempts have been made to reverse engineer the possible physics behind UFOs through analysis of both eyewitness reports and the physical evidence, on the assumption that they are powered vehicles. Examples are former NASA and nuclear engineer James McCampbell in his book Ufology, NACA/NASA engineer Paul R. Hill in his book Unconventional Flying Objects, and German rocketry pioneer Hermann Oberth. Among subjects tackled by McCampbell, Hill, and Oberth was the question of how UFOs can fly at supersonic speeds without creating a sonic boom. McCampbell’s proposed solution is microwave plasma parting the air in front of the craft. In contrast, Hill and Oberth believed UFOs utilize an as yet unknown anti-gravity field to accomplish the same thing as well as provide propulsion and protection of occupants from the effects of high acceleration.[86]

Ufology

Main article: Ufology

Ufology is a neologism describing the collective efforts of those who study UFO reports and associated evidence.

Researchers

Main article: List of Ufologists

Sightings

Main article: List of sightings of unidentified flying objects

Organizations

Main article: UFO organizations

Categorization

Some ufologists recommend that observations be classified according to the features of the phenomenon or object that are reported or recorded. Typical categories include:

Saucer, toy-top, or disk-shaped “craft” without visible or audible propulsion. (day and night) Large triangular “craft” or triangular light pattern, usually reported at night. Cigar-shaped “craft” with lighted windows (Meteor fireballs are sometimes reported this way, but are very different phenomena). Other: chevrons, (equilateral) triangles, crescent, boomerangs, spheres (usually reported to be shining, glowing at night), domes, diamonds, shapeless black masses, eggs, pyramids and cylinders, classic “lights”.

Popular UFO classification systems include the Hynek system, created by J. Allen Hynek, and the Vallée system, created by Jacques Vallée.

Hynek’s system involves dividing the sighted object by appearance, subdivided further into the type of “close encounter” (a term from which the film director Steven Spielberg derived the title of his UFO movie, “Close Encounters of the Third Kind”).

Jacques Vallée’s system classifies UFOs into five broad types, each with from three to five subtypes that vary according to type.

Scientific skepticism

A scientifically skeptical group that has for many years offered critical analysis of UFO claims is the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI).

Responding to local beliefs that “extraterrestrial beings” in UFOs were responsible for crop circles appearing in Indonesia, the government and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (Lapan) described them as “man-made”. Thomas Djamaluddin, research professor of astronomy and astrophysics at Lapan stated: “We have come to agree that this ‘thing’ cannot be scientifically proven. A professor at the Indonesian National Aeronautics and Space Agency put UFOs in the category of pseudoscience.”[87]

Conspiracy theories

UFOs are sometimes an element of conspiracy theories in which governments are allegedly intentionally “covering up” the existence of aliens or sometimes collaborating with them. There are many versions of this story; some are exclusive, while others overlap with various other conspiracy theories.

In the U.S., an opinion poll conducted in 1997 suggested that 80 % of Americans believed the U.S. government was withholding such information.[88][89] Various notables have also expressed such views. Some examples are astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell, Senator Barry Goldwater, Vice Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter (the first CIA director), Lord Hill-Norton (former British Chief of Defense Staff and NATO head), the 1999 high-level French COMETA report by various French generals and aerospace experts, and Yves Sillard (former director of the French space agency CNES, new director of French UFO research organization GEIPAN).[90]

It has also been suggested by a few paranormal authors that all or most human technology and culture is based on extraterrestrial contact. See also ancient astronauts.

Allegations of evidence suppression

There have been allegations of suppression of UFO related evidence for many decades. There are claims that physical evidence might have been removed and/or destroyed/suppressed by some governments.

Famous hoaxes

Maury Island incident The Ummo affair, a decades-long series of detailed letters and documents allegedly from extraterrestrials. The total length of the documents is at least 1000 pages, and some estimate that further undiscovered documents may total nearly 4000 pages. A José Luis Jordan Pena came forward in the early nineties claiming responsibility for the phenomenon, and most[who?] consider there to be little reason to challenge his claims.[91] http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ab/Close_up_of_light_in_sky%2C_Sri_Lanka.jpg/220px-Close_up_of_light_in_sky%2C_Sri_Lanka.jpgGeorge Adamski over the space of two decades made vari ous claims about his meetings with telepathic aliens from nearby planets. He claimed that photographs of the far side of the moon taken by a Soviet orbital probe in 1959 were fake, and that there were cities, trees and snow-capped mountains on the far side of the moon. Among copycats was a shadowy British figure named Cedric Allingham. Ed Walters, a building contractor, in 1987 allegedly perpetrated a hoax in Gulf Breeze, Florida. Walters claimed at first having seen a small UFO flying near his home and took some photographs of the craft. Walters reported and documented a series of UFO sightings over a period of three weeks and took several photographs. These sightings became famous and were called Gulf Breeze UFO incident. Three years later, in 1990, after the Walters family had moved, the new residents discovered a model of a UFO poorly hidden in the attic that bore an undeniable resemblance to the craft in Walters’ photographs. Most investigators like the forensic photo expert William G. Hyzer[92] now consider the sightings to be a hoax. Warren William “Billy” Smith is a popular writer and confessed hoaxster.[93]

In popular culture

UFOs constitute a widespread international cultural phenomenon of the last 60 years. Gallup polls rank UFOs near the top of lists for subjects of widespread recognition. In 1973, a survey found that 95 percent of the public reported having heard of UFOs, whereas only 92 percent had heard of U.S. President Gerald Ford in a 1977 poll taken just nine months after he left the White House.[94] A 1996 Gallup poll reported that 71 percent of the United States population believed that the government was covering up information regarding UFOs. A 2002 Roper poll for the Sci Fi Channel found similar results, but with more people believing that UFOs are extraterrestrial craft. In that latest poll, 56 percent thought UFOs were real craft and 48 percent that aliens had visited the Earth. Again, about 70 percent felt the government was not sharing everything it knew about UFOs or extraterrestrial life. In the film Yellow Submarine, Ringo states that the yellow submarine that is following him “must be one of them unidentified flying cupcakes.” [95][96][97] Another effect of the flying saucer type of UFO sightings has been Earth-made flying saucer craft in space fiction, for example the Earth spacecraft Starship C-57D in Forbidden Planet, the Jupiter Two in Lost in Space, and the saucer section of the USS Enterprise in Star Trek, and many others.

General

ISBN 0-7006-1032-4 Jerome Clark, The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial, 1998, Visible Ink Press, ISBN 1-57859-029-9. Many classic cases and UFO history provided in great detail; highly documented. J. Deardorff, B. Haisch, B. Maccabee, Harold E. Puthoff (2005). “Inflation-Theory Implications for Extraterrestrial Visitation”. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 58: 43–50. http://www.ufoskeptic.org/JBIS.pdf. Curran, Douglas. In Advance of the Landing: Folk Concepts of Outer Space. (revised edition), Abbeville Press, 2001. ISBN 0-7892-0708-7. Non-sensational but fair treatment of contemporary UFO legend and lore in N. America, including the so-called “contactee cults.” The author traveled the United States with his camera and tape recorder and directly interviewed many individuals. Hall, Richard H., editor. The UFO Evidence: Volume 1. 1964, NICAP, reissued 1997, Barnes & Noble Books, ISBN 0-7607-0627-1. Well-organized, exhaustive summary and analysis of 746 unexplained NICAP cases out of 5000 total cases—a classic. Hall, Richard H. The UFO Evidence: A Thirty-Year Report. Scarecrow Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8108-3881-8. Another exhaustive case study, more recent UFO reports. Hendry, Alan. The UFO Handbook: A Guide to Investigating, Evaluating, and Reporting UFO Sightings. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1979. ISBN 0-385-14348-6. Skeptical but balanced analysis of 1300 CUFOS UFO cases. Hynek, J. Allen. The UFO Experience: A scientific inquiry. Henry Regnery Co., 1972. Hynek, J. Allen. The Hynek UFO Report. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997. ISBN 0-7607-0429-5. Analysis of 640 high-quality cases through 1969 by UFO legend Hynek. Rose, Bill and Buttler, Tony. Flying Saucer Aircraft (Secret Projects). Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-85780-233-0. Sagan, Carl & Page. Thornton, editors. UFOs: A Scientific Debate. \Cornell University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7607-0192-2. Pro and con articles by scientists, mostly to the skeptical side. Sheaffer, Robert The UFO Verdict: Examining the Evidence, 1986, Prometheus Books ISBN 0-87975-338-2 Sheaffer, Robert UFO Sightings: The Evidence, 1998, Prometheus Books, ISBN 1-57392-213-7 (revised edition of The UFO Verdict) Sturrock, Peter A. (1999). The UFO Enigma: A New Review of the Physical Evidence. New York: Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-52565-0 Canada’s Unidentified Flying Objects: The Search for the Unknown, a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada

Skepticism

Philip Plait (2002). Bad Astronomy: Misconceptions and Misuses Revealed, from Astrology to the Moon Landing “Hoax”. John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-40976-6. (Chapter 20: Misidentified Flying Objects: UFOs and Illusions of the Mind and Eye.) Ian Ridpath “Astronomical Causes of UFOs”[98] Michael A. Seeds. (1995). Horizons: Exploring the Universe, Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN 0-534-24889-6 and ISBN 0-534-24890-X. (Appendix A) Robert Sheaffer (2011). Psychic Vibrations: Skeptical Giggles from the Skeptical Inquirer, Create Space, ISBN 1463601573.[99]

Psychology

Carl G. Jung, “Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies” (translated by R.F.C. Hull); 1979, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01822-7 Armando Simon,A Nonreactive, Quantitative Study of Mass Behavior with Emphasis on the Cinema as Behavior Catalyst,” Psychological Reports, 1981, 48, 775–785. Richard Haines“UFO Phenomena and the Behavioral Scientist.” Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1979. Armando Simon “UFOs: Testing for the Existence of Air Force Censorship.” Psychology, 1976, 13, 3–5. Armando Simon “Psychology and the UFOs.” The Skeptical Inquirer. 1984, 8, 355–367.

Histories

Dr David Clarke, The UFO Files. The Inside Story of Real-life Sightings, 2009, The National Archives, Kew. ISBN 978-1-905615-50-6. Reports from the UK government files Richard M. Dolan, UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History, Volume One: 1941–1973, 2000, Keyhole Publishing, ISBN 0-9666885-0-3. Dolan is a professional historian. Downes, Jonathan Rising of the Moon. 2nd ed. Bangor: Xiphos, 2005. Lawrence Fawcett & Barry J. Greenwood, The UFO Cover-Up (Originally Clear Intent), 1992, Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster), ISBN 0-671-76555-8. Many UFO documents. Timothy Good, Above Top Secret, 1988, William Morrow & Co., ISBN 0-688-09202-0. Many UFO documents. Timothy Good, Need to Know: UFOs, the Military, and Intelligence, 2007, Pegasus Books, ISBN 978-1-933648-38-5. Update of Above Top Secret with new cases and documents Bruce Maccabee, UFO FBI Connection, 2000, Llewellyn Publications, ISBN 1-56718-493-6 Kevin Randle, Project Blue Book Exposed, 1997, Marlowe & Company, ISBN 1-56924-746-3 Edward J. Ruppelt, The Report On Unidentified Flying Objects, 1956, Doubleday & Co. online. A UFO classic by insider Ruppelt, the first head of the USAF Project Blue Book LeRoy F. Pea, Government Involvement in the UFO Coverup, or earlier title History of UFO Crash/Retrievals”, 1988, PEA RESEARCH.[100]

Technology

Paul R. Hill, Unconventional Flying Objects: a scientific analysis, 1995, Hampton Roads Publishing Co., ISBN 1-57174-027-9. Analysis of UFO technology by pioneering NACA/NASA aerospace engineer. James M. McCampbell, Ufology: A Major Breakthrough in the Scientific Understanding of Unidentified Flying Objects, 1973, 1976, Celestial Arts, ISBN 0-89087-144-2 full-text online. Another analysis by former NASA and nuclear engineer. James M. McCampbell, Physical effects of UFOs upon people, 1986, paper. Antonio F. Rullán, Odors from UFOs: Deducing Odorant Chemistry and Causation from Available Data, 2000, preliminary paper. Jack Sarfatti, “Super Cosmos”, 2005 (Authorhouse) S. Krasnikov (2003). “The quantum inequalities do not forbid spacetime shortcuts”. Physical Review D 67 (10): 104013. arXiv:gr-qc/0207057. Bibcode 2003PhRvD..67j4013K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.67.104013. L. H. Ford and T. A. Roman (1996). “Quantum field theory constrains traversable wormhole geometries”. Physical Review D 53 (10): 5496. arXiv:gr-qc/9510071. Bibcode 1996PhRvD..53.5496F. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.53.5496.

External links

Government Reports on UFOs from UCB Libraries GovPubs CIA’s Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947–90 Ministry of Defence Reports in the UK from 1997 – 2007 Newly released UFO files from the UK government

References

1.       ^ Armando Simon (1979). “The Zeitgeist of the UFO Phenomenon”. UFO phenomena and the behavioral scientist (Scarecrow Press).

2.       ^ Giere, Ronald N.; Bickle, John; Mauldin, Robert F. (2005), Understanding scientific reasoning (5th ed.), Wadsworth Publishing, p. 99, ISBN 015506326X

3.       ^http://www.mufon.com/FAQs.html#Q1

4.       ^http://www.ufoevidence.org/

5.       ^http://www.ufocasebook.com/trianglescharacteristics.html

6.       ^http://www.hyper.net/ufo/overview.html

7.       ^ UAP In the UK Air Defence Region: Volume 3 Executive Summary, Defence Intelligence Staff (2000), Page 3

8.       ^ For example, the USAF’s Project Blue Book concluded that less than 2 % of reported UFOs were “psychological” or hoaxes; Allen Hendry’s study for CUFOS had less than 1 %

9.       ^ Good, Timothy (1997). Beyond Top Secret. Pan Books.

10.    ^ a b Cross, Anne (March, 2004). “The Flexibility of Scientific Rhetoric: A Case Study of UFO Researchers”. Qualitative Sociology 27 (1): 3–34. doi:10.1023/B:QUAS.0000015542.28438.41.

11.    ^ Sagan, Carl and Page, Thornton (1995). UFOs: A Scientific Debate. Barnes & Noble. p. 310. ISBN 978076070916.

12.    ^ a b McDonald, James. E. (1968). Statement on Unidentified Flying Objects submitted to the House Committee on Science and Astronautics at July 29, 1968, Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects, Rayburn Bldg., Washington, D.D.

13.    ^ a b c COMETA Report: http://www.ufoevidence.org/topics/Cometa.htm

14.    ^ Politicking and Paradigm Shifting: James E. McDonald and the UFO Case Study http://www.project1947.com/shg/mccarthy/shgintro.html

15.    ^ UFO study causes media sensation: 7/1/98

16.    ^ Menzel, D. H.; Taves, E. H. (1977). The UFO enigma. Garden City (NY, USA): Doubleday

17.    ^http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/ufo/7584331/UFO-studies-should-be-legitimate-university-subject-claims-American-professor.html

18.    ^http://www.mufon.com/

19.    ^http://www.cufos.org/org.html

20.    ^http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/08/26/ufos-pilots-history-channel_n_935847.html

21.    ^ a b c Vallée, J. (1990). Alien Contact by Human Deception.” New York: Anomalist Books. ISBN 1-933665-30-0

22.    ^ Reece (2007), pages 11-13.

23.    ^ Air Force Regulation 200-2 text versionpdf of document, initially defined a UFO as “any airborne object that by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or that cannot be positively identified as a familiar object.” The Air Force added that “Technical Analysis thus far has failed to provide a satisfactory explanation for a number of sightings reported.” A later version [1] altered the definition to “Any aerial phenomena, airborne objects or objects that are unknown or appear out of the ordinary to the observer because of performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features,” and added “Air Force activities must reduce the percentage of unidentifieds to a minimum. Analysis thus far has explained all but a few of the sightings reported. These unexplained sightings are carried statistically as unidentifieds.”

24.    ^ A good example is the National Aviation Reporting Center on Anomalous Phenomena or NARCAP. [2]

25.    ^ Giordano, Daniela, “Do UFOs Exist in the History of Arts?” from American Chronicle, November 13, 2006; retrieved July 27, 2007

26.    ^ Cuoghi, Shaba. “The Art of Imagining UFOs”. in Skeptic Magazine Vol.11, No.1, 2004. http://www.skeptic.com/the_magazine/archives/vol11n01.html.

27.    ^ Before the Wright Brothers… There Were UFOs

28.    ^ NAVY OFFICER SEES METEORS.; They Were Red Ones, the Largest About Six Suns Big. New York Times, March 9, 1904; Bruce Maccabee analysis, with original log entries of sighting; Maccabee summary of sighting with log quotes

29.    ^ [3] NARCAP, ‘Unidentified Aerial Phenomena: 80 Years of Pilot Sightings’, “Catalog of Military, Airliner, Private Pilots’ Sightings from 1916 to 2000”, Dominque F. Weinstein, 2003,

30.    ^ Nicholas Roerich, ‘Altai-Himalaya: A travel diary’, Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, 2001 (1929), pp. 361–2

31.    ^ Nicholas Roerich, ‘Shambhala: In search of the new era’, Rochester, VE: Inner Traditions, 1990 (1930), pp. 6–7, 244., online

32.    ^ Foo-Fighter – TIME

33.    ^ [4] Hitler’s Flying Saucers: Henry Stevens

34.    ^ Clark (1998), 61

35.    ^ http://www.project1947.com/fig/ual105.htm, http://www.ufoevidence.org/cases/case723.htm, http://www.nicap.org/470704e.htm

36.    ^ Ted Bloecher’s bar chart of June/July 1947 UFO sightings

37.    ^ On July 9, 1947, United Press stories on the Roswell incident noted that “Reports of flying saucers whizzing through the sky fell off sharply today as the Army and Navy began a concentrated campaign to stop the rumors.” UP story

38.    ^ Ted Bloecher & James McDonald, Report on the UFO Wave of 1947, 1967

39.    ^ Project Blue Book Special Report #14

40.    ^ For example, current USAF general reporting procedures are in Air Force Instruction (AFI)10-206. Section 5.7.3 (p. 64) lists sightings of “unidentified flying objects” and “aircraft of unconventional design” as separate categories from potentially hostile but conventional, unidentified aircraft, missiles, surface vessels, or submarines. Additionally, “unidentified objects” detected by missile warning systems, creating a potential risk of nuclear war, are covered by Rule 5E (p.35)

41.    ^ Air Force Academy UFO material

42.    ^ http://www.foia.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070703-004.pdf

43.    ^ “Official US Air Force document in pdf format”. http://www.foia.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-070703-004.pdf. Retrieved November 12, 2007.

44.    ^ “Wikisource article about Air Force Regulation 200-2”. Archived from the original on May 5, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080505013115/http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Transwiki:Air_Force_Regulation_200-2. Retrieved November 12, 2007.

45.    ^ The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark

46.    ^ Friedman, S. (2008). Flying Saucers and Science: A Scientist Investigates the Mysteries of UFOs. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books ISBN 978-1-60163-011-7

47.    ^ Good (1988), 484

48.    ^ George Kocher, UFOs: What to Do”, RAND Corporation, 1968; UFO historical review, case studies, review of hypotheses, recommendations

49.    ^ Many of these documents are now online at the FOIA websites of these agencies such as the FBI FOIA site, as well as private websites such as “The Black Vault”, which has an archive[dead link] of several thousand U.S. government UFO-related documents from the USAF, Army, CIA, DIA, DOD, and NSA.

50.    ^ a b c Larson, Phil (5 November 2011). “Searching for ET, But No Evidence Yet”. White House. https://wwws.whitehouse.gov/petitions#!/response/searching-et-no-evidence-yet. Retrieved 2011-11-06.

51.    ^ a b c Atkinson, Nancy (5 November 2011). “No Alien Visits or UFO Coverups, White House Says”. UniverseToday. http://www.universetoday.com/90717/no-alien-visits-or-ufo-coverups-white-house-says/. Retrieved 2011-11-06.

52.    ^ internal FBI memo from E. G. Fitch to D.M. Ladd concerning a request by General Schulgen of USAAF intelligence corps Office of Intelligence Requirements for the FBI to help with their investigation of UFO reports.

53.    ^ Alfred Loedding and the Great Flying Saucer Wave of 1947, Sarah Connors and Michael Hall, White Rose Press, Albuquerque, 1998. Chapter 4: The Onslaught This quotes and summarized the interim report of Lieutenant Colonel George D. Garrett.

54.    ^ The so-called Twining memo of Sept. 23, 1947, by future USAF Chief of Staff, Gen. Nathan Twining, specifically recommended intelligence cooperation with the Army, Navy, Atomic Energy Commission, the Defense Department’s Joint Research and Development Board, Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), Project RAND, and the Nuclear Energy for the Propulsion of Aircraft (NEPA) project.

55.    ^ Ruppelt, Chapt. 3

56.    ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/ufo.html CIA history of their involvement in UFOs

57.    ^ See, e. g., the 1976 Tehran UFO incident where a Defense Intelligence Agency report on the event had a distribution list that included the White House, Secretary of State, Joint Chiefs of Staff, National Security Agency (NSA), and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Several thousand UFO-related pages of more recent vintage from the CIA, NSA, DIA, and other agencies have also been released and can be viewed online.[5]

58.    ^ McDonald, James E. (1972). “Science in Default”. In Carl Sagan, Thornton Page. UFO’s, A Scientific Debate. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 134th Meeting. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-393-00739-8. http://dewoody.net/ufo/Science_in_Default.html. Retrieved March 30, 2011.

59.    ^ Ridge, Francis L.. “The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects”. National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena. http://www.nicap.dabsol.co.uk/Rufo.htm. Retrieved August 19, 2006.

60.    ^ Canada’s Unidentified Flying Objects: The Search for the Unknown, a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada

61.    ^ Site du GEIPAN

62.    ^ Interview with GEIPAN director Yves Sillard; public statements of SEPRA director Jean-Jacques Velasco; 1978 GEPAN report by director Claude Poher.

63.    ^ COMETA Report (English), part1; COMETA Report, part2; COMETA Report summary by Gildas Bourdais; Summary by Mark Rodeghier, director of CUFOS

64.    ^ UK National Archives

65.    ^ news.bbc.co.uk Files released on UFO sightings

66.    ^ AFP Article: Britons ‘spotted’ UFOs, records say

67.    ^ BBC News Airliner had near miss with UFO

68.    ^ ‘UAP In the UK Air Defense Region’ Volume 3 Executive Summary, P. 2, August 2000

69.    ^ ‘The Black Vault’, August 2009

70.    ^ ‘The Black Vault’, August 2009

71.    ^ “Cost-cutting causes British gov’t to shut down UFO investigations”

72.    ^ AFP: Churchill ‘banned UFO report to avoid mass panic’

73.    ^ Fox News: Churchill Ordered UFO Coverup, Documents Suggest

74.    ^ BBC: Churchill ordered UFO cover-up, National Archives show

75.    ^ The National Archives website

76.    ^ ‘El Pais’, Montevideo,Uruguay, June 6, 2009; English translation by Scott Corrales

77.    ^ Catalog of Project Blue Book unknowns

78.    ^ Hynek’s photos in Hynek, The UFO Experience, 1972, p. 52

79.    ^ Herb/Hynek amateur astronomer poll results reprinted in International UFO Reporter (CUFOS), May 2006, pp. 14–16

80.    ^ Electromagnetic-Wave Ducting [dead link] BY V. R. ESHLEMAN

81.    ^ Allan Hendry, The UFO Handbook: A Guide to Investigating, Evaluating, and Reporting UFO Sightings, 1979, Doubleday & Co., ISBN 0-385-14348-6

82.    ^ Sturrock Panel abstract & summary; Sturrock Panel report on physical evidence; Other links to Sturrock Panel

83.    ^ Investigation and explanations of Belgium case

84.    ^ Fawcett & Greenwood, 81–89; Good, 318–322, 497–502

85.    ^ Good (1988), 371–373; Ray Stanford, Socorro ‘Saucer’ in a Pentagon Pantry, 1976, 112–154

86.    ^ ibid; Oberth’s UFO antigravity opinion as to propulsion and atmospheric air flow control also quoted by Donald Keyhoe in his 1955 book Flying Saucer Conspiracy

87.    ^ Ika Krismantari, Crop circles provide food for thought, The Star, February 6, 2011

88.    ^ bNet (CBS Interactive Inc.), “Is the Government Hiding Facts On UFOs & Extraterrestrial Life?; New Roper Poll Reveals that More Than Two-Thirds of Americans Think So,” [6] Last accessed February 2, 2008

89.    ^ Poll: U.S. hiding knowledge of aliens, CNN/TIME, June 15, 1997

90.    ^ Groupe d’Etudes et d’Informations sur les Phénomènes Aérospatiaux Non identifiés

91.    ^ PARANOIA – People Are Strange: Unusual UFO Cults

92.    ^ The Gulf Breeze “UFOs”

93.    ^ “Warren Smith: UFO Investigator”. http://www.middlecoastpublishing.com/ufo/warrenbillysmith.htm. Retrieved June 15, 2008.

94.    ^ Bullard, 141

95.    ^ “The Roper Poll”. Ufology Resource Center. SciFi.com. September 2002. Archived from the original on July 13, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060713204836/http://www.scifi.com/ufo/roper/. Retrieved August 19, 2006.

96.    ^ CFI – Evidence Page

97.    ^ Mutual UFO Network

98.    ^ Astronomical Causes of UFOs

99.    ^ Psychic Vibrations

100.^ http://pea-research.50megs.com/articles/UFO %20COVERUP.htm

 

Retrieved from “http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Unidentified_flying_object&oldid=490484288

 

Ufology By Wiki

Ufology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ufology is the title used for the array of subject matter and activities associated with an interest in unidentified flying objects (UFOs). UFOs have been subject to various investigations over the years by governments, independent groups, and scientists. The term derives from UFO, which is pronounced as an acronym, and the suffix -logy, which comes from the Ancient Greek λογία (logiā).

Etymology

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, one of the first documented uses of the word ufology can be found in the Times Literary Supplement from January 23, 1959, in which it writes, “The articles, reports, and bureaucratic studies which have been written about this perplexing visitant constitute ‘ufology’.” This article was printed eight years after Edward J. Ruppelt of the United States Air Force (USAF) coined the word UFO in 1951.

Historical background

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/95/Ghost_rocket_search_July_1946.jpg/220px-Ghost_rocket_search_July_1946.jpg

 

A Swedish Air Force officer searches for a “ghost rocket” in Lake Kölmjärv, Norrland, Sweden, in July 1946.

The modern UFO mythology has three traceable roots: the late 19th century “mystery airships” reported in the newspapers of western United States, “foo fighters” reported by Allied airmen during World War II, and the Kenneth Arnold “flying saucer” sighting near Mt. Rainier, Washington on June 24, 1947.[1] UFO reports between “The Great Airship Wave” and the Arnold sighting were limited in number compared to the post-war period: notable cases include reports of “ghost fliers” in Europe and North America during the 1930s and the numerous reports of “ghost rockets” in Scandinavia (mostly Sweden) from May to December 1946.[2] Media hype in the late 1940s and early 1950s following the Arnold sighting brought the concept of flying saucers to the public audience.[3]

As the public’s preoccupation in UFOs grew, along with the number of reported sightings, the United States military began to take notice of the phenomenon. The UFO explosion of the early post-war era coincides with the escalation of the Cold War and the Korean War.[1] The U.S. military feared that secret aircraft of the Soviet Union, possibly developed from captured German technology, were behind the sightings.[4] If correct, the craft causing the sightings were thus of importance to national security[5] and of need of systematic investigation. By 1952, however, the official US government interest in UFOs began to fade as the USAF projects Sign and Grudge concluded, along with the CIA‘s Robertson Panel that UFO reports indicated no direct threat to national security.[6] The government’s official research into UFOs ended with the publication of the Condon Committee report in 1969,[6] which concluded that the study of UFOs in the past 21 years had achieved little, if anything, and that further extensive study of UFO sightings was unwarranted.[6] It also recommended the termination of the USAF special unit Project Blue Book.[6]

As the U.S. government ceased officially studying UFO sightings, the same became true for most governments of the world. A notable exception is France, which still maintains the GEIPAN,[7] formerly known as GEPAN (1977–1988) and SEPRA (1988–2004), a unit under the French Space Agency CNES. During the Cold War, British,[8] Canadian,[9] Danish,[10] Italian,[11] and Swedish[12] governments have each collected reports of UFO sightings. Britain’s Ministry of Defence ceased accepting any new reports as of 2010.[13]

Status as a field

Ufology has generally not been embraced by academia as a scientific field of study,[14][15] even though UFOs were during the late 1940s and early 1950s the subject of large-scale scientific studies. The lack of acceptance of ufology by academia as a field of study means that people can claim to be “UFO researchers”, without the sorts of scientific consensus building and, in many cases peer review, that otherwise shape and influence scientific paradigms. Even among scientifically inclined UFO research efforts, data collecting is often done by amateur investigators.[14]

Famous mainstream scientists who have shown interest in the UFO phenomenon include Stanford physicist Peter A. Sturrock,[16] astronomer J. Allen Hynek,[17] computer scientist and astronomer Jacques F. Vallée,[18] and University of Arizona meteorologist James E. McDonald.[19]

As a pseudoscience

Ufology has sometimes been characterized as a partial[20] or total[21][22] pseudoscience, which many ufologists reject.[23] Pseudoscience is a term that classifies studies that are claimed to exemplify the methods and principles of science, but that do not adhere to an appropriate scientific methodology, lack supporting evidence or plausibility, or otherwise lack scientific status.[24][25]

Feist thinks that ufology can be categorized as a pseudoscience because, he says, its adherents claim it to be a science while being rejected as being one by the scientific community and because, he says, the field lacks a cumulative scientific progress; ufology has not, in his view, advanced since the 1950s.[26] Cooper states that the fundamental problem in ufology is not the lack of scientific methodology, as many ufologists have striven to meet standards of scientific acceptability, but rather the fact that the assumptions on which the research is often based are considered highly speculative.[27]

Methodological issues

Scientific UFO research suffers from the fact that the phenomena under observation do not usually make predictable appearances at a time and place convenient for the researcher.[28] Ufologist Diana Palmer Hoyt argues,

The UFO problem seems to bear a closer resemblance to problems in meteorology than in physics. The phenomena are observed, occur episodically, are not reproducible, and in large part, are identified by statistical gathering of data for possible organization into patterns. They are not experiments that can be replicated at will at the laboratory bench under controlled conditions.[29]

On the other hand, skeptics have argued that UFOs are not a scientific problem at all, as there is no tangible physical evidence to study.[15][28] Barry Markovsky argues that, under scrutiny by qualified investigators, the vast majority of UFO sightings turn out to have mundane explanations.[30] Astronomer Carl Sagan stated on UFO sightings, “The reliable cases are uninteresting and the interesting cases are unreliable. Unfortunately there are no cases that are both reliable and interesting.”[31]

Peter A. Sturrock states that UFO studies should be compartmentalized into at least “the following distinct activities”[32]:

Denzler states that ufology as a field of study has branched into two different mindsets: the first group of investigators wants to convince the unbelievers and earn intellectual legitimacy through systematic study using the scientific method, and the second group sees the follow-up questions concerning the origin and “mission” of the UFOs as more important than a potential academic standing.[33]

UFO categorization

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c3/Allen_Hynek_Jacques_Vallee_1.jpg/220px-Allen_Hynek_Jacques_Vallee_1.jpg

 

J. Allen Hynek (left) and Jacques Vallée

The “UFO” is unidentified flying object. Because it is unidentified, the classification and categorization are impossible. However, ufologists have proposed different systems for the classification.

Hynek system

Developed in the 1970s, J. Allen Hynek’s original system of description divides sightings into six categories.[34] It first separates sightings into distant- and close-encounter categories, arbitrarily setting five-hundred feet as the cutoff point. It then subdivides these close and distant categories based on appearance or special features:

Hynek also defined three close encounter (CE) subcategories:

electromagnetic interference. CE3: CE1 or CE2 cases where occupants or entities are seen.

Later, Hynek introduced a fourth category, CE4, which is used to describe cases where the witness feels he was abducted by a UFO.[35] Some ufologists have adopted a fifth category, CE5, which involves conscious human-initiated contact with extraterrestrial intelligence.[35]

Vallée system

Jacques Vallée has devised a UFO classification system, where the UFO sightings of four different categories are divided into five subcategories[36]:

The five subcategories can apply to all previous categories of sightings:

Thus, the Vallée categorization categorizes cases as MA-2, AN-1, CE-4, for example.

Alleged academic ridicule

Stanton Friedman considers the general attitude of mainstream academics as arrogant and dismissive, or bound to a rigid world view that disallows any evidence contrary to previously held notions.[37] Denzler states that the fear of ridicule and a loss of status has prevented scientists of pursuing a public interest in UFOs.[38] J. Allen Hynek’s also commented, “Ridicule is not part of the scientific method and people should not be taught that it is.”[39] Hynek said of the frequent dismissal of UFO reports by astronomers that the critics knew little about the sightings, and should thus not be taken seriously.[40] Peter A. Sturrock suggests that a lack of funding is a major factor in the institutional disinterest in UFOs.[41]

Ufology and fringe theories

In addition to UFO sightings, certain supposedly related phenomena are of interest to some in the field of ufology, including crop circles,[42] cattle mutilations,[43] and alien abductions and implants.[44] Some ufologists have also promoted UFO conspiracy theories, including the alleged Roswell UFO Incident of 1947,[45][46] the Majestic 12 documents,[47] and UFO disclosure advocation.[48][49]

Skeptic Robert Sheaffer has accused ufology of having a “credulity explosion”.[50] He claims a trend of increasingly sensational ideas steadily gaining popularity within ufology.[50] Sheaffer remarked, “the kind of stories generating excitement and attention in any given year would have been rejected by mainstream ufologists a few years earlier for being too outlandish.”[50]

Likewise, James McDonald has expressed the view that extreme groups undermined serious scientific investigation, stating that a “bizarre ‘literature’ of pseudo-scientific discussion” on “spaceships bringing messengers of terrestrial salvation and occult truth” had been “one of the prime factors in discouraging serious scientists from looking into the UFO matter to the extent that might have led them to recognize quickly enough that cultism and wishful thinking have nothing to do with the core of the UFO problem.”[51] In the same statement, McDonald said that, “Again, one must here criticize a good deal of armchair-researching (done chiefly via the daily newspapers that enjoy feature-writing the antics of the more extreme of such subgroups). A disturbing number of prominent scientists have jumped all too easily to the conclusion that only the nuts see UFOs”.[51]

Surveys of scientists and amateur astronomers concerning UFOs

In 1973, Peter A. Sturrock conducted a survey among members of the San Francisco chapter of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, where 1175 questionnaires were mailed and 423 were returned, and found no consensus concerning the nature and scientific importance of the UFO phenomenon, with views ranging equally from “impossible” to “certain” in reply to the question, “Do UFOs represent a scientifically significant phenomenon?” [52] In a later larger survey conducted among the members of the American Astronomical Society, where 2611 were questionnaires mailed and 1356 were returned, Sturrock found out that opinions were equally diverse, with 23% replying “certainly”, 30% “probably”, 27% “possibly”, 17% “probably not”, and 3% “certainly not”, to the question of whether the UFO problem deserves scientific study.[53] Sturrock also asked in the same survey if the surveyee had witnessed any event which they could not have identified and which could have been related to the UFO phenomenon, with around 5% replying affirmatively.[53]

In 1980, a survey of 1800 members of various amateur astronomer associations by Gert Herb and J. Allen Hynek of the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS) found that 24% responded “yes” to the question, “Have you ever observed an object which resisted your most exhaustive efforts at identification?”[54]

Notable studies, panels, and conferences in ufology

Project Sign, Project Grudge (USA, 1947–1949)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/6c/Nathan_Twining_02.jpg/170px-Nathan_Twining_02.jpg

 

Nathan F. Twining

The first official USAF investigations of UFOs were Project Sign (1947–1949) and its successor Project Grudge (1949). Several hundred sightings were examined, a majority of them having a mundane explanation.[55] Some sightings were classified as credible but inexplicable, and in these cases the possibility of an advanced unknown aircraft could not be ruled out.[56] The initial memos of the project took the UFO question seriously. After surveying 16 early reports, Lt. Col. George D. Garrett estimated that the sightings were not imaginary or exaggerations of natural phenomena.[57] Lt. General Nathan F. Twining expressed the same estimate in a letter to Brig. General Schulgen.[58]

Flying Saucer Working Party (UK, 1950–1951)

The United Kingdom’s Ministry of Defence, alarmed by reports of seemingly advanced unidentified aircraft, followed the US military’s example by conducting its own study on UFOs in 1950.[59] A research group was formed based on the recommendation of the chemist Henry Tizard, and was involved in similar work, such as “Project Sign”.[59] After less than a year, the directorate, named the “Flying Saucer Working Party” (FSWP), concluded that most observations were either cases of mistaken identity, optical illusions, psychological delusions, or hoaxes, and recommended that no further investigation on the phenomena should be undertaken.[60] In 1952, the directorate informed Prime Minister Winston Churchill, after his inquiry about UFOs, that they had found no evidence of extraterrestrial spacecraft.[59] The FSWP files were classified for fifty years and were released to the British public in 2001.[59]

Project Magnet, Project Second Story (Canada, 1950–1954)

Project Magnet, led by senior senior radio engineer Wilbert B. Smith from the Department of Transport, had the goal of studying magnetic phenomena, specifically geomagnetism, as a potential propulsion method for vehicles.[61][62] Smith believed UFOs were using this method to achieve flight.[62] The final report of the project, however, contained no mention of geomagnetism.[63] It discussed twenty-five UFO sightings reported during 1952, and concluded with the notion that “extraterrestrial space vehicles” are probable.[63]

Along with the Smith group, a parallel committee dedicated solely to dealing with “flying saucer” reports was formed.[64] This committee, called Project Second Story, was sponsored by the Defence Research Board, with its main purpose being to collect, catalog, and correlate data from UFO sighting reports.[64] The committee appeared to have dissolved after five meetings, as the group deemed the collected material unsuitable for scientific analysis.[65]

Project Blue Book (USA, 1951–1969)

As a continuation of Project Sign and Project Grudge in 1951, the USAF launched Project Blue Book, led by Captain Edward J. Ruppelt. Under Ruppelt, the collection and investigation of UFO sightings became more systematic.[66] The project issued a series of status reports, which were declassified in September 1960 and made available in 1968.[67] Project Blue Book was terminated in December 1969, following the report of the Condon Committee. Until then, 12,618 incidents had been investigated, the grand majority of which explained by conventional means. 701 cases, around 6%, remained “unidentified”.[68] Officially, the USAF concluded from the project that the phenomena investigated were of no concern to national security, and that there was no evidence the sightings categorized as “unidentified” were caused by extraterrestrial aircraft.[68]

Project Blue Book Special Report No. 14 (USA, 1952–1954)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/43/BattelleEntrance.JPG/220px-BattelleEntrance.JPG

 

The main entrance to Battelle Memorial Institute in Columbus, Ohio

Ruppelt contracted a team of scientists from the Battelle Memorial Institute to evaluate the early sightings gathered by Project Blue Book. They conducted analysis, primarily statistical, on the subject for almost two years. The study concluded that the more complete the data was and the better the report, the more likely it was that the report was classified as “unidentified”.[69][70] However, the report emphasized the subjectivity of the data, and stated that the conclusions drawn from the study were not based on facts, but on the subjective observations and estimations of the individual.[71][original research?] Furthermore, the report summary and conclusion stated that “unknowns” were not likely something beyond the era’s technology, and almost certainly not “flying saucers”.[66]

Robertson Panel (USA, 1953)

Before the final Battelle report was published, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) had developed an interest in UFOs as a national security issue, and set up a committee to examine existing UFO data.[66] The panel, headed by mathematician and physicist Howard Percy Robertson, met from January 14 to 17, 1953.[6] It concluded unanimously that the UFO sightings posed no direct threat to national security, but did find that a continued emphasis on UFO reporting might threaten government functions by causing the channels of communication to clog with irrelevant reports and by inducing mass hysteria.[6] Also, the panel worried that nations hostile to the US might use the UFO phenomena to disrupt air defenses.[6] To meet these problems, the panel stated that a policy of public education on the lack of evidence behind UFOs was needed, to be done through the mass media and schools, among others.[6] It also recommended monitoring private UFO groups for subversive activities.[6]

The recommendations of the Roberson Panel were partly implemented through a series of special military regulations.[72] The December 1953 Joint-Army-Navy-Air Force Publication 146 (JANAP 146) made publication of UFO sightings a crime under the Espionage Act.[72] The Air Force Regulation 200-2 (AFR 200-2) revision of 1954 made all UFO sightings reported to the USAF classified.[72] AFR 200-2 revision of February 1958 allowed the military to deliver to the FBI names of those who were “illegally or deceptively” bringing UFOs to public attention.[72]

Condon Committee (USA, 1966–1968)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b7/Edward_U._Condon.jpg/220px-Edward_U._Condon.jpg

 

Edward U. Condon

After the recommendations of the Robertson Panel, the USAF wanted to end its involvement in UFOs, and pass Project Blue Book to another agency.[73] In October 1966, the USAF contracted the University of Colorado, under the leadership of physicist Edward U. Condon, for $325,000 to conduct more scientific investigations of selected UFO sightings and to make recommendations about the project’s future.[6][73] The committee looked at ninety-one UFO sightings, of which 30% was unidentifiable.[69] The report concluded that there was no “direct evidence” that UFOs were extraterrestrial spacecraft,[69] that UFO research from the past twenty-one years had not contributed anything to scientific knowledge, and that further study was not justified.[74] As a direct result of the Condon report, Project Blue Book was closed in December 1969.[69] Many ufologists, however, were not satisfied with the Condon report, and considered it a cover-up.[6]

RAND Corporation paper (USA, 1968)

The RAND Corporation produced a short internal document titled “UFOs: What to Do?”, published in November 1968.[75] The paper gave a historical summary of the UFO phenomenon, talked briefly about issues concerning extraterrestrial life and interstellar travel, presented a few case studies and discussed the phenomenological content of a UFO sighting, reviewed hypotheses, and concluded with a recommendation to organize a central UFO report-receiving agency and conducting more research on the phenomenon.[75]

Project Identification (USA, 1973–1980)

In 1973, a wave of UFO sightings in southeast Missouri prompted Harley D. Rutledge, physics professor at the University of Missouri, to conduct an extensive field investigation of the phenomenon.[76] The findings were published in the book Project Identification: the first scientific field study of UFO phenomena.[77] Although taking a specific interest in describing unidentified aerial phenomena, as opposed to identifying them, the book references the presumed intelligence of the sighted objects.[78] Rutledge’s study results were not published in any peer-reviewed journal or other scientific venue or format.[76]Studies by GEPAN, SERPA & GEIPAN (France, 1977–present)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/Cussac_%281%29.gif/220px-Cussac_%281%29.gif

 

Drawing from the GEPAN report on the Cussac case

In 1977, the French Space Agency CNES Director General set up a unit to record UFO sighting reports.[79] The unit was initially known as Groupe d’Etudes des Phénomènes Aérospatiaux Non identifiés (GEPAN), changed in 1988 to Service d’expertise de rentrée atmosphérique Phenom (SERPA) and in 2005 to Groupe d’études et d’informations sur les phénomènes aérospatiaux non identifiés (GEIPAN).[79]

GEIPAN found a mundane explanation for the vast majority of recorded cases, but in 2007, after 30 years of investigation, 1,600 cases, approximately 28% of total cases, remained unexplained “despite precise witness accounts and good-quality evidence recovered from the scene” and are categorized as “Type D”.[79] In April 2010, GEIPAN statistics stated that 23% of all cases were of Type D.[80] However, Jean-Jacques Velasco, the head of SEPRA from 1983 to 2004, wrote a book in 2004 noting that 13.5% of the 5,800 cases studied by SEPRA were dismissed without any rational explanation, and stated that UFOs are extraterrestrial in origin.[81][82]

United Nations (1977–1979)

Thanks to the lobbying of Eric Gairy, the Prime Minister of Grenada, the United Nations General Assembly addressed the UFO issue in the late 1970s.[83] On July 14, 1978, a panel, with Gordon Cooper, J. Allen Hynek, and Jacques Vallée among its members, held a hearing to inform the UN Secretary General Kurt Waldheim about the matter.[84] As a consequence of this meeting, the UN adopted decisions A/DEC/32/424 and A/DEC/33/426, which called for the “establishment of an agency or a department of the United Nations for undertaking, co-ordinating and disseminating the results of research into unidentified flying objects and related phenomena”.[85][86][87]

Project Hessdalen / Project EMBLA (Norway, 1983–present / Italy 1999–2004)

Since 1981, in an area near Hessdalen in Norway, unidentified flying objects have been commonly observed. This so-called Hessdalen phenomenon has twice been the subject of scientific field studies: Project Hessdalen (1983–1985, 1995–) secured technical assistance from the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, the University of Oslo, and the University of Bergen, while Project EMBLA (1999–2004) was a team of Italian scientists led by Ph.D. Massimo Teodorani from the Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna.

Both studies confirmed the presence of the phenomenon and were able to record it with cameras and various technical equipment such as radar, laser, and infrared.[88][89] The origin and nature of the lights remains unclear.[90][91] Researchers from Project EMBLA speculated the possibility that atmospheric plasma had been the origin of the phenomenon.[92]

Project Condign (UK, 1996–2000)

The British Ministry of Defence (MoD) published in 2006 the “Scientific & Technical Memorandum 55/2/00a” of a four-volume, 460-page report entitled Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Air Defence Region, based on a study by DI55 (a section of the Directorate of Scientific and Technical Intelligence of the Defence Intelligence Staff) codenamed Project Condign.[93] It discusses the British UFO reports received between 1959 and 1997.

The report affirms that UFOs are an existing phenomenon,[94] but points out that they present no threat to national defense.[95] The report further states that there is no evidence that UFO sightings are caused by incursions of intelligent origin, or that any UFO consists of solid objects which might create a collision hazard.[96] Although the study admits of being unable to explain all analyzed UFO sightings with certainty, it recommends that section DI55 ceases monitoring UFO reports, as they do not provide information useful for Defence Intelligence.[97] The report concludes that a small percentage of sightings that can not be easily explained are caused by atmospheric plasma phenomenon similar to ball lightning; Magnetic and other energy fields produced by these “buoyant plasma formations” are responsible for the appearance of so-called “Black Triangles” as well as having hallucinogenic effects on the human mind, inducing experiences of Close Encounters.

Sturrock Panel Report (USA, 1997)

From Sept. 29 to Oct. 4, 1997 a workshop examining selected UFO incidents took place in Tarrytown, New York. The meeting was initiated by Peter A. Sturrock, who had reviewed the Condon report and found it dissatisfying.[98] The international review panel consisted of nine physical scientists, who responded to eight investigators of UFO reports, who were asked to present their strongest data.[99] The final report of the workshop was published under the title “Physical Evidence Related to UFO Reports” in the Journal of Scientific Exploration in 1998.[100] The study concluded that the studied cases presented no unequivocal evidence for the presence of unknown physical phenomena or for extraterrestrial intelligence,[101] but argued that a continued study of UFO cases might be scientifically valuable.[102]

COMETA Report (France, 1999)

COMETA (Comité d’Études Approfondies, “Committee for in-depth studies”) is a private French group, which is mainly composed of high-ranking individuals from the French Ministry of Defence. In 1999 the group published a ninety-page report entitled “Les OVNI et la défense: à quoi doit-on se préparer?” (“UFOs and Defense: What Should We Prepare For?”).[103] The report analyzed various UFO cases and concluded that UFOs are real, complex flying objects, and that the extraterrestrial hypothesis has a high probability of being the correct explanation for the UFO phenomenon.[104] The study recommended that the French government should adjust to the reality of the phenomenon and conduct further research.[105] Skeptic Claude Maugé criticized COMETA for research incompetency, and claimed that the report tried to present itself as an official French document, when in fact it was published by a private group.[106]

“Disclosure Project” Press Conference (USA, 2001)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/StevenGreer01.jpg/170px-StevenGreer01.jpg

 

Steven M. Greer

On May 9, 2001, twenty government workers from military and civilian organizations spoke about their experiences regarding UFOs and UFO confidentiality at the National Press Club in Washington D.C..[107] The press conference was initiated by Steven M. Greer, founder of the Disclosure Project, which has the goal of disclosing alleged government UFO secrecy.[108] The purpose of the press conference was to build public pressure through the media to obtain a hearing before the United States Congress on the issue.[109] Although major American media outlets reported on the conference,[110] the interest quickly died down, and no hearing came forth.

Fife Symington Press Conference (USA, 2007)

On November 12, 2007, a press conference, moderated by former Governor of Arizona Fife Symington, was held at the National Press Club in Washington D.C.[111] Nineteen former pilots and military and civilian officials spoke about their experiences with UFOs, demanding that the U.S. government engage in a new investigation of the phenomenon.[112]

Notable cases in ufology

Below are short summaries of select famous cases in UFO research. All of the incidents remain subject to controversy.

Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting (USA, 1947)

On June 24, 1947 pilot Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine metallic objects flying near Mt. Rainier, Washington.[113] The term “flying saucer” was coined by an Associated Press reporter, Bill Bequette, who based it on Arnold’s description of the objects.[113]

Roswell UFO Incident (USA, 1947)

The Roswell Incident of 1947 ranks as one of the most publicized and controversial UFO incidents.[114] The US Army recovered an object which crashed near Roswell, New Mexico in July 1947, allegedly an extraterrestrial spacecraft, and alien pliots,[115] Many books on the incident have been written since the 1970s, and numerous alleged witnesses have spoken on the event.[116] The USAF maintains that the crashed object was a top-secret military spy balloon, a part of Project Mogul, many UFO proponents maintain that an alien craft was found and its occupants were captured, and that the military covered it up.[117]

July 1952 Washington D.C. UFO incident (USA, 1952)

From July 13 to 29, 1952, there was a major wave of UFO sightings over Washington D.C. Simultaneous radar and visual sightings were reported, of what appeared to be a group of UFOs flying over the city, and the Capitol Building.[118][119] Fighter jets were scrambled to intercept the objects, which allegedly disappeared when the planes got close enough to engage, and reappeared when the jets disengaged.[118] The USAF held a major press conference to respond to the media and public inquiry, and brought in Harvard astronomer Donald Menzel to explain away the sightings as being caused by temperature inversion.[118]

Tehran UFO Incident (Iran, 1976)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/9b/Tehran_ufo_1976_2.jpg/170px-Tehran_ufo_1976_2.jpg

 

Page 2 of a USAF report on the Tehran incident by Captain Henry S. Shields

On the morning of September 19, 1976, a bright object was sighted and recorded by radar over Tehran, Imperial State of Iran. Two Imperial Iranian Air Force F-4 Phantom jet fighters tried to intercept the object, but turned back, reportedly after an instrumentation and communications failure on both planes.[120] The second plane’s weapons system reportedly also died when it tried to fire a missile at a smaller object, which had emerged from the object pursued.[120] The case is confirmed both by the statements of a senior Iranian military official and by a report from the U.S. Defense Department on the case.[121] [122] Skeptic Philip J. Klass, after having examined the case, claims the witnesses initially saw an astronomical body, possibly Jupiter, while equipment malfunction and pilot incompetence accounted for the technical malfunctions.[123] Klass also pointed out that although being supposedly such a spectacular UFO case, it remained unclassified, and that there was no evidence of a follow-up investigation.[124]

Rendlesham Forest Incident (UK, 1980)

From December 26 to 28, 1980, several bright UFOs were reportedly observed by military personnel in Rendlesham Forest, Suffolk, England.[125] In one case, a witness reported seeing a landed object, which he then touched and felt characters etched on its surface, before the object flew off.[126] Later, military personnel found impressions and increased radioactivity measurements on the supposed landing site.[127] The witnesses were all military personnel, including the deputy commander of the nearby Bentwaters Royal Air Force base, Lt. Col. Charles I. Halt. An official USAF memo dated January 13, 1981 documents the incident.[128] An audio recording of the military investigation that took place on December 27 is also available to the public.[128] Skeptic Brian Dunning of the Skeptoid podcast suggests the UFO and strange light sightings were misidentifications of the nearby Orfordness lighthouse, the re-entry of the Russian Cosmos 749 rocket, and meteors.[129]

Belgian UFO wave (Belgium, 1989–1991)

From 1989 to mid-1991, around 3,500 UFO sightings were recorded in Belgium.[130] On the night of March 30, 1990, hundreds of people reported seeing UFOs in the airspace over Belgium, and unknown targets were confirmed by radar.[131] Two Belgian Air Force (BAF) F-16 fighters attempted to intercept the objects, with no success.[131] The radar tapes were later analyzed by the BAF, who concluded that the anomalies could have been caused by processing errors on the on-board computers.[131] Ufologist Renaud Leclet states that some of the sightings could be explained by helicopters with unusual designs, with which the public was unfamiliar.[132]

Phoenix Lights (USA, 1997)

On March 13, 1997, from around 8:15 to 10 p.m. local time, hundreds of citizens in the city of Phoenix, Arizona reported seeing a formation of lights move over city and surrounding mountains, giving the impression of a large “V”-shaped object.[131][133] Along with eyewitness testimony, video material and pictures of the lights exist.[131] It was revealed that the visiting 104th Fighter Squadron of the Maryland Air National Guard dropped illumination flares as a part of an exercise near Phoenix around 8:15 to 8:30 p.m.[134][135]

Notable UFO organizations

United States

In the US, groups and affiliates interested in UFO investigation number in the hundreds, of which a few have achieved prominence based on their longevity, size, and researcher involvement with scientific credentials.[136] The first significant UFO interest group in the US was the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO), formed in 1952 by Coral and James Lorenzen.[136] The organization closed down in 1988.[136] The National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomena (NICAP), which formed in 1957 and shut down in the 1970ṣ,[136] whose Board of Directors included former Director of Central Intelligence and first head of the Central Intelligence Agency, VADM Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, was, at one time, the largest UFO organization in the country, with numerous chapters.[136] In 1957, brothers W. H. and J. A. Spaulding founded the Ground Saucer Watch, which later became famous when, in 1977, the group filed a suit under the Freedom of Information Act against the CIA.[136]

The two major UFO groups active today are the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), founded in 1969, and the Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS), founded in 1973 by J. Allen Hynek.[136] MUFON grew as the key members of NICAP joined the organization in the 1970s.[136] CUFOS has tried to limit its membership to established researchers, but has found little academic acceptance.[136]

United Kingdom

The British UFO Research Association (BUFORA) is the largest and oldest of the active British UFO organizations.[137] It traces its roots to the London UFO Research Association, founded in 1959, which merged with the British UFO Association (BUFOA) to form BUFORA in 1964.[137]

Ukraine

The Ukrainian Ufologic Club (UFODOS) has released and placed on the Internet (ufobua.org.ua) a national archive of UFO evidences [138]. It was complied based on people’s evidences about strange flying objects over Ukraine. The “secret files” comprise about 500 eyewitnesses testimonies who saw UFO in Ukraine starting from the 17th century. According to UFODOS chief Yaroslav Sochka, the materials were collected from various sources, basically, Hydrometeorological Center of Ukraine Air Force and public ufological organizations.

Australia

The Australian Flying Saucer Bureau (AFSB) and the Australian Flying Saucer Research Society (AFSRS) were the earliest UFO groups established in Australia, with both being founded in the early 1950s.[139] The Australian Centre for UFO Studies (ACUFOS) was established in 1974 with links to the American CUFOS.[140] Other currently active Australian UFO groups include the Victorian UFO Research Society (VUFORS),[139] the Australian UFO Research Network (AUFORN),[141] and UFO Research Queensland (UFORQ).[142]

Skeptic organizations

The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), although not a UFO organization, has investigated various UFO cases and has given a skeptical review of the phenomena in its publications, often in the Skeptical Inquirer magazine.[143] Founded as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) in 1976 by professor of philosophy Paul Kurtz, the committee is notable for its member scientists and skeptics, such as Carl Sagan, Isaac Asimov, Philip J. Klass, Ray Hyman, James Randi, and Martin Gardner.[144] The Skeptics Society, founded by science historian Michael Shermer in 1992, has also addressed the UFO issue in its magazine Skeptic.[145]

References

1.       ^ a b Brake, Mark (June 2006). “On the plurality of inhabited worlds;a brief history of extraterrestrialism”. International Journal of Astrobiology 5 (2): 104. doi:10.1017/S1473550406002989.

2.       ^ Denzler, Brenda (2003). The lure of the edge: scientific passions, religious beliefs, and the pursuit of UFOs. University of California Press. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0520239059.

3.       ^ Denzler (2003), pp. 9

4.       ^ Schulgen, George (October 28, 1947). “Schulgen Memo”. http://www.roswellfiles.com/FOIA/Schulgen.htm. Retrieved May 3, 2010. “the object sighted is being assumed to be a manned aircraft, of Russian origin, and based on the perspective thinking and actual accomplishments of the Germans.”

5.       ^ “The Air Force Intelligence Report”. http://www.roswellfiles.com/FOIA/AFIntellRpt.htm. Retrieved May 3, 2010. “To implement this policy it was directed that Hq, Air Material Command set up a project with the purpose of collecting, collating, evaluating, and distributing to interested government agencies and contractors, all information concerning sightings and phenomena in the atmosphere which could be construed to be of concern to the national security.”

6.       ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Haines, Gerald K. (April 14, 2007). “CIA’s Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90”. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/ufo.html. Retrieved May 3, 2010.

7.       ^ GEIPAN stands for Groupe d’Études et d’Informations sur les Phénomènes Aérospatiaux Non-identifiés (“unidentified aerospace phenomenon research and information group”)

8.       ^ UFO files from the UK National Archives

9.       ^ UFO files from the Library and Archives Canada

10.    ^ “Secret UFO archives opened”. The Copenhagen Post. January 29, 2009. http://jp.dk/uknews/article1586223.ece. Retrieved May 3, 2010.

11.    ^ Italian Air Force UFO site (in Italian)

12.    ^ “För insyn: 18 000 svenska UFO-rapporter” (in Swedish). Expressen. May 6, 2009. http://www.expressen.se/Nyheter/1.1559618/for-insyn-18-000-svenska-ufo-rapporter. Retrieved May 3, 2010.

13.    ^ “UFO reports to be destroyed in future by MoD”. Telegraph (London). February 28, 2010. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/ufo/7336622/UFO-reports-to-be-destroyed-in-future-by-MoD.html. Retrieved May 3, 2010.

14.    ^ a b Denzler (2003), pp. 69

15.    ^ a b Why SETI Is Science and UFOlogy Is Not – A Space Science Perspective on Boundaries, Mark Moldwin, 2004

16.    ^ Sturrock, Peter A. (2000). The UFO Enigma: A New Review of the Physical Evidence. Aspect Books. ISBN 0446677094.

17.    ^ The J. Allen Hynek Center for UFO Studies

18.    ^ Vallee, Jacques (1965). Anatomy of a phenomenon: unidentified objects in space–a scientific appraisal. NTC/Contemporary Publishing. ISBN 0-8092-9888-0..

19.    ^ McDonald, James. E. (1968). Statement on Unidentified Flying Objects submitted to the House Committee on Science and Astronautics at July 29, 1968, Symposium on Unidentified Flying Objects, Rayburn Bldg., Washington, D.D.

20.    ^ Tuomela, Raimo (1985). Science, action, and reality. Springer. pp. 234. ISBN 9027720983.

21.    ^ Feist, Gregory J. (2006). The psychology of science and the origins of the scientific mind. Yale University Press. pp. 219. ISBN 030011074X.

22.    ^ Restivo, Sal P. (2005). Science, technology, and society: an encyclopedia. Oxford University Press USA. pp. 176. ISBN 0195141938.

23.    ^ Friedman, Stanton T. (2009-05-30). Pseudo-Science of Anti-Ufology. The UFO Chronicles. http://www.theufochronicles.com/2009/05/pseudo-science-of-anti-ufology.html. Retrieved 2010-05-03.

24.    ^ Hansson, Sven Ove (September 3, 2008). “Science and Pseudo-Science”. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/pseudo-science/. Retrieved May 8, 2010.

25.    ^ Denzler (2003), pp. 91

26.    ^ Feist (2006), pp. 219-220

27.    ^ Cooper, Rachel (2009). “Chapter 1: Is psychiatric research scientific?”. In Broome, Matthew; Bortolotti, Lisa. Psychiatry as Cognitive Neuroscience: Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press. pp. 19. ISBN 0199238030.

28.    ^ a b Denzler (2003), pp. 35

29.    ^ Hoyt, Diana Palmer (2000-04-20). UFOCRITIQUE: UFO’s, Social Intelligence and the Condon Committees. Master’s Thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05082000-09580026/unrestricted/UFOCRITIQUE.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-25. (page 13)

30.    ^ Markovsky B., “UFOs”, in The Skeptic’s Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience, edited by Michael Shermer, 2002 Skeptics Society, p260

31.    ^ Sagan, Carl (1975). Other Worlds. Bantam. p. 113. ISBN 0552664391.

32.    ^ Sturrock (2000) pp. 163

33.    ^ Denzler (2003), pp. 35-36

34.    ^ Hynek, J. Allen (1974). The UFO experience: a scientific enquiry. Corgi. ISBN 0552094307.

35.    ^ a b Tumminia, Diana G. (2007). Alien worlds: social and religious dimensions of extraterrestrial contact. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0815608586.

36.    ^ Vallée, Jacques F. (1998). “Physical Analyses in Ten Cases of Unexplained Aerial Objects with Material Samples”. Journal of Scientific Exploration 12 (3): 360–361.

37.    ^ Friedman, Stanton T. (2008). Flying Saucers and Science: A Scientist Investigates the Mysteries of UFOs. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books. ISBN 978-1-60163-011-7.

38.    ^ Denzler (2003), pp. 72-73

39.    ^ Hynek, Josef Allen (April 1953). “Unusual Aerial Phenomena”. Journal of the Optical Society of America 43 (4): 311–314. doi:10.1364/JOSA.43.000311.

40.    ^ Josef Allen Hynek (1952-08-06). Special report on conferences with astronomers on unidentified aerial objects. NARA. http://www.cufon.org/cufon/stork1-7a.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-25. “Close questioning revealed they knew nothing of the actual sightings, of their frequency or anything much about them, and therefore cannot be taken seriously. This is characteristic of scientists in general when speaking about subjects which are not in their own immediate field of concern.”

41.    ^ Sturrock (2000) pp. 155: “If the Air Force were to make available, say, $50 million per year for ten years for UFO research, it is quite likely that the subject would look somewhat less disreputable … however, an agency is unlikely to initiate such a program at any level until scientists are supportive of such an initiative. We see that there is a chicken-and-egg program. It would be more sensible, and more acceptable to the scientific community, if research began at a low level.”

42.    ^ Andrews, Colin; Spignesi, Stephen J. (2003). Crop circles: signs of contact. Career Press. ISBN 156414674X.

43.    ^ Howe, Linda Moulton (1989). Alien Harvest: Further Evidence Linking Animal Mutilations and Human Abductions to Alien Life Forms. Linda Moulton Howe Productions. ISBN 0-9620570-1-0.

44.    ^ Denzler (2003), pp. 239

45.    ^ Friedman, Stanton T.;Berliner, Don (1992). Crash at Corona: The U.S. Military Retrieval and Cover-up of a UFO. Paragon House. ISBN 1-55778-449-3.

46.    ^ Randle, Kevin D.;Schmitt, Donald R. (1991). UFO Crash at Roswel. Avon Books. ISBN 0-380-76196-3.

47.    ^ Friedman, Stanton T. (1997). TOP SECRET/MAJIC. Marlowe & Co. ISBN 1-56924-741-2.

48.    ^ Salla, Michael (2004). Exopolitics: Political Implications of Extraterrestrial Presence. Dandelion Books. ISBN 1893302563.

49.    ^ Greer, Steven M. (2001). Disclosure : Military and Government Witnesses Reveal the Greatest Secrets in Modern History. Crossing Point. ISBN 0967323819.

50.    ^ a b c Sheaffer, Robert. “A Skeptical Perspective on UFO Abductions”. In: Pritchard, Andrea & Pritchard, David E. & Mack, John E. & Kasey, Pam & Yapp, Claudia. Alien Discussions: Proceedings of the Abduction Study Conference. Cambridge: North Cambridge Press. Pp. 382-388.

51.    ^ a b McDonald (1968)

52.    ^ Sturrock, Peter A. (May 1974). UFO Reports from AIAA (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics) Members. UFO Evidence. http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc592.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-04.

53.    ^ a b Sturrock, Peter A. (1976). Report on a Survey of the Membership of the American Astronomical Society Concerning the UFO Phenomenon – Summary. Stanford university report No. 681R. http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc604.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-04.

54.    ^ Herb, Gert & J. Allen Hynek (May 2006). The Amateur Astronomer and the UFO Phenomena. reprint. 30. International UFO Reporter. pp. 14–16.

55.    ^ United States Air Force (April 27, 1949). “USAF Briefing Report”. http://www.roswellfiles.com/FOIA/Airbriefing.htm. Retrieved May 4, 2010. “The majority of reported incidents have been caused by misidentification of weather balloons, high altitude balloons with lights or electronic equipment, meteors, Boliden, and celestial bodies.”

56.    ^ United States Air Force (April 27, 1949). “USAF Briefing Report”. http://www.roswellfiles.com/FOIA/Airbriefing.htm. Retrieved May 4, 2010. “There are numerous reports from reliable and competent observers for which a conclusive explanation has not been possible. Some of these involve descriptions which would place them in the category of new manifestations of probable natural phenomena, but others involve configurations and described performance which might conceivably represent an advanced aerodynamical development.”

57.    ^ Lt. Col. George D. Garrett, USAF. (July 30, 1947). “Flying discs. Summary of 16 UFO cases.”. http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sign/sign.htm. Retrieved May 4, 2010. “This “flying saucer” situation is not all imaginary or seeing too much in some natural phenomenon. Something is really flying around.”

58.    ^ Lt. General Nathan F. Twining, USAF. (September 23, 1947). “AMC Opinion Concerning “Flying Discs””. http://www.roswellfiles.com/FOIA/twining.htm. Retrieved May 4, 2010. “The phenomenon is something real and not visionary or fictitious”

59.    ^ a b c d Hodapp, Christopher & Alice Von Kannon (2008). Conspiracy Theories & Secret Societies For Dummies. For Dummies. pp. 133. ISBN 0470184086.

60.    ^ Flying Saucer Working Party, Ministry of Defence (June 1951). “Unidentified Flying Objects: Report by the ‘Flying Saucer’ Working Party”. http://www.nickpope.net/images/ufo%20report%20e.jpg. Retrieved May 4, 2010.

61.    ^ Denzler (2003), pp. 98

62.    ^ a b Library and Archives Canada (August 11, 2007). “Canada’s UFOs: The Search for the Unknown – Project Magnet”. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/ufo/002029-1700-e.html. Retrieved May 8, 2010.

63.    ^ a b Cameron, Vicki (1995). Don’t tell anyone, but–: UFO experiences in Canada. General Store Publishing House. pp. 10. ISBN 1896182208.

64.    ^ a b Library and Archives Canada (December 14, 2007). “Canada’s UFOs: The Search for the Unknown – Project Second Story”. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/ufo/002029-1800-e.html. Retrieved May 8, 2010.

65.    ^ Cameron (1995), pp. 10-11

66.    ^ a b c Denzler (2003), pp. 13

67.    ^ Lamb, David (2001). The search for extraterrestrial intelligence: a philosophical inquiry. Routledge. pp. 146. ISBN 0203991745.

68.    ^ a b USAF (June 1995). “USAF Fact Sheet 95-03: Unidentified Flying Objects and Air Force Project Blue Book”. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/25674/25674-h/25674-h.htm. Retrieved May 4, 2010.

69.    ^ a b c d Denzler (2003), pp. 16

70.    ^ Sturrock, Peter A. (1987). “An Analysis of the Condon Report on the Colorado UFO Project”. Journal of Scientific Exploration 1 (1): 77. http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/full/jse_01_full.pdf.

71.    ^ United States Air Technical Intelligence Center (May 5, 1955). “Project Blue Book Special Report NO. 14: Analysis of Reports of Unidentified Aerial Objects. Project No. 10073.”. http://home.comcast.net/~tprinty/UFO/Bluebook.htm. Retrieved May 4, 2010. “The danger lies in the possibility of forgetting the subjectivity of the data at the time that conclusions are drawn from the analysis. It must be emphasized, again and again, that the conclusions contained in this report are based NOT on facts, but on what many observers thought and estimated the true facts to be.”

72.    ^ a b c d Denzler (2003), pp. 14

73.    ^ a b Denzler (2003), pp. 15

74.    ^ Edward U.Condon (1968). “Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects”. http://files.ncas.org/condon/text/sec-i.htm. Retrieved May 4, 2010. “Our general conclusion is that nothing has come from the study of UFOs in the past 21 years that has added to scientific knowledge. Careful consideration of the record as it is available to us leads us to conclude that further extensive study of UFOs probably cannot be justified in the expectation that science will be advanced thereby.”

75.    ^ a b Kocher, George (November 1968). “UFOs: What to Do?”. RAND Corporation. http://www.theblackvault.com/documents/ufoswhattodo.pdf. Retrieved May 8, 2010.

76.    ^ a b Denzler (2003), pp. 72

77.    ^ Rutledge, Harley D. (1981). Project Identification: the first scientific field study of UFO phenomena. Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0137307055.

78.    ^ Dickinson, Alexander K. (February 1982). “Interesting, But UFO’s Still Unidentified”. The Physics Teacher 20 (2): 128–130. doi:10.1119/1.2340971.

79.    ^ a b c CNES (March 26, 2007). “GEIPAN UAP investigation unit opens its files”. http://www.cnes.fr/web/CNES-en/5866-geipan-uap-investigation-unit-opens-its-files.php. Retrieved May 4, 2010.

80.    ^ GEIPAN, CNES (April 8, 2010). “GEIPAN statistics” (in French). http://www.cnes-geipan.fr/geipan/statistiques.html. Retrieved May 4, 2010.

81.    ^ (French) Jean-Jacques Vélasco and Nicolas Montigiani (2004). OVNIS l’Evidence. Chatou – New York, Carnot, « Orbis enigma ». ISBN 2848550546.

82.    ^ La Dépêche du Midi (April 18, 2004). “‘Yes, UFOs exist’: Position statement by SEPRA head, Jean-Jacques Velasco”. http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc1627.htm. Retrieved May 4, 2010.

83.    ^ Dolan, Richard M. (2008). UFOs and the National Security state – the cover-up exposed 1973-1991. Keyhole Publishing. pp. 143–144. ISBN 978-0-9677995-1-3.

84.    ^ Photograph of United Nations meeting on UFOs, July 14, 1978 ufoevidence.org (Retrieved May 4, 2010)

85.    ^ A/DEC/32/424 UNBISnet- United Nations Bibliographic Information System, Dag Hammarskjöld Library (Retrieved May 4, 2010)

86.    ^ A/DEC/33/426, UNBISnet (Retrieved May 4, 2010)

87.    ^ UN (December 18, 1978). “Recommendation to Establish UN Agency for UFO Research – UN General Assembly decision 33/426”. http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc902.htm. Retrieved May 4, 2010. “the General Assembly invites interested Member States to take appropriate steps to coordinate on a national level scientific research and investigation into extraterrestrial life, including unidentified flying objects, and to inform the Secretary-General of the observations, research and evaluation of such activities.”

88.    ^ Teodorani, Massimo (2004). “A Long-Term Scientific Survey of the Hessdalen Phenomenon”. Journal of Scientific Exploration 18 (12): 222–224. http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_18_2_teodorani.pdf.

89.    ^ Erling Strand. “Project Hessdalen 1984 – Final Technical Report”. http://www.hessdalen.org/reports/hpreport84.shtml. Retrieved May 4, 2010. “Beside the light measurements, it can be “measured” by radar and laser. Perhaps the measurements we did on the magnetograph and spectrum analyser are due to this phenomenon as well. We have to do more measurements with these instruments, before we can be sure of that.”

90.    ^ Erling Strand. “Project Hessdalen 1984 – Final Technical Report”. http://www.hessdalen.org/reports/hpreport84.shtml. Retrieved May 4, 2010. “We have not found out what this phenomenon is. That could hardly be expected either. But we know that the phenomenon, whatever it is, can be measured.”

91.    ^ Teodorani, Massimo (2004). “A Long-Term Scientific Survey of the Hessdalen Phenomenon”. Journal of Scientific Exploration 18 (12): 217–251. http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_18_2_teodorani.pdf. “A self-consistent definitive theory of the phenomenon’s nature and origin in all its aspects cannot be constructed yet quantitatively”

92.    ^ Massimo Teodorani, Gloria Nobili (2002). “EMBLA 2002 – An Optical and Ground Survey in Hessdalen” (PDF). pp. 16. http://www.hessdalen.org/reports/EMBLA_2002_2.pdf. Retrieved May 4, 2010. “Whatever these things are, if some “alien intelligence” is behind the Hessdalen phenomenon, that hypothetical intelligence has shown no interest in searching a direct, continuative and structurally evolved communication with mankind and went on behaving in such a way that the light-phenomenon itself appears to be totally elusive.”

93.    ^ Wired (2006-05-10). “It’s Official: UFOs Are Just UAPs”. http://www.wired.com/science/space/news/2006/05/70862. Retrieved May 4, 2010.

94.    ^ Ministry of Defense (December 2000). “Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Air Defence Region: Executive Summary” (PDF). pp. 4. http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/7D2B11E0-EA9F-45EA-8883-A3C00546E752/0/uap_exec_summary_dec00.pdf. Retrieved May 5, 2010. “„That UAP exist is indisputable …[they] clearly can exhibit aerodynamic characteristics well beyond those of any known aircraft or missile – either manned or unmanned.“”

95.    ^ Telegraph (September 20, 2009). “Britain’s X Files: RAF suspected aliens of “tourist” visits to Earth”. The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/ufo/6209684/Britains-X-Files-RAF-suspected-aliens-of-tourist-visits-to-Earth.html. Retrieved May 4, 2010.

96.    ^ Ministry of Defense (December 2000). “Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Air Defence Region: Executive Summary” (PDF). pp. 10. http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/7D2B11E0-EA9F-45EA-8883-A3C00546E752/0/uap_exec_summary_dec00.pdf. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

97.    ^ Ministry of Defense (December 2000). “Unidentified Aerial Phenomena in the UK Air Defence Region: Executive Summary” (PDF). pp. 11. http://www.mod.uk/NR/rdonlyres/7D2B11E0-EA9F-45EA-8883-A3C00546E752/0/uap_exec_summary_dec00.pdf. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

98.    ^ David F. Salisbury (July 1, 1998). “No evidence of ET: Panel calls for more scientific UFO research”. Stanford Online Report. http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/1998/july1/ufostudy71.html. Retrieved May 5, 2010. “”The upshot of this was that, far from supporting Condon’s conclusions, I thought the evidence presented in the report suggested that something was going on that needed study.””

99.    ^ Salisbury (1998)

100.^ Sturrock, Peter A. (1998). “Physical Evidence Related to UFO Reports: The Proceedings of a Workshop Held at the Pocantico Conference Center, Tarrytown, New York, September 29 – October 4, 1997”. Journal of Scientific Exploration 12 (2): 179–229. http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_12_2_sturrock.pdf.

101.^ Sturrock et al (1998) pp. 180: “…but there was no convincing evidence pointing to unknown physical processes or to the involvement of extraterrestrial intelligence.”, “…it would be valuable to carefully evaluate UFO reports since, whenever there are unexplained observations…”

102.^ Sturrock et al (1998) pp. 180: “…it would be valuable to carefully evaluate UFO reports since, whenever there are unexplained observations, there is the possibility that scientists will learn something new by studying these observations.”

103.^ COMETA Report, part 1 (July 1999). “UFOs and Defense: What Should We Prepare For?” (PDF). ufoevidence.org. http://www.ufoevidence.org/newsite/files/COMETA_part1.pdf. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

104.^ COMETA Report, part 2 (July 1999). “UFOs and Defense: What Should We Prepare For?” (PDF). ufoevidence.org. pp. 38. http://www.ufoevidence.org/newsite/files/COMETA_part2.pdf. Retrieved May 5, 2010. “[…] almost certain physical reality of completely unknown flying objects […], apparently operated by intelligent [beings].”, “A single hypothesis sufficiently takes into account the facts […] It is the hypothesis of extraterrestrial visitors.””

105.^ COMETA Report, part 2 (199) pp. 72

106.^ Maugé, Claude. Commentary on COMETA. Inforespace (No.100, June 2000, pp.78).

107.^ Katelynn Raymer (May 10, 2001). “Group Calls for Disclosure of UFO Info”. ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=98572. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

108.^ Rob Watson (May 10, 2001). “UFO spotters slam ‘US cover-up'”. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1322432.stm. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

109.^ Watson (2001)

110.^ Sharon Kehnemui (May 10, 2001). “Men in Suits See Aliens as Part of Solution, Not Problem”. Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,24364,00.html. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

111.^ Bonnie Malkin (November 14, 2007). “Pilots call for new UFO investigation”. London: Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1569371/Pilots-call-for-new-UFO-investigation.html. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

112.^ “I touched a UFO: ex-air force pilot”. The Sydney Morning Herald. November 13, 2007. http://www.smh.com.au/news/unusual-tales/i-touched-a-ufo-exair-force-pilot/2007/11/13/1194766648633.html?page=fullpagecontentSwap1. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

113.^ a b Denzler (2003): pp. 4

114.^ B.D. Gildenberg. “A Roswell Requiem”. Skeptic 10-1 (2003).

115.^ Hodapp & Von Kannon (2008): pp. 119-120

116.^ Hodapp & Von Kannon (2008): pp.121-122

117.^ James McAndrews (1997). “The Roswell Report: Case Closed”. Headquarters United States Air Force. http://www.af.mil/information/roswell/index.asp. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

118.^ a b c Denzler (2003): pp. 11

119.^ Rutledge, Jack (July 22, 1952). “Air Force Spots ‘Flying Saucers’ In Its Own Back Yard”. Tri City Herald. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=9q8hAAAAIBAJ&sjid=sZoFAAAAIBAJ&pg=4186,6533315&dq=saucers&hl=en.

120.^ a b Boyd, Ronald (May 8, 1982). “A close encounter with a UFO believer”. St. Petersburg Times. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=P_oNAAAAIBAJ&sjid=TnsDAAAAIBAJ&pg=6544,7593571&dq=ufo+tehran+1976&hl=en.

121.^ Rowland, Michael (November 13, 2007). “Ex-pilots, military officers call for new UFO probe”. ABC News (Australia). http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/11/13/2089628.htm?section=world. “Retired Iranian Air Force general, Parviz Jafari, says he attempted to shoot down a strange object hovering over Tehran in 1976.”

122.^ “F-4 Jet Chase over Iran 1976”. ufoevidence.org. http://www.ufoevidence.org/cases/case200.htm. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

123.^ Klass, Philip J. (1983). UFOs: the public deceived. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0879753226.

124.^ Rutkowski, Chris A. (2008). A World of UFO. Dundurn Press. pp. 35. ISBN 1550028332.

125.^ Rutkowski (2008): pp. 27-31

126.^ Rutkowski (2008): pp. 28

127.^ Rutkowski (2008): pp. 30

128.^ a b Rutkowski (2008): pp. 31

129.^ Brian Dunning (January 6, 2009). “The Rendlesham Forest UFO”. Skeptoid. http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4135. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

130.^ Rutkowski (2008): pp. 68

131.^ a b c d e Rutkowski (2008): pp. 70

132.^ Renaud Leclet et al.. “The Belgian UFO Wave of 1989-1992 – A Neglected Hypothesis” (pdf). http://gmh.chez-alice.fr/RLT/BUW-RLT-10-2008.pdf. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

133.^ Richard Price (June 18, 1997). “Arizona say the truth about UFO is out there” (PDF). USA Today. http://www.ufosnw.com/history_of_ufo/phoenixlights1997/usatodayarticle06181997old.pdf. Retrieved May 6, 2010.

134.^ Rutkowski (2008): pp. 40

135.^ Brian Dunning (April 26, 2007). “The Alien Invasion of Phoenix, Arizona”. Skeptoid. http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4041. Retrieved May 5, 2010.

136.^ a b c d e f g h i Markovsky (2002) pp. 270

137.^ a b “About BUFORA”. BUFORA. http://www.bufora.org.uk/AboutBUFORA/tabid/65/Default.aspx. Retrieved May 6, 2010.

138.^ “About UFOBUA”. Aliens the Truth. http://www.aliensthetruth.com/UFO.php?ID=91. Retrieved December 12, 2009.

139.^ a b “The History of VUFORS”. VUFORS. http://members.ozemail.com.au/~vufors/history.htm. Retrieved May 6, 2010.

140.^ “Australian Centre for UFO Studies”. ACUFOS. http://www.acufos.asn.au/index.html. Retrieved May 6, 2010.

141.^ “Australian UFO Research Network”. AUFORN. http://www.auforn.com/. Retrieved May 6, 2010.

142.^ “UFO Research Queenslandk”. FORQ. http://www.uforq.asn.au/. Retrieved May 6, 2010.

143.^ Sheaffer, Robert (February 2009). “UFOlogy 2009: A Six-Decade Perspective”. Skeptical Inquirer. http://www.csicop.org/si/show/ufology_2009_a_six-decade_perspective. Retrieved May 6, 2010.

144.^ “About CSI”. CSI. http://www.csicop.org/about/about_csi. Retrieved May 6, 2010.

145.                      ^ “Skeptics Society & Skeptic Magazine”. Skeptics Society. http://www.skeptic.com/. Retrieved May 6, 2010.

146.                       

Ufo Conspiracy Theory By Wiki

UFO Conspiracy Theory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/54/UFO_icon.svg/220px-UFO_icon.svg.pngA UFO conspiracy theory is any one of many often overlapping conspiracy theories which argue that evidence of the reality of unidentified flying objects is being suppressed by various governments around the world. Such theories are often intentionally hoaxed, and are backed by little or no evidence, and absolutely no reliable evidence despite significant research on the subject by non-governmental scientific agencies,[1] and therefore, are considered pseudoscience.[2]

They commonly argue that Earth governments, especially the Government of the United States, are in communication or cooperation with extraterrestrials despite public claims to the contrary. Some of these theories claim that the government is explicitly allowing alien abduction.

Origins

Charles Fort‘s 1919 The Book of the Damned exposed to a small but influential group of readers to Fort’s extensive references to unidentified objects. Fort himself was extremely critical of scientific consensus, and his book contained extensive references to reports he said were “damned” or ignored by scientific dogma. The Fortean Society was founded in 1931 to promote his works and over time its members included H. L. Mencken, R. Buckminster Fuller and Frank Lloyd Wright. According to the Durant Report on the CIA‘s top-secret 1953 Robertson Panel, “The writings of Charles Fort were referenced to show that ‘strange things in the sky’ had been recorded for hundreds of years.”

These “strange things in the sky” captured the world’s attention in the summer of 1947. Kenneth Arnold‘s description of nine shiny metallic-looking objects flying at an estimated 1,200 mph on June 24 was followed by sightings all over the United States and Canada, and later the entire globe. On July 9, 1947 the Roswell Daily Record ran a headline stating, “RAAF Captures Flying Saucer On Ranch in Roswell Region”. The Army Air Force changed their story the next day, saying that instead a balloon had crashed with a radar-reflecting disc suspended from it.

By August 1947, a Gallop Poll indicated that 9 out of 10 Americans had heard of flying saucers. A wide diversity of theories were offered in the press about the origin of the UFOs. Some newspapers interviewed Forteans who offered historical context and were among the first to theorize that the objects could be extraterrestrial in origin. This idea was given a fictional treatment by popular AP writer Hal Boyle on July 9 with his story “Trip on a Flying Saucer.” The story and its followup installments ran in newspapers all over the nation and detailed Hal’s trip to Mars with an 8 foot tall green alien who is on a scavenger hunt to find Orson Welles.

Donald Keyhoe later began investigating flying saucers for True Magazine. Keyhoe was one of the first significant conspiracy theorists, asserting eventually that the saucers were from outer space and were on some sort of scouting mission. Keyhoe derived his theory from his contacts in Air Force and Navy intelligence. Project Sign, based at Air Technical Intelligence Command at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and its successors Project Grudge and Project Blue Book were officially tasked with investigating the flying saucers. As reported in Edward Ruppelt‘s book The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects, many people within these research groups did in fact support the hypothesis that the flying saucers were from outer space.

Keyhoe later founded NICAP, a civilian investigation group that asserted the US government was lying about UFOs and covering up information that should be shared with the public. NICAP had many influential board members, including Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, the first director of the CIA.

Popular culture and opinions

Various conspiratorial UFO ideas have flourished on the internet and are frequently featured on Art Bell‘s program, Coast to Coast AM.

In fiction, television programs (The X-Files and Stargate), films (Men in Black and Independence Day) and any number of novels have featured elements of UFO conspiracy theories.

Elements may include the government’s sinister operative from Men in Black, the military bases known as Area 51, RAF Rudloe Manor or Porton Down, a supposed crash site in Roswell, New Mexico, the Rendlesham Forest Incident, a political committee dubbed the “Majestic 12” or successor of the UK Ministry of Defence’s Flying Saucer Working Party (FSWP).[3]

Some civilians[who?] suggest that they have been abducted and/or body parts have been taken from them. The contention that there is a widespread cover-up of UFO information is not limited to the general public or UFO research community. For example, a 1971 survey of Industrial Research/Development magazine found that 76% felt the government was not revealing all it knew about UFOs, 54% thought UFOs definitely or probably existed, and 32% thought they came from outer space.[4]

Notable persons to have publicly stated that UFO evidence is being suppressed include Senator Barry Goldwater, Admiral Lord Hill-Norton (former NATO head and chief of the British Defence Staff), Brigadier-General Arthur Exon (former commanding officer of Wright-Patterson AFB), Vice-Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter (first CIA director), astronauts Gordon Cooper and Edgar Mitchell, former Canadian Defence Minister Paul Hellyer, and the 1999 French COMETA report by various French generals and aerospace experts.

Chronology

This is a list of events, statements and personalities which are related to UFO conspiracy theories.

1930s

On the night before Halloween in 1938, Orson Welles directed the Mercury Theatre in their live radio adaptation of H. G. Wells‘s classic novel, The War of the Worlds. By mimicking a news broadcast, the show was quite realistic sounding for its time, and some listeners were fooled into thinking that a Martian invasion was underway in the United States. There was widespread confusion, followed by outrage and controversy. Some later studies have argued that the extent of the panic was exaggerated by the contemporary press, but it remains clear that many people were caught up, to one degree or another, in the confusion.

In other countries, reactions were similar. In 1949, part of the script for the War of the Worlds was read out over the radio in Quito, Ecuador without announcement, as if it were a major piece of breaking news. Huge crowds of people emerged onto the streets and sought refuge inside of churches with their families. When the radio station was informed, they broadcasted the fact that there was no invasion. An angry mob formed and burned the station to the ground, resulting in somewhere between six and twenty deaths. There were many other countries that experienced problems when broadcasting The War of the Worlds.[5]

According to U.S. Air Force Captain Edward J. Ruppelt,[6] the Air Force’s files often mentioned the panicked aftermath of the 1938 War of the Worlds broadcast as a possible reaction of the public to confirmed evidence of UFOs.

1940s

The Great Los Angeles Air Raid

“The Great Los Angeles Air Raid” also known as “The Battle of Los Angeles” is the name given by contemporary sources to the imaginary enemy attack and subsequent anti-aircraft artillery barrage which took place from late 24 February to early 25 February 1942 over Los Angeles, California.[7][8] Initially, the target of the aerial barrage was thought to be an attacking force from Japan, but Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox speaking at a press conference shortly afterward called the incident a “false alarm.” A small number of modern-day UFOlogists have suggested the targets were extraterrestrial spacecraft.[9] When documenting the incident in 1983, the U.S. Office of Air Force History attributed the event to a case of “war nerves” likely triggered by a lost weather balloon and exacerbated by stray flares and shell bursts from adjoining batteries.[10]

Ghost rockets

In 1946 and 1947, numerous so-called ghost rockets appeared over Scandinavian countries, primarily Sweden, and then spread into other European countries. One USAF top secret document from 1948 stated that Swedish Air Force intelligence informed them that some of their investigators felt that the objects were not only real but could not be explained as having earthly origins. Similarly, 20 years later, Greek physicist Dr. Paul Santorini publicly stated that in 1947 he was put in charge of a Greek military investigation into the ghost rockets sighted over Greece. Again, they quickly concluded the objects were real and not of conventional origin. Santorini claimed their investigation was killed by U.S. scientists and high military officials who had already concluded the objects were extraterrestrial in origin and feared public panic because there was no defense.

Roswell Incident

In 1947, the United States Air Force issued a press release stating that a “flying disk” had been recovered near Roswell, New Mexico. This press release was quickly withdrawn, and officials stated that a weather balloon had been misidentified. The Roswell case quickly faded even from the attention of most UFOlogists until the 1970s. There has been continued speculation that an alien spacecraft did indeed crash near Roswell despite the official denial. For example, retired Brigadier General Arthur E. Exon, former commanding officer of Wright-Patterson AFB, told researchers Kevin Randle and Donald Schmitt that a spacecraft had crashed, alien bodies were recovered, and the event was covered up by the U.S. government. Exon further claimed he was aware of a very secretive UFO controlling committee made up primarily of very high-ranking military officers and intelligence people. His nickname for this group was “The Unholy Thirteen” (see also Majestic 12) [11]

Mantell Incident

The 1948 death of Air Force pilot Thomas Mantell (the so-called Mantell Incident) may have contributed to a distrust of governmental UFO studies. Mantell’s airplane crashed and he was killed following the pursuit of an aerial artifact he described as “a metallic object…of tremendous size.” (Clark, 352) Project Sign personnel investigated the case and determined that Mantell had been chasing the planet Venus, a conclusion which met with incredulity. Later this theory was changed to include a Skyhook balloon instead of Venus, an explanation which continues to be debated to this day.

Project Sign

The U.S. Air Force may have planted the seeds of UFO conspiracy theories with Project Sign (established 1947) (which became Project Grudge and Project Blue Book). Edward J. Ruppelt, the first director of Blue Book, characterized the Air Force’s public behavior regarding UFOs as “schizophrenic“: alternately open and transparent, then secretive and dismissive. Ruppelt also revealed that in mid-1948, Project Sign issued a top secret Estimate of the Situation concluding that the flying saucers were not only real but probably extraterrestrial in origin. According to Ruppelt, the Estimate was ordered destroyed by Air Force Chief of Staff Hoyt Vandenberg.

1950s

Ministry of Defence’s UFO Project has its roots in a study commissioned in 1950 by the MOD’s then Chief Scientific Adviser, the great radar scientist Sir Henry Tizard. As a result of his insistence that UFO sightings should not be dismissed without some form of proper scientific study, the Department set up the Flying Saucer Working Party (or FSWP). Nicholas Mariana films several UFOs with his color 16mm camera. Project Blue Book is called in and, after inspecting the film, Mariana claimed they returned it to him with critical footage removed, clearly showing the objects as disc-shaped. The incident sparks nation-wide media attention. Frank Scully‘s 1950 Behind the Flying Saucers suggested that the U.S. government had recovered a crashed flying saucer and its dead occupants near Aztec, New Mexico, in 1948. It was later revealed that Scully had been the victim of a prank by “two veteran confidence artists“.[citation needed]Donald Keyhoe was a retired U.S. Marine who wrote a series of popular books and magazine articles that were very influential in shaping public opinion, arguing that UFOs were indeed real and the U.S. government was suppressing UFO evidence. Keyhoe’s first article on the subject came out in True Magazine, January 1950, and was a national sensation. His first book, Flying Saucers Are Real also came out in 1950, at about the same time as Frank Scully’s book, and was a bestseller. In 1956, Keyhoe helped establish NICAP, a powerful civilian UFO investigating group with many inside sources. Keyhoe became its director and continued his attacks on the Air Force. Other contemporary critics also charged that the United States Air Force was perpetrating a cover-up with its Project Blue Book. [12] Smith then briefed superiors in the Canadian government, leading to the establishment of Project Magnet, a small Canadian government UFO research effort. Canadian documents and Smith’s private papers were uncovered in the late 1970s, and by 1984, other alleged documents emerged claiming the existence of a highly secret UFO oversight committee of scientists and military people called Majestic 12, again naming Vannevar Bush. Sarbacher was also interviewed in the 1980s and corroborated the information in Smith’s memos and correspondence. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, Smith granted public interviews, and among other things stated that he had been lent crashed UFO material for analysis by a highly secret U.S. government group which he wouldn’t name.[13] Air Defense Command. The 4,602nd AISS was tasked with investigating only the most important UFO cases with intelligence or national security implications. These were deliberately siphoned away from Blue Book, leaving Blue Book to deal with the more trivial reports. (Dolan, 210-211) Shirley’s Bay near Ottawa in Canada. After this station detected the first suspicious event, all data gained by this station was classified as secret, although the cameras of the monitoring station could not make any pictures because of fog.(citation?) Gray Barker‘s They Knew Too Much About Flying Saucers, the book which publicized the idea of sinister Men in Black who appear to UFO witnesses and warn them to keep quiet. There has been continued speculation that the men in black are government agents who harass and threaten UFO witnesses. Donald Keyhoe appeared on CBS television, his statements on UFOs were precensored by the Air Force. During the show when Keyhoe tried to depart from the censored script to “reveal something that has never been disclosed before”, CBS cut the sound, later stating Keyhoe was about to violate “predetermined security standards” and about to say something he wasn’t “authorized to release”. What Keyhoe was about to reveal were four publicly unknown military studies concluding UFOs were interplanetary (including the 1948 Project Sign Estimate of the Situation and a 1952 Project Blue Book engineering analysis of UFO motion presented at the Robertson Panel. [Timothy Good, 286-287; Richard Dolan 293-295] Astronaut Gordon Cooper reported suppression of a flying saucer movie filmed in high clarity by two Edwards AFB range photographers on May 3, 1957. Cooper said he viewed developed negatives of the object, clearly showing a dish-like object with a dome on top and something like holes or ports in the dome. The photographers and another witness, when later interviewed by James McDonald, confirmed the story. Cooper said military authorities then picked up the film and neither he nor the photographers ever heard what happened to it. The incident was also reported in a few newspapers, such as the Los Angeles Times. The official explanation was that the photographers had filmed a weather balloon distorted by hot desert air.[14]

1960s

James E. McDonald suggested—via lectures, articles and letters—that the U.S. Government was mishandling evidence which would support the extraterrestrial hypothesis.

1970s

Although strictly unrelated to a UFO conspiracy theory, the Watergate affair brought the curtain down on the era when authorities were generally trusted by the public. A decade after the assassination of John F. Kennedy a cottage industry of JFK conspiracy theorists seemed to spring up out of the woodwork, fed by the tabloids. UFO conspiracy theories found fertile ground in this paranoid zeitgeist.

Clark also notes that many UFO conspiracy theory tales “can be traced to a mock documentary, Alternative 3, broadcast on British television on June 20, 1977, and subsequently turned into a paperback book.” (Clark, 213–4)

Holloman Air Force Base

Clark cites a 1973 encounter as perhaps the earliest suggestion that the U.S. government was involved with ETs. That year, Robert Emenegger and Allan Sandler of Los Angeles, California, were in contact with officials at Norton Air Force Base in order to make a documentary film. Emenegger and Sandler report that Air Force Officials (including Paul Shartle) suggested incorporating UFO information in the documentary, including as its centerpiece genuine footage of a 1971 UFO landing at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico. Furthermore, says Emenegger, he was given a tour of Holloman AFB and was shown where officials conferred with EBEs. This was supposedly not the first time the U.S. had met these aliens, as Emenegger reported that his U.S. military sources had “been monitoring signals from an alien group with which they were unfamiliar, and did their ET guests know anything about them? The ETs said no.” (Clark 1998, 144) No film was ever presented, however, and the documentary was released in 1974 as UFO’s: Past, Present and Future (narrated by Rod Serling). The alleged Holloman UFO landing was discussed in the documentary and was depicted with illustrations.

In 1988, Shartle said that the film in question was genuine, and that he had seen it several times.

Paul Bennewitz

The late 1970s also saw the beginning of an affair centered around Paul Bennewitz of Albuquerque, New Mexico.

1980s

MJ-12

The so-called Majestic 12 documents surfaced in 1982, suggesting that there was secret, high-level U.S. government interest in UFOs dating to the 1940s.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7d/MJ_001.jpg/94px-MJ_001.jpg

Majestic 12 #1

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/59/MJ_002.jpg/94px-MJ_002.jpg

Majestic 12 #2

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b6/MJ_003.jpg/94px-MJ_003.jpg

Majestic 12 #3

Linda Moulton Howe

In September 1979 to May 1980, Linda Moulton Howe, Director of Special Projects at KMGH-TV, Channel 7 (then a CBS affiliate) produced, wrote, directed, edited and reported a documentary film for TV entitled A Strange Harvest about the Colorado and worldwide phenomenon of bloodless, trackless animal deaths called “animal mutilations.” The documentary was first broadcast as a two hour special on May 18, 1980, and Howe was awarded a 1981 Regional Emmy. Some time after the broadcast, Linda was contacted by Jean Abounader, Director of the Documentary Division at Home Box Office, about producing an hour for HBO that would go beyond A Strange Harvest.

On March 21, 1983, Howe was in New York City to sign a contract in the HBO offices to produce an hour with the working title, UFO’s: The ET Factor. Peter Gersten, New York attorney who had filed Freedom of Information Act inquiries on behalf of Citizens Against UFO Secrecy (CAUS) for UFO information from the CIA, NSA and other intelligence and military organizations, met with Howe in New York City. Mr. Gersten showed Howe correspondence he had from an AFOSI (Air Force Office of Special Investigations) Agent named Richard C. Doty. Doty’s correspondence with attorney Gersten was about an alleged military exchange at Ellsworth AFB in South Dakota with a landed UFO and humanoid entity that fired a ray of light at a security guard’s gun. The ray allegedly melted the gun and burned the guard’s hand. Gersten said that he and CAUS would like to investigate the Ellsworth AFB case and that he would arrange contact for Howe with Richard Doty. A meeting was set for April 9, 1983, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, at the Kirtland AFB office of AFOSI. Howe thought she was to receive names and phone numbers for eyewitnesses to the Ellsworth AFB event. Instead, Doty showed her a “Briefing Paper for the President of the United States On the Subject of Unidentified Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).” (Clark 1998, 154) Howe says she was not allowed to copy the paper or take notes, and was required to read it in Doty’s presence. The document, Howe reported, detailed a series of events: several UFO crashes and recoveries, including one where an alien occupant was alive and remained in the care of the U.S. government at Los Alamos Laboratory “until it died of unknown causes on June 18, 1952.”

Howe reported that Doty promised considerable confirmation, including documents, film and photographs. She called Jean Abounader at HBO and the two agreed that an official letter from the U. S. Air Force was necessary to back up the promise of film, photographs and documents for use in Howe’s HBO documentary. Abounader asked Howe to meet with the number two executive at HBO, Bridgett Potter, on May 18, 1983, to discuss the government’s potential contribution to the HBO TV production. Howe met with Potter, Abounader and others at the New York HBO offices, but no official letter was ever forthcoming. Potter gave Howe until October 1983 to come up with official administration and military confirmation to her at HBO about the details of the briefing paper. Doty stopped communicating with the Howe/Gersten effort in June 1983 and nothing of an official nature was provided. HBO and Howe reached the October deadline and the documentary project ended.

Howe continued to develop her own military and intelligence sources independent from the HBO/Doty/Gersten period of March to June 1983 and produced four books and other documentaries, including An Alien Harvest: Further Evidence Linking Animal Mutilations and Human Abductions to Alien Life Forms (1989); Glimpses of Other Realities, Vol. 1: Facts & Eyewitnesses © 1994; Glimpses of Other Realities, Vol. 2: High Strangeness (1998); Mysterious Lights and Crop Circles (2002); Strange Harvests 1993, an hour documentary film about an upsurge in animal mutilations and human interactions with aerial lights in Alabama and surrounding region from 1993 to 1994.

By 1999, Linda Moulton Howe created Earthfiles.com, a news website Howe reports, writes and edits about science, environment and Real X-Files issues and breaking news. Earthfiles has received several journalism awards for excellence. The Real X-Files section contains interviews, documents, illustrations and photographs related to a non-human presence on Earth and its interactions with civilians and military.

Milton William Cooper

In the 1980s, Milton William Cooper achieved a degree of prominence due to his conspiratorial writings.

Bob Lazar

In November 1989, Bob Lazar appeared in a special interview with investigative reporter George Knapp on Las Vegas TV station KLAS to discuss his alleged employment at S-4. In his interview with Knapp, Lazar said he first thought the saucers were secret, terrestrial aircraft, whose test flights must have been responsible for many UFO reports. Gradually, on closer examination and from having been shown multiple briefing documents, Lazar came to the conclusion that the discs must have been of extraterrestrial origin. In his filmed testimony, Lazar explains how this impression first hit him after he boarded the craft under study and examined their interior.

For the propulsion of the studied vehicles, Bob Lazar claims that the atomic Element 115 served as a nuclear fuel. Element 115 (provisionally named ‘Ununpentium’ (Uup)) reportedly provided an energy source which would produce anti-gravity effects under proton bombardment along with the production of antimatter used for energy production. Lazar’s website says, as the intense strong nuclear force field of element 115’s nucleus would be properly amplified, the resulting effect would be a distortion of the surrounding gravitational field, allowing the vehicle to immediately shorten the distance to a charted destination.

Lazar also claims that he was given introductory briefings describing the historical involvement with this planet for 10,000 years by extraterrestrial beings originating from the Zeta Reticuli 1 & 2 star system. These beings are therefore referred to as Zeta Reticulians, popularly called ‘Greys’.

Lazar says he has degrees from the California Institute of Technology and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1993, the Los Angeles Times looked into his background and found there was no evidence to support his claims.

“UFO Cover-Up?: Live!”

On October 14, 1988, actor Mike Farrell hosted “U.S. UFO Cover-Up: Live!” a two-hour prime-time syndicated television special that was broadcast in North America (and elsewhere). William Moore and Jamie Shandera appeared (among many other guests) and discussed the acquisition of the Majestic 12 documents, and introduced their sources “Falcon” and “Condor”, allegedly high-level government intelligence officials. Interviewed in shadow and with masked voices, Falcon and Condor disclosed information about the U.S. government’s involvement in UFOs and alien interaction, UFO crashes and occupant retrievals, and alien biology. This broadcast also included the first known mention of Area 51 on television. Also known as the “strawberry ice cream show” in reference to the informants’ remark that a captured EBE enjoyed strawberry ice cream and Tibetan music.[15]

July 1989 MUFON Convention

The Mutual UFO Network held their 1989 annual convention in Las Vegas, Nevada, on July 1, 1989.

Bill Moore (ufologist) was scheduled as the main speaker, and he refused to submit his paper for review prior to the convention, and also announced that he would not answer any follow-up questions as was common practice. Unlike most of the convention’s attendees, Moore did not stay at the same hotel that was hosting the convention.

When he spoke, Moore said that he and others had been part of an elaborate, long-term disinformation campaign begun primarily to discredit Paul Bennewitz: “My role in the affair … was primarily that of a freelancer providing information on Paul’s (Bennewitz) current thinking and activities.” (Clark, 1998, 163) Air Force Sergeant Richard C. Doty was also involved, said Moore, though Moore thought Doty was “simply a pawn in a much larger game, as was I.” (ibid.) One of their goals, Moore said, was to disseminate information and watch as it was passed from person to person in order to study information channels.

Moore said that he “was in a rather unique position” in the disinformation campaign: “judging by the positions of the people I knew to be directly involved in it, [the disinformation] definitely had something to do with national security. There was no way I was going to allow the opportunity to pass me by … I would play the disinformation game, get my hands dirty just often enough to lead those directing the process into believing I was doing what they wanted me to do, and all the while continuing to burrow my way into the matrix so as to learn as much as possible about who was directing it and why.”(ibid., 164)

Once he finished the speech, Moore immediately left the hotel. He left Las Vegas that same night.

Moore’s claims sent shock waves through the small, tight-knit UFO community, which remains divided as to the reliability of his assertions.

Rendlesham Forest Incident

Britain’s most celebrated[by whom?] UFO incident, and one of the best-documented in the world, occurred outside the US Air Force base at Woodbridge in Suffolk, England, shortly after Christmas 1980. Various lights were seen in neighbouring Rendlesham Forest by numerous servicemen, who investigated and found an apparent landing site. This site was examined by the deputy base commander, Charles I. Halt, who took readings with a Geiger counter and was also witness to a flashing light in the direction of Orford Ness as well as star-like objects in the sky. Copies of Halt’s letter to the U.K. Ministry of Defense were routinely released by the American base public affairs staff until the base closed.[16]

1990s

Shirley, NY.[17] John Ford, a Long Island MUFON researcher, investigates the crash. On June 12, 1996, Ford is arrested and charged with plotting to poison several local politicians by sneaking radium in their toothpaste. On advice of counsel Ford pleads insanity and is committed to the Mid Hudson Psychiatric Center.[18] Critics say the charges are a frame-up.[19] The Branton Files have circulated on the internet at least since the mid-1990s. They essentially recirculate the information presented above, with many asides from “Branton“, the document’s editor. Philip Schneider made a few appearances at UFO conventions in the 1990s, espousing essentially a new version of the theories mentioned above. He claimed to have survived the Dulce Base catastrophe and decided to tell his tale. In 1999 the French government published a study, “UFOs and Defense: What Must We Be Prepared For?” Among other topics, the study concludes that the United States government has withheld valuable evidence.[20]

2000s

2003 saw the publication of Alien Encounters (ISBN 1-57821-205-7), by Chuck Missler and Mark Eastman, which primarily re-states the notions presented above (especially Cooper’s) and presents them as fact.

MoD secret files

Eight files from 1978 to 1987 on UFO sightings were first released on May 14, 2008, to the National Archives’ website by the British Ministry of Defence. 200 files are set to be made public by 2012. The files are correspondence from the public sent to government officials, such as the MoD and Margaret Thatcher. The information can be downloaded.[21] Copies of Lt. Col. Halt’s letter regarding the sighting at RAF Woodbridge (see above) to the U.K. Ministry of Defense were routinely released (without addition comment) by the American base public affairs staff throughout the 1980s until the base closed. The MoD released the files due to requests under the Freedom of Information Act.[22] The files included, inter alia, alien craft flying over Liverpool and Waterloo Bridge in London.[23]

Allegations of evidence suppression

There have been allegations of suppression of UFO related evidence for many decades. There are also conspiracy theories which claim that physical evidence might have been removed and/or destroyed/suppressed by some governments. Some examples are:

Phoenix, Arizona.[24] The photos appeared in a Phoenix newspaper and a few other papers. An Army Air Force intelligence officer and an FBI agent interviewed Rhodes on August 29 and convinced him to surrender the negatives, which he did the next day. He was informed he wouldn’t be getting them back, but later unsuccessfully tried to retrieve them.[25][26] The photos were analyzed and subsequently appeared in some classified Air Force UFO intelligence reports. (Randle, 34–45, full account)[citation needed] A June 27, 1950, movie of a “flying disk” over Louisville, Kentucky, taken by a Louisville Courier-Journal photographer, had the USAF Directors of counterintelligence (AFOSI) and intelligence discussing in memos how to best obtain the movie and interview the photographer without revealing Air Force interest. One memo suggested the FBI be used, then precluded the FBI getting involved. Another memo said “it would be nice if OSI could arrange to secure a copy of the film in some covert manner,” but if that wasn’t feasible, one of the Air Force scientists might have to negotiate directly with the newspaper.[27][28] In a recent interview, the photographer confirmed meeting with military intelligence and still having the film in his possession until then, but refused to say what happened to the film after that.[29] In another 1950 movie incident from Montana, Nicholas Mariana filmed some unusual aerial objects and eventually turned the film over to the U.S. Air Force, but insisted that the first part of the film, clearly showing the objects as spinning discs, had been removed when it was returned to him. (Clark, 398)[citation needed] According to some conspiracy theorists, during the military investigation of green fireballs in New Mexico, UFOs were photographed by a tracking camera over White Sands Proving Grounds on April 27, 1949. They claim that the final report in 1951 on the green fireball investigation claimed there was insufficient data to determine anything. Conspiracy theorists claim that documents later uncovered by Dr. Bruce Maccabee indicate that triangulation was accomplished. The conspiracy theorists also claim that the data reduction and photographs showed four objects about 30 feet in diameter flying in formation at high speed at an altitude of about 30 miles. According to conspiracy theorists, Maccabee says this result was apparently suppressed from the final report.[30] On January 22, 1958, when NICAP director Donald Keyhoe appeared on CBS television, his statements on UFOs were pre-censored by the Air Force. During the show when Keyhoe tried to depart from the censored script to “reveal something that has never been disclosed before,” CBS cut the sound, later stating Keyhoe was about to violate “predetermined security standards” and about to say something he wasn’t “authorized to release.” Conspiracy theorists claim that what Keyhoe was about to reveal were four publicly unknown military studies concluding UFOs were interplanetary (including the 1948 Project Sign Estimate of the Situation and Blue Book’s 1952 engineering analysis of UFO motion). (Good, 286–287; Dolan 293–295)[citation needed] A March 1, 1967 memo directed to all USAF divisions, from USAF Lt. General Hewitt Wheless, Assistant Vice Chief of Staff, stated that unverified information indicated that unknown individuals, impersonating USAF officers and other military personnel, had been harassing civilian UFO witnesses, warning them not to talk, and also confiscating film, referring specifically to the Heflin incident. AFOSI was to be notified if any personnel were to become aware of any other incidents. (Document in Fawcett & Greenwood, 236)[citation needed]. John Callahan, former Division Chief of the Accidents and Investigations Branch of the FAA, Washington D.C., also a Disclosure Project witness, said that following a 1986 encounter of a Japanese airlines 747 with a giant UFO over Alaska, recorded by air and ground radar, the FAA conducted an investigation. Callahan held a briefing a few days later for President Reagan’s Scientific Study Group, the FBI, and CIA. After the briefing, one of the CIA agents told everybody they “were never there and this never happened,” adding they were fearful of public panic.[31]

References

1.      ^ CSI | UFOs and Aliens in Space

2.      ^ G.C. Sloan: Pseudoscience – What is not science?

3.      ^ “?”. http://www.nickpope.net/Selected_Documents.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-13.

4.      ^ John F. Schuessler (January 2000). “Public Opinion Surveys and Unidentified Flying Objects 50+ years of Sampling Public Opinions”. Mutual UFO Network. http://www.mufon.com/znews_publicopinion.html.

5.      ^ http://www.war-ofthe-worlds.co.uk/war_worlds_quito.htm

6.      ^ rufo cover

7.      ^ Caughey, John; Caughey, LaRee (1977). Los Angeles: biography of a city. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03410-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=YADTxxBmer8C&pg=PA364&dq=great+los+angeles+air+raid#v=onepage&q=great%20los%20angeles%20air%20raid&f=false.

8.      ^ Farley, John E. (1998). Earthquake fears, predictions, and preparations in mid-America. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-8093-2201-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=N_pf4YBuu9wC&pg=PA14&dq=%22great+los+angeles+air+raid%22#v=onepage&q=%22great%20los%20angeles%20air%20raid%22&f=false. Retrieved May 17, 2010.

9.      ^ Documents Dated Prior to 1948 The Majestic Documents

10.  ^ http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist9/aaf2.html San Francisco virtual museum article

11.  ^ Exon testimony “Brig. Gen. Arthur E. Exon”. http://www.roswellproof.com/Exon.html Exon testimony.

12.  ^ http://www.roswellproof.com/smith_papers.html

13.  ^ [1] [2]

14.  ^ “McDonald, 1968 Congressional testimony, Case 41”. http://www.ufoevidence.org/Newsite/Files/MacDonaldSubmissionUFOSymposium.pdf.

15.  ^ The full video can be seen at http://video.anomalies.net/video/123/UFO+Coverup%3F+LIVE!

16.  ^ Ian Ridpath. “The Rendlesham Forest UFO Case”. http://www.ianridpath.com/ufo/rendlesham.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-17.

17.  ^ UFO Crash At Southaven Park at www.ufocasebook.com

18.  ^ 20kWeb: 1989 UFO Landing and Government Intercept at www.20kweb.com

19.  ^ http://www.virtuallystrange.net/ufo/updates/2003/sep/m07-009.shtml

20.  ^ UFO Evidence : COMETA Report at www.ufoevidence.org

21.  ^ UFO files from The National Archives at www.nationalarchives.gov.uk

22.  ^ “Files released on UFO sightings”. BBC News. 2008-05-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7398108.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-05.

23.  ^ afp.google.com, The truth is out there: Britons ‘spotted’ UFOs, records say

24.  ^ Rhodes_Phoenix

25.  ^ http://projectbluebook.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB1-913

26.  ^ http://projectbluebook.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB1-920

27.  ^ http://projectbluebook.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB90-218

28.  ^ http://projectbluebook.org/page.aspx?PageCode=NARA-PBB90-219

29.  ^ Strange rocket-like UFO over California/Nevada, June 24, 1950

30.  ^ NCP-12: The White Sands Proof – Maccabee

31.  ^ http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc1324.htm

Clark, Jerome. The Ufo Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial. Visible Ink, 1998. ISBN 1-57859-029-9. Dolan, Richard M. UFOs and the National Security State: An Unclassified History, Volume One: 1941-1973. Keyhole Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-9666885-0-3. Fawcett, Lawrence and Greenwood, Barry J. The UFO Cover-Up (originally Clear Intent). New York: Fireside Books (Simon & Schuster), 1992. ISBN 0-671-76555-8. Good, Timothy. Above Top Secret. New York: William Morrow & Co., 1988. ISBN 0-688-09202-0. Philip J. Klass. UFOs Explained> New York: Random House, 1974. ISBN 0-394-49215-3. Peebles, Curtis. Watch the Skies! A Chronicle of the Flying Saucer Myth. Washington, DC:Smithsonian Institution, 1994. ISBN 1-56098-343-4. Rose, Bill and Buttler, Tony. Flying Saucer Aircraft (Secret Projects). Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-85780-233-0. Ruppelt, Edward J.. The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects. 1956, available online: [3]

Ufo Hypotheses By Wiki

UFO Hypotheses

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

UFO hypotheses consist of different hypotheses to account for unidentified flying object (UFO) sightings, many different ideas have been proposed to try and explain the reported phenomena and nature of UFOs.

Extraterrestrial hypothesis

The extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) is defined by Edward U. Condon in the 1968 Condon Report as “The idea that some UFOs may be spacecraft sent to Earth from another civilization, or on a planet associated with a more distant star”, further attributing the popularity of the idea to Donald Keyhoe‘s UFO book from 1950,[1] though the idea clearly predated Keyhoe, appearing in newspapers and various government documents. This is probably the most popular theory among Ufologists. Some private or governmental studies, some secret, have concluded in favor of the ETH, or have had members who disagreed with official conclusions against the conclusion by committees and agencies to which they belonged.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Hostility hypothesis

The UFO Hostility Hypothesis is inside the extraterrestrial hypothesis. It says that the extraterrestrial beings that travel in the UFOs, or most of them, are hostile. The hypothesis comes because of the Cattle Mutilations and the observations made by Wilhelm Reich and Jerome Eden during their experiments with the Cloudbuster.[9]

Balls of light hypothesis

The theory that UFOs can be explained by electromagnetic balls of plasma can be traced back to the work of Philip J. Klass in the 1960s who wanted a natural explanation for UFOs. Klass had shown that in certain cases there was evidence that UFOs sightings could be explained by balls of plasma and that UFOs were not extraterrestrial in origin.[10][11]

Some later researchers concluded that there was a strong link between UFO sightings and high levels of solar activity.[12] This idea was later confirmed by another researcher in 1980.[13] Another study to support this hypothesis was carried out by Jacques Vallée. Vallée completed an analysis on a large number of UFO sighting reports and found that in almost all cases the events started with the perception of a light.[14] These finds added credibility to the hypothesis that balls of light and UFOs are linked. The British government commissioned an official report on UFOs in 2000 which concluded that that UFOs are balls of electromagnetic plasma.[15]

Peter F. Coleman has advanced a theory that some UFOs may be explained by fireballs, instances of visible combustion of a fuel (e. g., natural gas) inside an atmospheric vortex.[16][17] Australian astrophysicist Stephen Hughes has also claimed there is evidence that some UFOs can be explained by ball lightning.[18]

Earthlights hypothesis

Related to the balls of light hypothesis is the earthlights or earthquake lights hypothesis which is based on the work of various independent researchers who have attempted to link UFO sightings where geological faults and geomagnetic fluctuations occur. Early researchers to suggest this hypothesis included Charles Fort, John Keel and Ferdinand Lagarde.[19][20][21]

Paul Devereux in 1982 had published an important work advocating the Earthlights hypothesis.[22] Michael Persinger in the late 1980s also published a number of research findings in scientific journals and a book (Persinger and Lafrenière 1977) which attempted to link psychological and neurological dimensions of UFOs sightings with geomagnetic activities.[23][24] Egon Bach author of UFOs from the Volcanoes (1993) also supported the hypothesis linking the phenomena to tornadoes and volcanoes.[25]

Electromagnetic hypothesis

The electromagnetic hypothesis can be traced to the work of independent researchers such as Michael Persinger who have claimed that electromagnetism can affect human perception. The hypothesis claims that if the human brain is exposed to high levels of electromagnetism then it can disturb the normal processes of the brain and cause altered states of consciousness, hallucinations and types of visionary experience. Persinger claims this may explain some UFO sightings as well as other paranormal phenomena.[26][27][28][29] Persinger has also linked geomagnetism to paranormal phenomena.[30] Other researchers have confirmed the work of Persinger that the human mind can become influenced by electromagnetism and lead to paranormal effects.[31][32][33]

A notable advocate of the electromagnetic hypothesis is Albert Budden author of the book Electric UFOs (1998).[34] Budden calls his hypothesis the “electro-staging hypothesis”, he claims that electromagnetic fields can induce hallucinations which can appear very realistic to the witness.[35]

Interdimensional hypothesis

The interdimensional hypothesis (IDH or IH), also called the extradimensional hypothesis (EDH), is a theory advanced by Jacques Vallée that says unidentified flying objects (UFOs) and related events involve visitations from other “realities” or “dimensions” that coexist separately alongside our own. It is an alternative to the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH).[36][37][38][39]

The French author Jacques Vallee believes that UFO sightings have strong links to supernatural creatures like fairies and elves, religious apparitions, and that they all emerge suddenly from a neighboring reality or dimension. The old reports of these “little people” are found very similar to experiences like lapses of missing time, people disappearing and popping in unexpected places, and modern UFO abductions. States Vallee, “we are dealing with a yet unrecognized level of consciousness, independent of man but closely linked to the Earth.”

IDH also holds that UFOs are a modern manifestation of a phenomenon that has occurred throughout recorded human history, which in prior ages were ascribed to mythological or supernatural creatures.[37] Meade Layne had proposed an early version of the interdimensional hypothesis to explain flying saucer sightings. He speculated that, rather than representing advanced military or extraterrestrial technology, flying saucers were piloted by beings from a parallel dimension, which he called Etheria, and their “ether ships” were usually invisible but could be seen when their atomic motion became slow enough. He further claimed that Etherians could become stranded on the terrestrial plane when their ether ships malfunctioned and that various governments were aware of these incidents and had investigated them.[40]

Although ETH has remained the predominant explanation for UFOs by UFOlogists,[41] some ufologists have abandoned it in favor of IDH. Paranormal researcher Brad Steiger wrote that “we are dealing with a multidimensional paraphysical phenomenon that is largely indigenous to planet Earth”.[42] Other UFOlogists, such as John Ankerberg and John Weldon, advocate IDH because it fits the explanation of UFOs as a spiritistic phenomenon. Commenting on the disparity between the ETH and the accounts that people have made of UFO encounters, Ankerberg and Weldon wrote “the UFO phenomenon simply does not behave like extraterrestrial visitors.”[36][43] In the book UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse published in 1970, John Keel linked UFOs to supernatural concepts such as ghosts and demons.

Also Jerome Clark was influenced by IDH but then he rejected this hypothesis and argued very cautiously in favor of the extraterrestrial hypothesis

The development of IDH as an alternative to ETH increased in the 1970s and 1980s with the publication of books by Vallée and J. Allen Hynek. In 1975, Vallée and Hynek advocated the hypothesis in The Edge of Reality: A Progress Report on Unidentified Flying Objects and further, in Vallée’s 1979 book Messengers of Deception: UFO Contacts and Cults.[44]

Some UFO proponents accepted IDH because the distance between stars makes interstellar travel impractical using conventional means and nobody had demonstrated an antigravity or faster-than-light travel hypothesis that could explain extraterrestrial machines. With IDH, it is unnecessary to explain any propulsion method because the IDH holds that UFOs are not spacecraft, but rather devices that travel between different realities.[45]

One advantage of IDH proffered by Hilary Evans is its ability to explain the apparent ability of UFOs to appear and disappear from sight and radar; this is explained as the UFO entering and leaving our dimension (“materializing” and “dematerializing”). Moreover, Evans argues that if the other dimension is slightly more advanced than ours, or is our own future, this would explain the UFOs’ tendency to represent near future technologies (airships in the 1890s, rockets and supersonic travel in the 1940s, etc.)[46]

In recent years a variant of the interdimensional hypothesis has been advocated by Andrew Collins author of The New Circlemakers: Insights Into the Crop Circle Mystery (2009).[47]

Cryptoterrestrial hypothesis

The Cryptoterrestrial hypothesis was suggested by the ufologist and futurologist Mac Tonnies. It concentrates on the idea that the so called extraterrestrial intelligence is not out of our planet, but living among us.[48]

Paranormal hypothesis

Some early psychical researchers such as Gustav Geley speculated that paranormal phenomena could be explained by the human mind materializing objects[49] this view had influenced a minority of UFO investigators in the 1970s. In 1975, John Keel published the Mothman Prophecies based on his investigation of reported UFOs in West Virginia. Keel had linked poltergeists and other paranormal events to the UFO sightings which he claimed were all occurring at the same.[50]

Another researcher Karl Brunstein in 1979 proposed similar ideas linking UFO sightings to paranormal events.[51] Other researchers also pointed out that there were similar features of reported sightings of ghosts and apparitions to UFOs.[52][53] The parapsychologist D. Scott Rogo also linked paranormal phenomena with UFO sightings[54] however the majority of parapsychologists do not study UFOs and very few advocate the hypothesis.

John Spencer in his book Gifts of the Gods? Are UFOs alien visitors or psychic phenomena? (1994) claimed that ufological and paranormal events are the outcome of a natural force or energy that science has not yet detected.[55]

Atmospheric life form hypothesis

The Atmospheric life form hypothesis also known as the “Space Animal”, “Space Critter” or “Sky Beast” hypothesis claims that UFOs are living organisms from the Earth’s atmosphere. The Naturalist Ivan T. Sanderson was supportive of the hypothesis in his book Uninvited Visitors (1967) and independently in the same year the paranormal writer Vincent Gaddis had also advocated the hypothesis in his book Mysterious Fires and Lights (1967). Kenneth Arnold was also a proponent of the hypothesis and wrote that UFOs are “groups and masses of living organisms that are as much a part of our atmosphere and space as the life we find in the oceans.”[56]

The UFO researcher John Philip Bessor believed that UFOs originate from the atmosphere and are “living organisms, sort of like sky jellyfish”.[57][58] Zoe Wassilko-Serecki an Austrian noblewoman wrote a number of articles in an occult magazine in which she concluded that UFOs were life forms in the atmosphere which feed on pure energy, creating “bladder-like bodies for themselves out of colloidal silicones.”[59] A famous reporting of a “sky beast” was the Crawfordsville monster which was sighted in Indiana in 1891.[60]

Another early UFO writer Trevor James Constable believed that the UFO phenomenon was best explained by the presence of large amoeba-like animals inhabiting Earth’s atmosphere. He called these hypothetical creatures “critters.” Constable speculated that they spent most of their time in an invisible low-density state and propelled themselves through the air with “orgonic energy, a force common to all living creatures”. Constable wrote that UFOs “are amoebalike life-forms existing in the plasma state. They are not solid, liquid, or gas. Rather, they exist in the fourth state of matter—plasma—as living heat-substance…” He believed when they increased their density, the animals became visible. He thought that “critters” were carnivores and the mutilated animal carcasses and unexplained disappearances were evidence that they sometimes preyed on humans and livestock. The implementation of radar was theorized to be the reason that the critters were being seen more often, as Constable imagined that it disturbs them out of hiding.[61] Constable developed his ideas in two books The Cosmic Pulse of Life (1976) and Sky Creatures: Living UFOs (1978) in these books also appeared photographs of which he claimed were evidence for “critters”.[62]

Another researcher the hydrophone inventor John M. Cage theorized that UFOs are sentient life-forms that follow airplanes, he wrote that UFOs are “sentient life forms of a highly tenuous composition, charged with and feeding upon electricity in the form of negative electricity.”[63]

The hypothesis was mentioned in detail by the cryptozoologist Karl Shuker in his book Dr Shuker’s Casebook (2008).[64]

Psychosocial hypothesis

The psychosocial or psychocultural hypothesis, colloquially abbreviated (PSH) or (PCH), argues that at least some UFO reports are best explained by psychological or social means. It is often contrasted with the better known extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH), and is particularly popular among UFO researchers in the United Kingdom, such as David Clarke, Hilary Evans, the editors of Magonia magazine, and many of the contributors to Fortean Times magazine. It is also popular in France since the publication in 1977 of a book written by Michel Monnerie,[65]Et si les ovnis n’existaient pas? (What if ufos do not exist?).

UFOlogists claim that the psychocultural hypothesis is occasionally confused with aggressive anti-ETH debunking, but that there is an important difference in that the PCH researcher sees UFOs as an interesting subject that is worthy of serious study, even if it is approached in a skeptical (i.e. non-credulous) way.[66]

The paradox of science fiction UFOs

Several authors underline the fact that the science-fiction magazines, stories, etc., curiously predate the UFO phenomena. Bertrand Méheust, a French sociologist, in his 1978 book Science-fiction et soucoupes volantes (Science-Fiction and flying saucers),[67] claimed that almost every aspect of the UFO phenomena can be located in pulp magazines of the beginning of the 20th century, well before the beginning of the modern UFO phenomena around 1947 .

In the same vein, in his article The truth is: They never were saucers,[68] Robert Sheaffer argued that just after the Kenneth Arnold case, most witnesses described UFOs as saucer- shaped, which agrees with the “flying saucer” reports in the media coverage of the event, but allegedly disagreed with what Arnold himself reported seeing, claiming Arnold instead reported “flying boomerangs.” Sheaffer then argued that this type of phenomenon demonstrates the importance of the culture in UFO narratives.

Mass hysteria

Some authors have argued that the UFO phenomena shows aspects of a mass hysteria, especially during UFO Waves. The French psychiatrist George Heuyer wrote this hypothesis in 1954 in a note to the Bulletin de l’Académie Nationale de Médecine.[69]

History of the PSH

With his essay ‘Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies (1958), Carl Gustav Jung[70] can be seen as one of the founding father of the PSH. On the other hand, because of his use of the concept of synchronicity in this book, he is also one of the founding father of paranormal explanations of the UFO phenomena. However, even though Jung at times advanced the idea that UFOs might be partly psychological manifestations, he was also on record stating that some might be true physical objects under intelligent control, citing in particular radar corroboration. Jung also seriously considered the Extraterrestrial Hypothesis. For example, Associated Press quoted him in 1958 saying, “a purely psychological explanation is ruled out.” The flying saucers were real and “show signs of intelligent guidance and quasi-human pilots. I can only say for certain that these things are not a mere rumor, something has been seen. …If the extraterrestrial origin of these phenomena should be confirmed, this would prove the existence of an intelligent interplanetary relationship. …That the construction of these machines proves a scientific technique immensely superior to ours cannot be disputed.”[71]

Hilary Evans was an notable exponent of the psychosocial hypothesis of UFOs as culturally shaped visionary experiences.[72]

References

1.      ^ Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects, Section II Summary of the Study, Edward U. Condon, University of Colorado

2.      ^ Good (1988), 23

3.      ^ Document quoted and published in Timothy Good (2007), 106–107, 115; USAFE Item 14, TT 1524, (Top Secret), November 4, 1948, declassified in 1997, National Archives, Washington D.C.

4.      ^ Schuessler, John L., “Statements About Flying Saucers And Extraterrestrial Life Made By Prof. Hermann Oberth, German Rocket Scientist” 2002; Oberth’s American Weekly article appeared in a number of newspaper Sunday supplements, e. g., Washington Post and Times Herald, pg. AW4

5.      ^ Dolan, 189; Good, 287, 337; Ruppelt, Chapt. 16

6.      ^ Good, 347

7.      ^ David Saunders, UFOs? Yes

8.      ^ Velasco quoted in La Dépêche du Midi, Toulouse, France, April 18, 2004

9.      ^ Eden, Jerome: Scavengers From Space

10.  ^ Klass, Philip J. (1966a). “Plasma theory may explain many UFOs”. Aviation Week (22 August): 48 & ff.

11.  ^ Klass, Philip J. (1966b). “Many UFOs are identified as plasmas”. Aviation Week (3 October): 54 & ff.

12.  ^ Poher, Claude and J. Vallée. (1975). “Basic patterns in UFO observations”. Annual Conference of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautic, Pasadena, California, 20–22 January.

13.  ^ Foshufvud, Ragnar. (1980). “Unidentified flying objects – A physical phenomenon”. Pursuit 13(2).

14.  ^ Fuller, Curtis G. (Ed.). (1980). Proceedings of the First International UFO Congress. New York: Warner.

15.  ^ United Kingdom. (2000). Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP) in the UK Air Defence Region (Scientific & Technical Memorandum 55/2/00). London: Ministry of Defence.

16.  ^ Ball Lightning Experiments Produce UFOs See Weather, p. 31, 1993; Journal of Scientific Exploration, 2006, Vol. 20, pp. 215–238, and his book Great balls of Fire–a unified theory of ball lightning, UFOs, Tunguska and other anomalous lights, Fireshine Press

17.  ^ A Unified Theory of Ball Lightning and Unexplained Atmospheric Lights

18.  ^ Ball lightning ‘may explain UFOs’ By Jonathan Amos

19.  ^ Fort, Charles. (1923). New Lands. New York: Boni & Liveright.

20.  ^ Keel, John. (1968). “Is the ‘EM’ effect a myth?” Flying Saucer Review 14(6).

21.  ^ Lagarde, Ferdinand. (1968). Flying Saucer Review 14(6).

22.  ^ Devereux, Paul. (1982). Earthlights. Wellingborough: Turnstone Press.

23.  ^ Persinger, M.A. (1975). Geophysical models for parapsychological experiences

24.  ^ Persinger, M.A., & Lafrenière, G.F. (1977). Space-time Transients and Unusual Events. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

25.  ^ Ergon BachUFOs from the Volcanoes Hermitage; First Edition edition, 1993 ISBN 1-55779-062-0

26.  ^ Roll, W.G. & Persinger, M.A. (2001). “Poltergeists and hauntings”. In J. Houran & R. Lange (Eds.), Hauntings and poltergeists: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, pp. 123-163.

27.  ^ Persinger, M.A. (1979). “ELF field mediation in spontaneous PSI events: direct information transfer or conditioned elicitation?”. Psychoenergetic Systems 3: 155-169

28.  ^ Persinger, M.A. (1987). “Spontaneous telepathic experiences from Phantasms of the Living and low global geomagnetic activity”. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 81: 23-36.

29.  ^ Persinger, M. A. (2000). “The UFO experience: A normal correlate of human brain function”. In D.M. Jacobs (Ed.), UFOs and abductions: Challenging the borders of knowledge. University Press of Kansas: Lawrence. 2000, pp. 262-302.

30.  ^ Persinger, M. A., & Koren, S. A. (2001). “Predicting the characteristics of haunts from geomagnetic factors and brain sensitivity: Evidence from field and experimental studies”. In J. Houran & R. Lange (Eds), Hauntings and poltergeists: Multidisciplinary perspectives. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, pp. 179-194.

31.  ^ Braud, W.G. and S.P. Dennis. (1989). “Geophysical variables and behaviour: LVIII.” Perceptual and Motor Skills 68: 1243-1254.

32.  ^ Brovetto, P. and V. Maxia. (2008). “Some conjectures about the mechanism of poltergeist phenomenon.” NeuroQuantology 6(2): 1-8.

33.  ^ Roll, William.G. (2003). “Poltergeists, Electromagnetism and Consciousness.” Journal of Scientific Exploration 17(1): 75–86.

34.  ^ Budden, Albert. (1998) Electric Ufos: Fireballs, Electromagnetics and Abnormal States Darby: Diane Pub Co.

35.  ^ Phenomenal World by Joan D’Arc

36.  ^ a b Gary Bates (2005). Alien Intrusion. New Leaf Publishing Group. pp. 84–87,114–115,157–160,164. ISBN 0-89051-435-6.

37.  ^ a b “History of UFOs”. Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. World Almanac Education Group. 2006. http://history.com/minisite.do?content_type=Minisite_Generic&content_type_id=57838&mini_id=57826.

38.  ^ Hugh Ross, Kenneth R. Samples, Mark Clark (June 1, 2002). Lights in the Sky & Little Green Men: A Rational Christian Look at Ufos and Extraterrestrials. NavPress Publishing Group. ISBN 1-57683-208-2. http://www.amazon.com/Lights-Sky-Little-Green-Extraterrestrials/dp/1576832082. “While numerous mystical explanations have been proposed for UFOs, ufologists identify two distinct “otherworldly” hypotheses: the extradimensional hypothesis (ETH) and the interdimensional hypothesis (IDH).”

39.  ^ “UFO Hunters – History of UFOs”. the History Channel. http://www.history.com/content/ufohunters/history-of-ufos.

40.  ^ Reece, Gregory L. (August 21, 2007). UFO Religion: Inside Flying Saucer Cults and Culture. I. B. Tauris

41.  ^ Jacques Vallee (1980). Messengers of Deception: UFO Contacts and Cults. New York: Bantam Books.

42.  ^ Steiger, Brad, Blue Book Files Released in Canadian UFO Report, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1977, p. 20

43.  ^ John Ankerberg & John Weldon, The Facts on UFO’s and Other Supernatural Phenomena, (Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers, 1992, pp10

44.  ^ Steven J. Dick (1999). The Biological Universe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 313–320. ISBN 0-521-66361-X.

45.  ^ David Hatcher Childress (1990). Anti-Gravity and the Unified Field. Adventures Unlimited Press. pp. 134. ISBN 0-932813-10-0.

46.  ^ Hilary Evans (1979). UFOs: The Greatest Mystery. Chartwell Books. p. 91.

47.  ^ Andrew Collins The New Circlemakers: Insights Into the Crop Circle Mystery A.R.E. Press, 2009, ISBN 0-87604-549-2

48.  ^ Tonnies, Mac. (2010). The Cryptoterrestrials: A Meditation on Indigenous Humanoids and the Aliens Among Us ISBN 1-933665-46-7

49.  ^ Geley, Gustave. (1924). L’ectoplasmie et la clairvoyance. Paris Alcan.

50.  ^ Keel, John. (1975). The Mothman Prophecies. New York: Tor.

51.  ^ Brunstein, Karl. (1979). Beyond the Four Dimensions: Reconciling physics, parapsychology and UFOs. New York: Walker and Co.

52.  ^ Favre, François. (1978). “Caractère généraux des apparitions”. Revue de Parapsychologie 6 (July).

53.  ^ Houran, J. and R. Lange. (2001). “A Rasch hierarchy of haunt and poltergeist experiences.” Journal of Parapsychology 65: 41-58.

54.  ^ Rogo, Scott. (2006) [1977]. The Haunted Universe. San Antonio: Anomalist Books.

55.  ^ Spencer, John. (1994). Gifts of the Gods? Are UFOs alien visitors or psychic phenomena? London: Virgin Books.

56.  ^ From Missouri’s Project Identification to Washington State’s Yakima “UFO” Research

57.  ^ Otto Oscar Binder What we really know about flying saucers Fawcett Publications, 1967, p.155

58.  ^ Karl P. N. Shuker The unexplained: an illustrated guide to the world’s natural and paranormal mysteries 1996, p. 135

59.  ^ Andrew Collins The New Circlemakers: Insights Into the Crop Circle Mystery 2009, p. 55

60.  ^ The Cryptid Zoo: Atmospheric Beasts

61.  ^ Reece, Gregory L. (August 21, 2007). UFO Religion: Inside Flying Saucer Cults and Culture. I. B. Tauris. pp. 17.

62.  ^ Andrew Collins The New Circlemakers: Insights Into the Crop Circle Mystery 2009, pp. 54-60

63.  ^ Jerome Clark UFOs in the 1980s Apogee Books, 1990, p. 317

64.  ^ Karl Shuker Dr Shuker’s Casebook cfz, 2008

65.  ^ Monnerie, M. (1977). Et si les ovnis n’existaient pas ? Paris : Les Humanoïdes Associés.

66.  ^ “Ritual Debunker Abuse”, the Hierophant, Fortean Times issue 216 (November 2006), page 13.

67.  ^ Méheust, B. (1978). Science-fiction et soucoupes volantes – Une réalité mythico-physique, Paris: Mercure de France

68.  ^ The Truth is: They never were saucers

69.  ^ Heuyer, G. (1954). Note sur les psychoses collectives. Bulletin de l’Académie Nationale de Médecine, 138, 29-30, 487-490.

70.  ^ Jung, Carl Gustav (1958). Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies.

71.  ^ Many newspapers, e.g., New York Herald Tribune, Stars and Stripes, July 30, 1958

72.  ^ Jerome Clark, Encyclopedia of strange and unexplained physical phenomena, Thomson Gale Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8103-8843-X ISBN 978-0810388437 p.329

Scientific Skepticism By Wiki

Scientific Skepticism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/be/Carl_Sagan_Planetary_Society.JPG/220px-Carl_Sagan_Planetary_Society.JPGScientific skepticism (also spelled scepticism) is the practice of questioning whether claims are supported by empirical research and have reproducibility, as part of a methodological norm pursuing “the extension of certified knowledge”.[1] For example, Robert K. Merton asserts that all ideas must be tested and are subject to rigorous, structured community scrutiny (see Mertonian norms).[2]

About the term and its scope

This sort of skepticism is also called rational skepticism, and it is sometimes referred to as skeptical inquiry.

The term scientific skepticism appears to have originated in the work of Carl Sagan, first in Contact (p. 306), and then in Billions and Billions (p. 135).[3][4]

Scientific skepticism is different from philosophical skepticism, which questions our ability to claim any knowledge about the nature of the world and how we perceive it. Scientific skepticism primarily uses deductive arguments to evaluate claims which lack a suitable evidential basis. The New Skepticism described by Paul Kurtz is scientific skepticism.[5]

Overview

ScienceScientific skeptics believe that empirical investigation of reality leads to the truth, and that the scientific method is best suited to this purpose. Considering the rigor of the scientific method, science itself may simply be thought of as an organized form of skepticism. This does not mean that the scientific skeptic is necessarily a scientist who conducts live experiments (though this may be the case), but that the skeptic generally accepts claims that are in his/her view likely to be true based on testable hypotheses and critical thinking.

Scientific skeptics attempt to evaluate claims based on verifiability and falsifiability and discourage accepting claims on faith or anecdotal evidence. Skeptics often focus their criticism on claims they consider to be implausible, dubious or clearly contradictory to generally accepted science. Scientific skeptics do not assert that unusual claims should be automatically rejected out of hand on a priori grounds – rather they argue that claims of paranormal or anomalous phenomena should be critically examined and that extraordinary claims would require extraordinary evidence in their favor before they could be accepted as having validity.

From a scientific point of view, theories are judged on many criteria, such as falsifiability, Occam’s Razor, and explanatory power, as well as the degree to which their predictions match experimental results. Skepticism is part of the scientific method; for instance an experimental result is not regarded as established until it can be shown to be repeatable independently.[6]

By the principles of skepticism, the ideal case is that every individual could make his own mind up on the basis of the evidence rather than appealing to some authority, skeptical or otherwise. In practice this becomes difficult because of the amount of knowledge now possessed by science, and so an ability to balance critical thinking with an appreciation for consensus amongst the most relevant scientists becomes vital.

Not all fringe science is pseudoscience. For instance, some proponents of repressed memories apply the scientific method carefully, and have even found some empirical support for their validity,[7][8][9] though the theories have not received complete scientific consensus.[10][11][12][13]

Empirical or scientific skeptics do not profess philosophical skepticism. Whereas a philosophical skeptic may deny the very existence of knowledge, an empirical skeptic merely seeks likely proof before accepting that knowledge.

Examples

Some of the topics that scientifically skeptical literature questions include health claims surrounding certain foods, procedures, and alternative medicines; the plausibility and existence of supernatural abilities (e.g. tarot reading) or entities (e.g. poltergeists, angels, gods – including Zeus); the monsters of cryptozoology (e.g. the Loch Ness monster); as well as creationism/intelligent design, dowsing, conspiracy theories, and other claims the skeptic sees as unlikely to be true on scientific grounds.[14][15]

Skeptics such as James Randi have become famous for debunking claims related to some of these. Paranormal investigator Joe Nickell cautions, however, that “debunkers” must be careful to engage paranormal claims seriously and without bias. He explains that open minded investigation is more likely to teach and change minds than debunking.[16] Many skeptics are atheists or agnostics, and have a naturalistic world-view; however, some committed skeptics of pseudoscience including Martin Gardner have expressed belief in a god.[17]

Pseudoskepticism

Richard Cameron Wilson, in an article in New Statesman, wrote that some advocates of discredited intellectual positions such as AIDS denial and Holocaust denial engage in pseudoskeptical behavior when they characterize themselves as “skeptics” despite cherry picking evidence that conforms to a pre-existing belief.[18] According to Wilson, who highlights the phenomenon in his book Don’t Get Fooled Again (2008),[19] the characteristic feature of false skepticism is that it “centres not on an impartial search for the truth, but on the defence of a preconceived ideological position”.

Scientific skepticism is itself sometimes criticized on this ground. The term pseudoskepticism has found occasional use in controversial fields where opposition from scientific skeptics is strong. For example, in 1994, Susan Blackmore, a parapsychologist who became more skeptical and eventually became a CSICOP fellow in 1991, described what she termed the “worst kind of pseudoskepticism”:

“There are some members of the skeptics’ groups who clearly believe they know the right answer prior to inquiry. They appear not to be interested in weighing alternatives, investigating strange claims, or trying out psychic experiences or altered states for themselves (heaven forbid!), but only in promoting their own particular belief structure and cohesion…”[20]

Commenting on the labels “dogmatic” and “pathological” that the “Association for Skeptical Investigation”[21] puts on critics of paranormal investigations, Robert Todd Carroll of the Skeptic’s Dictionary[22] argues that that association “is a group of pseudo-skeptical paranormal investigators and supporters who do not appreciate criticism of paranormal studies by truly genuine skeptics and critical thinkers. The only skepticism this group promotes is skepticism of critics and [their] criticisms of paranormal studies.”[23]

Fringe science and pseudoscience

In practice, the term is most commonly applied to the examination of fringe and pseudoscientific claims and theories which appear to be outside mainstream science and medicine, rather than to the routine discussions and challenges among scientists.

Dangers of pseudoscience

Skepticism is an approach to strange or unusual claims where doubt is preferred to belief, given a lack of conclusive evidence. Skeptics generally consider beliefs in the extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) and psychic powers as misguided, since no empirical evidence exists supporting such phenomena. The Ancient Greek philosopher Plato believed that to release another person from ignorance despite their initial resistance is a great and noble thing.[24] Modern skeptical writers address this question in a variety of ways.

Bertrand Russell argued that individual actions are based upon the beliefs of the person acting, and if the beliefs are unsupported by evidence, then such beliefs can lead to destructive actions.[25] James Randi also often writes on the issue of fraud by psychics and faith healers.[26] Critics of alternative medicine often point to bad advice given by unqualified practitioners, leading to serious injury or death. Richard Dawkins points to religion as a source of violence (notably in his book, The God Delusion), and considers creationism a threat to biology.[27] Some skeptics, such as the members of The Skeptics’ Guide to the Universe podcast, oppose certain cults and new religious movements because of their concern about what they consider false miracles performed or endorsed by the leadership of the group.[28] They often criticize belief systems which they believe to be idiosyncratic, bizarre or irrational.

References

1.      ^ Basic concepts: the norms of science. Posted on: January 29, 2008 1:05 PM, by Janet D. Stemwedel, quoting R. K. Merton 1942

2.      ^ Merton, R. K. (1942) The Normative Structure of Science In: Merton, Robert King (1973). The Sociology of Science: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-52091-9.

3.      ^ Sagan, Carl (1997). Contact. Orbit. pp. 432. ISBN 1-85723-580-0.

4.      ^ Sagan, Carl (1998). Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Ballantine Books. pp. 320. ISBN 0-345-37918-7.

5.      ^ Kurtz, Paul (1992). The New Skepticism: Inquiry and Reliable Knowledge. Prometheus Books. pp. 371. ISBN 0-87975-766-3.

6.      ^ Wudka, Jose (1998). “What is the scientific method?”. http://physics.ucr.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node6.html#SECTION02121000000000000000. Retrieved 2007-05-27.

7.      ^ Chu, J; Frey L, Ganzel B, Matthews J (May 1999). “Memories of childhood abuse: dissociation, amnesia, and corroboration”. American Journal of Psychiatry 156 (5): 749–55. PMID 10327909.

8.      ^ Duggal, S.; Sroufe, L. A. (April 1998). “Recovered memory of childhood sexual trauma: A documented case from a longitudinal study”. Journal of Traumatic Stress 11 (2): 301–321. doi:10.1023/A:1024403220769. PMID 9565917. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/jots/1998/00000011/00000002/00423218. Retrieved 2007-12-31.

9.      ^ Freyd, Jennifer J. (1996). Betrayal Trauma – The Logic of Forgetting Childhood Abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-06805-X.

10.  ^ McNally, R.J. (2004). “The Science and Folklore of Traumatic Amnesia”. Clinical Psychology Science and Practice 11 (1): 29–33. doi:10.1093/clipsy/bph056.

11.  ^ McNally RJ (2007). “Dispelling confusion about traumatic dissociative amnesia”. Mayo Clin. Proc. 82 (9): 1083–90. doi:10.4065/82.9.1083. PMID 17803876.

12.  ^ McNally RJ (2004). “Is traumatic amnesia nothing but psychiatric folklore?”. Cogn Behav Ther 33 (2): 97–101; discussion 102–4, 109–11. doi:10.1080/16506070410021683. PMID 15279316.

13.  ^ McNally RJ (2005). “Debunking myths about trauma and memory”. Can J Psychiatry 50 (13): 817–22. PMID 16483114.

14.  ^ Martin Gardner,Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science, Dover, 1957; ISBN 0-486-20394-8

15.  ^ “Skeptics Dictionary Alphabetical Index Abracadabra to Zombies”. skepdic.com. 2007. http://skepdic.com/contents.html. Retrieved 2007-05-27.

16.  ^ http://www.pointofinquiry.org/joe_nickell_skeptical_inquiry_vs_debunking/

17.  ^ HANSEN, George P. (1992). “CSICOP and the Skeptics: An Overview”. http://www.tricksterbook.com/ArticlesOnline/CSICOPoverview.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-25.

18.  ^ Richard Wilson, Against the Evidence, New Statesman, 18 September 2008

19.  ^ Richard C. Wilson, “Don’t get fooled again: the sceptic’s guide to life”, Icon, 2008, ISBN 1-84831-014-5, 9781848310148, 240 pages

20.  ^ JE Kennedy, “The Capricious, Actively Evasive, Unsustainable Nature of Psi: A Summary and Hypotheses”, The Journal of Parapsychology, Volume 67, pp. 53–74, 2003. See Note 1 page 64 quoting Blackmore, S. J. (1994). Women skeptics. In L. Coly & R. White (Eds.), Women and parapsychology (pp. 234–236). New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

21.  ^ Association for Skeptical Investigation website

22.  ^ Skepdic article on positive pseudo-skeptics

23.  ^ Robert Todd CarrollInternet Bunk: Skeptical Investigations.” Skeptic’s Dictionary

24.  ^ Allegory of the cave, Plato The Republic, (New CUP translation by Tom Griffith and G.R.F. Ferrari into English) ISBN 0-521-48443-X

25.  ^ Russell, Bertrand (1907). “On the Value of Scepticism”. The Will To Doubt. Positive Atheism. http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/russell4.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-27.

26.  ^ Fighting Against Flimflam, TIME, Jun. 24, 2001

27.  ^ Better living without God? – Religion is a dangerously irrational mirage, says Dawkins, San Francisco Chronicle, October 15, 2006

28.  ^ Langone, Michael D. (June 1995). Recovery from Cults: Help for Victims of Psychological and Spiritual Abuse. W. Norton. American Family Foundation. pp. 432. ISBN 0-393-31321-2. http://books.google.com/?id=9xJDszg7cuwC&pg=PA5&lpg=PA1&dq=Recovery+from+Cults+(book.

Roswell Ufo Incident By Wiki

Roswell UFO Incident

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/c/c4/RoswellDailyRecordJuly8%2C1947.jpg/300px-RoswellDailyRecordJuly8%2C1947.jpg

 

Roswell Daily Record, July 8, 1947, announcing the “capture” of a “flying saucer.”

The Roswell UFO Incident refers to the recovery of an object that crashed in the general vicinity of Roswell, New Mexico, in June or July 1947, allegedly an extra-terrestrial spacecraft and its alien occupants. Since the late 1970s the incident has been the subject of intense controversy and of conspiracy theories as to the true nature of the object that crashed. The United States Armed Forces maintains that what was recovered was debris from an experimental high-altitude surveillance balloon belonging to a classified program named “Mogul“;[1] however, many UFO proponents maintain that an alien craft was found and its occupants were captured, and that the military then engaged in a cover-up. The incident has turned into a widely known pop culture phenomenon, making the name Roswell synonymous with UFOs. It ranks as the most publicized and controversial of alleged UFO incidents.[2]

On July 8, 1947, the Roswell Army Air Field (RAAF) public information officer Walter Haut in Roswell, New Mexico, issued a press release[3] stating that personnel from the field’s 509th Bomb Group had recovered a crashed “flying disk” from a ranch near Roswell, sparking intense media interest. The following day, the press reported that Commanding General of the Eighth Air Force (Roger M. Ramey) stated that, in fact, a radar-tracking balloon had been recovered by the RAAF personnel, not a “flying disc.”[4] A subsequent press conference was called, featuring debris said to be from the crashed object, which seemed to confirm the weather balloon description.

The incident was quickly forgotten and almost completely ignored, even by UFO researchers, for more than 30 years. Then, in 1978, physicist and ufologist Stanton T. Friedman interviewed Major Jesse Marcel who was involved with the original recovery of the debris in 1947. Marcel expressed his belief that the military had covered up the recovery of an alien spacecraft. His story spread through UFO circles, being featured in some UFO documentaries at the time.[2] In February 1980, The National Enquirer ran its own interview with Marcel, garnering national and worldwide attention for the Roswell incident.[2]

Additional witnesses added significant new details, including claims of a huge military operation dedicated to recovering alien craft and aliens themselves, at as many as 11 crash sites,[2] and alleged witness intimidation. In 1989, former mortician Glenn Dennis put forth a detailed personal account, wherein he claimed that alien autopsies were carried out at the Roswell base.[5]

In response to these reports, and after congressional inquiries, the General Accounting Office launched an inquiry and directed the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force to conduct an internal investigation. The result was summarized in two reports. The first, released in 1995, concluded that the reported recovered material in 1947 was likely debris from a secret government program called Project Mogul, which involved high altitude balloons meant to detect sound waves generated by Soviet atomic bomb tests and ballistic missiles.[6] The second report, released in 1997, concluded that reports of recovered alien bodies were likely a combination of innocently transformed memories of military accidents involving injured or killed personnel, innocently transformed memories of the recovery of anthropomorphic dummies in military programs like Project High Dive conducted in the 1950s, and hoaxes perpetrated by various witnesses and UFO proponents. The psychological effects of time compression and confusion about when events occurred explained the discrepancy with the years in question. These reports were dismissed by UFO proponents as being either disinformation or simply implausible. However, numerous high-profile UFO researchers discount the possibility that the incident had anything to do with aliens.[7][8][9]

Contemporary accounts of materials found

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/2/25/SacramentoBeeArticleJuly8%2C1947.jpg/220px-SacramentoBeeArticleJuly8%2C1947.jpg

 

The Sacramento Bee article detailing the RAAF statements

On June 14, 1947, William Ware “Mack” or “Mac” Brazel noticed some strange clusters of debris while working on the Foster homestead, where he was foreman, some 30 miles (50 km) north of Roswell. This date (or “about three weeks” before July 8) appeared in later stories featuring Brazel, but the initial press release from the Roswell Army Air Field said the find was “sometime last week,” suggesting Brazel found the debris in early July.[10] Brazel told the Roswell Daily Record that he and his son saw a “large area of bright wreckage made up of rubber strips, tinfoil, a rather tough paper and sticks.”[11] He paid little attention to it but returned on July 4 with his son, wife and daughter to gather up the material.[12] Some accounts have described Brazel as having gathered some of the material earlier, rolling it together and stashing it under some brush.[13] The next day, Brazel heard reports about “flying discs” and wondered if that was what he had picked up.[12] On July 7, Brazel saw Sheriff Wilcox and “whispered kinda confidential like” that he may have found a flying disc.[12] Another account quotes Wilcox as saying that Brazel reported the object on July 6.[10]

Sheriff Wilcox called Roswell Army Air Field. Major Jesse Marcel and a “man in plainclothes” accompanied Brazel back to the ranch where more pieces were picked up. “[We] spent a couple of hours Monday afternoon [July 7] looking for any more parts of the weather device”, said Marcel. “We found a few more patches of tinfoil and rubber.”[14]

As described in the July 9, 1947, edition of the Roswell Daily Record,

The balloon which held it up, if that was how it worked, must have been 12 feet long, [Brazel] felt, measuring the distance by the size of the room in which he sat. The rubber was smoky gray in color and scattered over an area about 200 yards in diameter. When the debris was gathered up, the tinfoil, paper, tape, and sticks made a bundle about three feet long and 7 or 8 inches thick, while the rubber made a bundle about 18 or 20 inches long and about 8 inches thick. In all, he estimated, the entire lot would have weighed maybe five pounds. There was no sign of any metal in the area which might have been used for an engine, and no sign of any propellers of any kind, although at least one paper fin had been glued onto some of the tinfoil. There were no words to be found anywhere on the instrument, although there were letters on some of the parts. Considerable Scotch tape and some tape with flowers printed upon it had been used in the construction. No strings or wires were to be found but there were some eyelets in the paper to indicate that some sort of attachment may have been used.[15]

A telex sent to an FBI office from their office in Dallas, Texas, quoted a major from the Eighth Air Force on July 8:

THE DISC IS HEXAGONAL IN SHAPE AND WAS SUSPENDED FROM A BALLON [sic] BY CABLE, WHICH BALLON WAS APPROXIMATELY TWENTY FEET IN DIAMETER. MAJOR CURTAN FURTHER ADVISED THAT THE OBJECT FOUND RESEMBLES A HIGH ALTITUDE WEATHER BALLOON WITH A RADAR REFLECTOR, BUT THAT TELEPHONIC CONVERSATION BETWEEN THEIR OFFICE AND WRIGHT FIELD HAD NOT [unintelligible] BORNE OUT THIS BELIEF.[16]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fb/Nssl0020.jpg/170px-Nssl0020.jpg

 

A NOAA weather balloon just after launch

Early on Tuesday, July 8, the Roswell Army Air Field issued a press release, which was immediately picked up by numerous news outlets:

The many rumors regarding the flying disc became a reality yesterday when the intelligence office of the 509th Bomb group of the Eighth Air Force, Roswell Army Air Field, was fortunate enough to gain possession of a disc through the cooperation of one of the local ranchers and the sheriff’s office of Chaves County. The flying object landed on a ranch near Roswell sometime last week. Not having phone facilities, the rancher stored the disc until such time as he was able to contact the sheriff’s office, who in turn notified Maj. Jesse A. Marcel of the 509th Bomb Group Intelligence Office. Action was immediately taken and the disc was picked up at the rancher’s home. It was inspected at the Roswell Army Air Field and subsequently loaned by Major Marcel to higher headquarters.[17]

Colonel William H. Blanchard, commanding officer of the 509th, contacted General Roger M. Ramey of the Eighth Air Force in Fort Worth, Texas, and Ramey ordered the object be flown to Fort Worth Army Air Field. At the base, Warrant Officer Irving Newton confirmed Ramey’s preliminary opinion, identifying the object as being a weather balloon and its “kite,”[13] a nickname for a radar reflector used to track the balloons from the ground. Another news release was issued, this time from the Fort Worth base, describing the object as being a “weather balloon”.

In Fort Worth, several news photographs were taken that day of debris said to be from the object.

Witness accounts emerge

New witness accounts and the emergence of alien narratives

In 1978, nuclear physicist and author Stanton T. Friedman interviewed Jesse Marcel, the only person known to have accompanied the Roswell debris from where it was recovered to Fort Worth where reporters saw material said to be part of the recovered object. Over the next few years, the accounts he and others gave elevated Roswell from a forgotten incident to perhaps the most famous UFO case of all time.[2]

By the early 1990s, UFO researchers such as Friedman, William Moore, Karl T. Pflock, and the team of Kevin D. Randle and Donald R. Schmitt had interviewed several hundred people who had, or claimed to have had, a connection with the events at Roswell in 1947.[18] Additionally, hundreds of documents were obtained via Freedom of Information Act requests, as were some apparently leaked by insiders, such as the disputed “Majestic 12” documents.[19]

Their conclusions were that at least one alien craft had crashed in the Roswell vicinity, that aliens, some possibly still alive, were recovered, and that a massive cover-up of any knowledge of the incident was put in place.

Numerous books, articles, television specials and even a made-for-TV movie brought the 1947 incident fame and notoriety so that by the mid-1990s, strong majorities in polls, such as a 1997 CNN/Time poll, believed that aliens had visited earth and specifically that aliens had landed at Roswell and the government was covering up the fact.[20]

A new narrative emerged, which was at strong odds with what was reported in 1947. This narrative evolved over the years from the time the first book on Roswell was published in 1980 as many new witnesses and accounts emerged, drawn out in part by publicity on the incident. Though skeptics had many objections to the plausibility of these accounts, it was not until 1994 and the publication of the first Air Force report on the incident that a strong counter-argument to the presence of aliens was widely publicized.

Numerous scenarios emerged from these authors as to what they felt were the true sequence of events, depending on which witness accounts were embraced or dismissed, and what the documentary evidence suggested. This was especially true in regards to the various claimed crash and recovery sites of alien craft, as various authors had different witnesses and different locations for these events.[2]

However, the following general outline from UFO Crash at Roswell (1991) by Kevin D. Randle and Donald R. Schmitt is common to most of these accounts:

A UFO crashed northwest of Roswell, New Mexico, in the summer of 1947. The military acted quickly and efficiently to recover the debris after its existence was reported by a ranch hand. The debris, unlike anything these highly trained men had ever seen, was flown without delay to at least three government installations. A cover story was concocted to explain away the debris and the flurry of activity. It was explained that a weather balloon, one with a new radiosonde target device, had been found and temporarily confused the personnel of the 509th Bomb Group. Government officials took reporters’ notes from their desks and warned a radio reporter not to play a recorded interview with the ranch hand. The men who took part in the recovery were told never to talk about the incident. And with a whimper, not a bang, the Roswell event faded quickly from public view and press scrutiny.[21]

What follows is accounts of the sequence of events according to some of the major books published on the subject.

The Roswell Incident (1980)

The first book on the subject, The Roswell Incident by Charles Berlitz and William L. Moore, was published in 1980.[22] The authors at the time said they had interviewed more than ninety witnesses. Though uncredited, Stanton Friedman did substantial research for the book.[23] The book featured accounts of debris described by Jesse Marcel as “nothing made on this earth.”[24] Additional accounts suggested that the material Marcel recovered had super-strength and other attributes not associated with anything known of terrestrial origin, and certainly not anything associated with a “weather balloon” which was the official description of the object. The book also introduced the contention that debris recovered by Marcel at the Foster ranch (visible in photographs showing Marcel posing with the debris) was substituted for debris from a weather device (visible in pictures with Gen. Ramey, Marcel and others) as part of a cover-up.[25] The actual debris recovered from the ranch—which, the authors claimed, was from a crashed UFO—was not permitted a close inspection by the press. Also described were efforts by the military to discredit and “counteract the growing hysteria towards flying saucers”.[26] Additionally, various accounts of witness intimidation were included, in particular reports of the incarceration of Mac Brazel, who reported the debris in the first place.

A report of Roswell residents Dan Wilmot and his wife seeing an object “like two inverted saucers faced mouth to mouth” passing overhead on the evening of July 2 was included,[27] as were other reports of mysterious objects seen flying overhead.[28] The book also introduced an alien account by Barney Barnett who had died years earlier. Friends said he had on numerous occasions described the crash of a flying saucer and the recovery of alien corpses in the Socorro area, about 150 miles (240 km) west of the Foster ranch. He and a group of archaeologists who happened to be in the vicinity had stumbled upon an alien craft and its occupants on the morning of July 3, only to be led away by military personnel.[29] Further accounts suggested that these aliens and their craft were shipped to Edwards Air Force Base (known then as Muroc Army Air Field) in California.[30] The book suggested that either there were two crafts that crashed, or debris from the vehicle Barnett had described had landed on the Foster ranch after an explosion.[29]

Marcel said he “heard about it on July 7”[31] when the sheriff whom Brazel had called him, but also said that “[on] Sunday, July 6, Brazel decided he had better go into town and report this to someone,” who in turn called Marcel, suggesting, though not stating, that he was contacted July 6.[32] In 1947, Marcel was quoted as saying he visited the ranch on Monday, July 7.

Marcel described returning to Roswell the evening of July 7 to find that news of the discovery of a flying disc had leaked out. Calls were made to his house, including a visit from a reporter, but he would not confirm the reports for the press. “The next morning, that written press release went out, and after that things really hit the fan.”[33]

The book suggested that the military orchestrated Brazel’s testimony to make it appear a mundane object had landed on the ranch, though the book did not explicitly say that the military instructed Brazel to give a mid-June date for his discovery. “Brazel… [went] to great pains to tell the newspaper people exactly what the Air Force had instructed him to say regarding how he had come to discover the wreckage and what it looked like …”[34]

UFO Crash at Roswell (1991)

In 1991, with the benefit of a decade of publicity on the incident and numerous new witness interviews, Kevin D. Randle and Donald R. Schmitt published UFO Crash at Roswell.[35]

Timelines were slightly altered. The date that Brazel reported the debris and Marcel went to the ranch was said to be Sunday, July 6, not the next day as some of the original accounts suggested, and The Roswell Incident had left unclear. Additionally, Marcel and an unidentified counter-intelligence agent spent the night at the ranch, something not mentioned previously. They gathered material on Monday, then Marcel dropped by his house on the way to the Roswell base in the early hours of Tuesday, July 8.

Significant new details emerged, including accounts of a “gouge… that extended four or five hundred feet” at the ranch[36] and descriptions of an elaborate cordon and recovery operation. (Several witnesses in The Roswell Incident described being turned back from the Foster ranch by armed military police, but more extensive descriptions were lacking.)

The Barnett accounts were mentioned, though the dates and locations were changed from the accounts found in The Roswell Incident. In this new account, Brazel is described as leading the Army to a second crash site on the ranch, where the Army was “horrified to find civilians [including Barnett] there already.”[37]

New witness accounts added substantially to the reports of aliens and their recovery. Glenn Dennis had emerged as an important witness after calling the hotline when an episode of “Unsolved Mysteries” featured the Roswell incident in 1989. His descriptions of Roswell alien autopsies were the first to place alien corpses at the Roswell Army Air Base.[2]

No mention, except in passing, was made of the claim found in The Roswell Incident that the Roswell aliens and their craft were shipped to Edwards Air Force Base. The book established a chain of events with alien corpses seen at a crash site, their bodies shipped to the Roswell base as witnessed by Dennis, and then flown to Fort Worth and finally to Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio, the last known location of the bodies (accounts assembled in part from the testimony of Frank Kaufmann and Capt. O. W. Henderson).

The book also introduced an account from General Arthur E. Exon, an officer stationed at the alleged final resting place of the recovered material. He stated there was a shadowy group, which he called the Unholy Thirteen, who controlled and had access to whatever was recovered.[38] He later stated:

In the ’55 time period [when Exon was at the Pentagon], there was also the story that whatever happened, whatever was found at Roswell was still closely held and probably would be held until these fellows I mentioned had died so they wouldn’t be embarrassed or they wouldn’t have to explain why they covered it up. … until the original thirteen died off and I don’t think anyone is going to release anything [until] the last one’s gone.[39]

Crash at Corona (1992)

In 1992, Crash at Corona, written by Stanton Friedman and Don Berliner, suggested a high-level cover-up of a UFO recovery, based on documents they obtained such as the Majestic 12 archive.[40] These documents were anonymously dropped off at a UFO researcher’s house in 1984 and purported to be 1952 briefing papers for incoming President Dwight Eisenhower describing a high-level government agency whose purpose was to investigate aliens recovered at Roswell and to keep such information hidden from public view. Friedman had done much of the research for The Roswell Incident with William Moore, and Crash at Corona built on that research. The title contains Corona instead of Roswell as Corona is geographically closer to the Foster ranch crash site.[41]

The time-line is largely the same as previously, with Marcel and Cavitt visiting the ranch on Sunday, July 6. But the book says that Brazel was “taken into custody for about a week” and escorted into the offices of the Roswell Daily Record on July 10 where he gave an account he was told to give by the government.[42]

A sign of the disputes between various researchers is on display as Friedman and Berliner move the Barnett account back to near Socorro and introduce a new eyewitness account of the site from Gerald Anderson who provided vivid descriptions of both a downed alien craft and four aliens, of which at least one was alive.[43] The authors note that much of their evidence had been dismissed by UFO Crash at Roswell “without a solid basis”[44] and that “a personality conflict between Anderson and Randle” meant that Friedman was the author who investigated his claim.[45] The book, however, largely embraces the sequence of events from UFO Crash at Roswell, where aliens are seen at the Roswell Army Air Field, based on the Dennis account, and then shipped off to Fort Worth and then Wright Field.

The book suggests as many as eight alien corpses were recovered from two crash sites: three dead and perhaps one alive from the Foster ranch, and three dead and one living from the Socorro site.[46]

The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell (1994)

In 1994, Randle and Schmitt published a second book, The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell.[47] while restating much of the case as laid out in their earlier book, new and expanded accounts of aliens were included, and a new location for the recovery of aliens was detailed. Additionally, an almost completely new scenario as to the sequence of events was laid out.

For the first time, the object was said to have crashed on the evening of Friday, July 4 instead of Wednesday July 2, the date in all the previous books. Another important difference was the assertion that the alien recovery was well under way before Brazel went into Roswell with his news about debris on the Foster ranch. Indeed, several objects had been tracked by radar for a few days in the vicinity before one crashed. In all previous accounts, the military was made aware of the alleged alien crash only when Brazel came forward. Additionally, Brazel was said to have given his news conference on July 9, and his press conference and the initial news release announcing the discovery of a “flying disc” were all part of an elaborate ruse to shift attention away from the “true” crash site.

The book featured a new witness account describing an alien craft and aliens from Jim Ragsdale, at a new location just north of Roswell, instead of closer to Corona on the Foster ranch. Corroboration was given by accounts from a group of archaeologists. Five alien corpses were seen.[48] While the Foster ranch was a source of debris as well, no bodies were recovered there.

Expanded accounts came from Dennis and Kaufmann. And a new account from Ruben Anaya described New Mexico Lieutenant Governor Joseph Montoya‘s claim that he saw alien corpses at the Roswell base.

More disagreement between Roswell researchers is on display in the book. A full chapter is devoted to dismissing the Barnett and Anderson accounts from Socorro, a central part of Crash at Corona and The Roswell Incident. “…Barnett’s story, and in fact, the Plains [of San Augustin, near Soccoro] scenario, must be discarded”, say the authors.[49] An appendix is devoted to describing the Majestic 12 documents, another central part of Crash at Corona, as a hoax.[50]

The two Randle and Schmitt books remain highly influential in the UFO community, their interviews and conclusions widely reproduced on websites.[51] Randle and Schmitt claimed to have “conducted more than two thousand interviews with more than five hundred people” during their Roswell investigations.[52]

UFO community schism

By the publication of The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell in 1994, a serious split had emerged within the UFO community as to the true sequence of the events and the locations of the alleged alien crash sites.[53] The Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS) and the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), two leading UFO societies, were at odds over the various scenarios presented by Randle/Schmitt and Friedman/Berliner, so much so that several conferences were held to try to resolve the differences. One of the issues under discussion was where, precisely, Barnett was when he saw the alien craft he was said to have encountered. A 1992 conference tried to achieve a consensus among the various scenarios as portrayed in Crash at Corona and UFO Crash at Roswell, but the publication of The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell in 1994 “resolved” the Barnett problem by simply ignoring him and citing a new location for the alien craft recovery, including a new group of archaeologists not connected to the ones the Barnett story cited.[53]

“Alien autopsy” footage

Film footage claimed to have been taken by a U.S. military official shortly after the Roswell incident, and purportedly showing an alien autopsy, was produced in 1995 by Ray Santilli, a London-based video entrepreneur. The footage caused an international sensation when it aired on television networks around the world. In 2006, Santilli admitted that the film was mostly a reconstruction but continued to claim that it was based on genuine footage now lost, and that some frames from the original remained. The story was retold in the comedy film Alien Autopsy, released in 2006.[54][55]

Air Force and skeptics respond to alien reports

Air Force reports on the Roswell UFO incident

In the mid-1990s, the United States Air Force issued two reports that, they said, accounted for the debris found and reported on in 1947, and that also accounted for the later reports of alien recoveries. The reports identified the debris as coming from a top secret government experiment called Project Mogul, which tested the feasibility of detecting Soviet nuclear tests and ballistic missiles with equipment on high-altitude balloons. Accounts of aliens were explained as resulting from misidentified military experiments that used anthropomorphic dummies, accidents involving injured or killed military personnel, and hoaxes perpetrated by various witnesses and UFO proponents.

The Air Force report formed a basis for a skeptical response to the claims many authors were making about the recovery of aliens, though skeptical researchers such as Philip J. Klass and Robert Todd had already been publishing articles for several years raising doubts about alien accounts before the Air Force issued its conclusions.

While books published into the 1990s suggested there was much more to the Roswell incident than the mere recovery of a weather balloon, skeptics, and even some social anthropologists[56] instead saw the increasingly elaborate accounts as evidence of a myth being constructed. After the release of the Air Force reports in the mid-1990s, several books, such as Kal K. Korff’s The Roswell UFO Crash: What They Don’t Want You To Know, published in 1997, built on the evidence presented in the reports to conclude “there is no credible evidence that the remains of an extraterrestrial spacecraft was involved.”[18]

Critics identified several reasons for their contention that the Roswell incident had nothing to do with aliens:

Problems with witness accounts

Hundreds of witnesses were interviewed by the various researchers, a seemingly impressive figure, but a comparable few were true “witnesses” who claimed to have actually seen debris or aliens, critics point out. Most “witnesses” were in fact repeating the claims of others, and their testimony would be inadmissible hearsay in an American court, says Korff. Of the 90 witnesses claimed to have been interviewed for The Roswell Incident, says Korff, the testimony of only 25 appear in the book, and only seven actually saw the debris. Of these, five handled the debris.[57]

Karl T. Pflock, in his 2001 book Roswell: Inconvenient Facts and the Will to Believe, makes a similar point about Randle and Schmitt’s UFO Crash at Roswell. Some 271 people are listed in the book who were “contacted and interviewed” for the book, and this number does not include those who chose to remain anonymous, etc., meaning more than 300 “witnesses” were interviewed, a figure Pflock said the authors frequently cited.[58] Of these 300-plus individuals, said Pflock, only 41 can be “considered genuine first- or second-hand witnesses to the events in and around Roswell or at the Fort Worth Army Air Field,” and only 23 can be “reasonably thought to have seen physical evidence, debris recovered from the Foster Ranch.” Of these, said Pflock, only seven have asserted anything suggestive of otherworldly origins for the debris.[58]

As for the several accounts from those who claimed to have seen aliens, critics identified problems with these accounts ranging from the reliability of second-hand accounts (Pappy Henderson, General Exon, etc.), to serious credibility problems with witnesses making demonstrably false claims or multiple, contradictory accounts (Gerald Anderson, Glenn Dennis, Frank Kaufmann, Jim Ragsdale), to dubious death-bed “confessions” or accounts from elderly and easily confused witnesses (Maj. Edwin Easley, Lewis Rickett).[59]

Pflock, writing in 2001, noted that only four people with firsthand knowledge of alien bodies were interviewed and identified by Roswell authors: Frank Kaufmann; Jim Ragsdale; Lt. Col. Albert Lovejoy Duran; Gerald Anderson.[60] Duran is mentioned in a brief footnote in The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell and never again, while the other three all have serious credibility problems, said Pflock.

A basic problem with all the witness accounts, charge critics, is that they all came a minimum of 31 years after the events in question, and in many cases were recounted more than 40 years after the fact. Not only are memories this old of dubious reliability, say the critics, they were also subject to contamination from other accounts they may have heard.[2]

Finally, the shifting claims of Jesse Marcel, whose suspicions that what he recovered in 1947 was “not of this world” sparked interest in the incident in the first place, cast serious doubt on the reliability of what he claimed, critics charge.

In The Roswell Incident, Marcel stated: “Actually, this material may have looked like tinfoil and balsa wood, but the resemblance ended there.” And, “They took one picture of me on the floor holding up some of the less-interesting metallic debris…The stuff in that one photo was pieces of the actual stuff we found. It was not a staged photo.”[22] Timothy Printy points out that the material Marcel positively identified as being part of what he recovered is material that skeptics and UFO advocates agree is debris from a balloon device.[16]

After that fact was pointed out to him, Marcel changed his story to say that that material was not what he recovered.[16] Skeptics like Robert G. Todd argue that Marcel had a history of embellishment and exaggeration, such as claiming to have been a pilot and having received five Air Medals for shooting down enemy planes, claims that were found to be false, and his evolving Roswell story was another instance of this.[61]

Contradictory conclusions, questionable research, Roswell as a myth

Critics point out that the large variety of claimed crash flights suggest events spanning many years have been incorporated into a single event[62] and that many authors uncritically embrace anything that suggests aliens, even when accounts contradict each other. Said Karl Pflock, a one-time advocate of an alien incident at Roswell: “[T]he case for Roswell is a classic example of the triumph of quantity over quality. The advocates of the crashed-saucer tale… simply shovel everything that seems to support their view into the box marked ‘Evidence’ and say, ‘See? Look at all this stuff. We must be right.’ [emphasis in original] Never mind the contradictions. Never mind the lack of independent supporting fact. Never mind the blatant absurdities.”[63]

Kal Korff suggests there are clear incentives for some to promote the idea of aliens at Roswell, while many researchers are not doing competent work: “[The] UFO field is comprised of people who are willing to take advantage of the gullibility of others, especially the paying public. Let’s not pull any punches here: The Roswell UFO myth has been very good business for UFO groups, publishers, for Hollywood, the town of Roswell, the media, and UFOlogy … [The] number of researchers who employ science and its disciplined methodology is appallingly small.”[64]

Gildenberg and others said that, when added up, there were as many as 11 reported alien recovery sites[2] and these recoveries bore only a marginal resemblance to the event as initially reported in 1947 or recounted later by the initial witnesses. Some of these new accounts could have been confused accounts of the several known recoveries of injured and dead from four military plane crashes that occurred in the vicinity from 1948–50.[65] Others could have been recoveries of test dummies, as suggested by the Air Force in their reports.

Charles Ziegler argued that the Roswell story has all the hallmarks of a traditional folk narrative. He identified six distinct narratives, starting with The Roswell Incident (1980) and a process of transmission via storytellers with a core story that was created from various witness accounts, and was shaped and molded by those who carry on the group’s (the UFO community) tradition. Others were sought out to expand the core narrative, with those who give accounts not in line with the core beliefs repudiated or omitted by the “gatekeepers.”[66] Others retold the narratives in new forms, and the process would repeat.

Recent developments

Pro-UFO advocates dismiss Roswell incident

One of the immediate outcomes of the Air Force reports on the Roswell UFO incident was the decision by some prominent UFO researchers to view the Roswell incident as not involving any alien craft.

While the initial Air Force report was a chief reason for this, another was the release of secret documents from 1948 that showed that top Air Force officials did not know what the UFO objects being reported in the media were and their suspicion they might be Soviet spy vehicles.

In January 1997, Karl T. Pflock, one of the more prominent pro-UFO researchers, said “Based on my research and that of others, I’m as certain as it’s possible to be without absolute proof that no flying saucer or saucers crashed in the general vicinity of Roswell or on the Plains of San Agustin in 1947. The debris found by Mac Brazel…was the remains of something very earthly, all but certainly something from the Top Secret Project Mogul….The formerly highly classified record of correspondence and discussions among top Air Force officials who were responsible for cracking the flying saucer mystery from the mid-1940s through the early 1950s makes it crystal clear that they didn’t have any crashed saucer wreckage or bodies of saucer crews, but they were desperate to have such evidence …”[67]

Kent Jeffrey, who organized petitions to ask President Bill Clinton to issue an Executive Order to declassify any government information on the Roswell incident, similarly concluded that no such aliens were likely involved.[68][69]

William L. Moore, one of the earliest proponents of the Roswell incident, said this in 1997: “After deep and careful consideration of recent developments concerning Roswell…I am no longer of the opinion that the extraterrestrial explanation is the best explanation for this event.” Moore was co-author of the first book on Roswell, The Roswell Incident.[70]

Shoddy research revealed; witnesses suspected of hoaxes

Around the same time, a serious rift between two prominent Roswell authors emerged. Kevin D. Randle and Donald R. Schmitt had co-authored several books on the subject and were generally acknowledged, along with Stanton Friedman, as the leading researchers into the Roswell incident.[71] The Air Force reports on the incident suggested that basic research claimed to have been carried out was not carried out,[72] a fact verified in a 1995 Omni magazine article.[73] Additionally, Schmitt claimed he had a bachelor’s degree, a master’s degree and was in the midst of pursuing a doctorate in criminology. He also claimed to be a medical illustrator. When checked, it was revealed he was in fact a letter carrier in Hartford, Wisconsin, and had no known academic credentials. At the same time, Randle publicly distanced himself from Schmitt and his research. Referring to Schmitt’s investigation of witness Dennis’s accounts of a missing nurse at the Roswell base, he said: “The search for the nurses proves that he [Schmitt] will lie about anything. He will lie to anyone … He has revealed himself as a pathological liar … I will have nothing more to do with him.”[71]

Additionally, several prominent witnesses were shown to be perpetrating hoaxes, or suspected of doing so. Frank Kaufmann, a major source of alien reports in the 1994 Randle and Schmitt book The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell and a witness whose testimony it was charged was “ignored” by the Air Force when compiling their reports,[74] was shown, after his 2001 death, to have been forging documents and inflating his role at Roswell. Randle and Mark Rodeigher repudiated Kaufmann’s credibility in two 2002 articles.[75]

Glenn Dennis, who testified that Roswell alien autopsies were carried out at the Roswell base and that he and others were the subjects of threats, was deemed one of the “least credible” Roswell witnesses by Randle in 1998. In Randle and Schmitt’s 1991 book UFO Crash at Roswell, Dennis’s story was featured prominently. Randle said Dennis was not credible “for changing the name of the nurse once we had proved she didn’t exist.”[76] Dennis’s accounts were also doubted by researcher Pflock.[67]

Photo analysis; documentaries; new claims

UFO researcher David Rudiak, and others before him, claimed that a telegram that appears in one of the 1947 photos of balloon debris in Ramey’s office contains text that confirms that aliens and a “disk” were found. Rudiak and some other examiners claim that when enlarged, the text on the paper General Ramey is holding in his hand includes key phrases “the victims of the wreck” and “in/on the ‘disc'” plus other phrases seemingly in the context of a crashed vehicle recovery.[77] However, pro-UFO interpretations of this document are disputed by independent photoanalyses, such as one facilitated by researcher James Houran, Ph.D.,[78] that suggest the letters and words are indistinct. Other objections question the plausibility of a general allowing himself to be photographed holding such a document, raise issues with the format of the memo, and ponder the logic of Ramey having in his possession a document he, as Rudiak argued, has sent, which says “…the wreck you forwarded…” yet is supposedly addressed to the Headquarters of the Army Air Force in Washington, not the Roswell Army Air Field.[79]

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/22/Gen_Ramey_Roswell_memo_1947.jpg/300px-Gen_Ramey_Roswell_memo_1947.jpg

 

Enlargement of Gen. Ramey’s held message in the original photo.

In 2002, the Sci-Fi Channel sponsored an excavation at the Brazel site in the hopes of uncovering any missed debris that the military failed to collect. Although these results have so far turned out to be negative, the University of New Mexico archaeological team did verify recent soil disruption at the exact location that some witnesses said they saw a long, linear impact groove. Gov. Bill Richardson of New Mexico, who headed the United States Department of Energy under President Clinton, apparently found the results provocative. In 2004, he wrote in a foreword to The Roswell Dig Diaries, that “the mystery surrounding this crash has never been adequately explained—not by independent investigators, and not by the U.S. government.”

On October 26, 2007, Richardson (at the time a candidate for the Democratic Party nomination for U.S. President) elaborated when he was asked about releasing government files on Roswell. Richardson responded that when he was a Congressman, he attempted to get information on behalf of his New Mexico constituents, but was told by both the Department of Defense and Los Alamos Labs that the information was classified. “That ticked me off,” he said “The government doesn’t tell the truth as much as it should on a lot of issues.” He promised to work on opening the files if he were elected as President.[80][81][82]

In October 2002 before airing its Roswell documentary, the Sci-Fi Channel also hosted a Washington UFO news conference. John Podesta, President Clinton’s chief of staff, appeared as a member of the public relations firm hired by Sci-Fi to help get the government to open up documents on the subject. Podesta stated, “It is time for the government to declassify records that are more than 25 years old and to provide scientists with data that will assist in determining the true nature of the phenomena.”[83]

In February 2005, the ABC TV network aired a UFO special hosted by news anchor Peter Jennings. Jennings lambasted the Roswell case as a “myth … without a shred of evidence.” ABC endorsed the Air Force’s explanation that the incident resulted solely from the crash of a Project Mogul balloon.

Top Secret/Majic (2005 edition)

Stanton T. Friedman continues to defend his view that the Majestic 12 documents, which describe a secret government agency hiding information on recovered aliens, are authentic. In an afterword dated April 2005 to a new edition of his book Top Secret/Majic (first published in 1996), he responds to more recent questions on their validity and concludes “I am still convinced Roswell really happened, [and] that the Eisenhower Briefing Document [i.e., Majestic 12] … [and others] are the most important classified documents ever leaked to the public.”[84]

Witness to Roswell (2007)

In June 2007, Donald Schmitt and his investigation partner Tom Carey published their first book together, Witness to Roswell.[85] In this book, they claim a “continuously growing roster of more than 600 people directly or indirectly associated with the events at Roswell who support the first account – that initial claim of the flying saucer recovery.”[86] New accounts of aliens or alien recoveries were described, including from Walter Haut who wrote the initial press release in 1947.

A new date was suggested for a crash of a mysterious object—the evening of Thursday, July 3, 1947.[87] Also, unlike previous accounts, Brazel took debris to Corona, where he showed fragments to local residents in the local bar, hardware store and elsewhere, and to Capitan to the south, while portions of the object ended up at a 4 July rodeo.[88] Numerous people are described as visiting the debris field and taking souvenirs before Brazel finally went to Roswell to report the find on July 6. Once the military was alerted to the debris, extensive efforts were undertaken to retrieve those souvenirs: “Ranch houses were and [sic] ransacked. The wooden floors of livestock sheds were pried loose plank by plank and underground cold storage fruit cellars were emptied of all their contents.”[89]

The subsequent events are related as per the sequence in previous books, except for a second recovery site of an alien body at the Foster ranch. This recovery near the debris field is the same site mentioned in 1991’s UFO Crash at Roswell. The authors suggest that Brazel discovered the second site some days after finding the debris field, and this prompted him to travel to Roswell and report his find to the authorities.

Neither Barnett nor the archaeologists are present at this body site. While noting the earlier “major problems” with Barnett’s account, which caused Schmitt and previous partner Randle to omit Barnett’s claim in 1994’s The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell, the new book further notes another site mentioned in the 1994 publication. This site closer to Roswell “turned out to be bogus, as it was based upon the testimony of a single, alleged eyewitness [Frank Kaufmann] who himself was later discovered to have been a purveyor of false information.”[90] Jim Ragsdale, whose alien account opened that book and who was claimed to have been present along with some archaeologists, is not mentioned in the new book.

The book includes claims that Major Marcel saw alien bodies, a claim not present in the previous books mentioned. Two witnesses are cited who say Marcel briefly mentioned seeing bodies, one a relative and another a tech sergeant who worked with Marcel’s intelligence team.[91]

Much additional new testimony is presented to support notions that alien bodies were found at the Foster ranch and at another main crash site along with a craft, then processed at the base in a hangar and at the hospital, and finally flown out in containers, all under very tight security. The book suggests Brazel found “two or three alien bodies” about two miles east of the debris field and describes the rest of a stricken alien craft along with the remainder of the crew remaining airborne for some 30 more miles before crashing at another site about 40 miles north/northwest of Roswell (but not the same site described by Kaufmann). The authors claim to have located this final crash site in 2005 where “an additional two or three dead aliens and one live one were discovered by civilian archaeologists,” but offer no more information about the new site.[92]

Walter Haut, as the Roswell Army Air Field public affairs officer, had drafted the initial press release that went out over the news wires on the afternoon of July 8, 1947, announcing a “flying disc”. This was the only direct involvement Haut had previously described in public statements and signed affidavits. The book presents a new affidavit that Haut signed in 2002 in which he claims much greater personal knowledge and involvement, including seeing alien corpses and craft, and involvement in a cover-up. Haut died in 2005.[93]

Another new first-hand account from MP Elias Benjamin describes how he guarded aliens on gurneys taken to the Roswell base hospital from the same hangar.[94] Similarly, family members of Miriam Bush, secretary to the chief medical officer at Roswell base, told of having been led into an examination room where alien corpses were laid out on gurneys.[95] In both accounts, one of the aliens was said to be still alive. The book also recounted earlier testimony of the Anaya family about picking up New Mexico Lt. Governor Joseph Montoya at the base, and a badly shaken Montoya relating that he saw four alien bodies at the base hangar, one of them alive.[96] Benjamin’s and Bush’s accounts, as do a few lesser ones, again place aliens at the Roswell base hospital, as had the Glenn Dennis story from almost 20 years before. The book notes that Dennis had been found to have told lies, and therefore is a supplier of unreliable testimony, but had nevertheless told others of incidents at the Roswell base long before it became associated with aliens in the late 1970s.[97]

Walter Haut controversy

The publishing of the Walter Haut affidavit[98][99] in Witness to Roswell, wherein Haut described a cover-up and seeing alien corpses, ignited a controversy in UFO circles.[100] While many embraced his accounts as confirmation of the presence of aliens from a person who was known to have been on the base in 1947, others raised questions about the credibility of the accounts.

UFO researcher Dennis G. Balthaser, who along with fellow researcher Wendy Connors interviewed Haut on-camera in 2000, doubted that the same man he interviewed could have written the affidavit he signed. “[The 2000 video] shows a man that couldn’t remember where he took basic training, names, dates, etc., while the 2002 affidavit is very detailed and precise with information Haut couldn’t accurately remember 2 years after he was video taped.”[101] Witness to Roswell co-author Don Schmitt, he notes, admitted that the affidavit was not written by Haut, but prepared for him to sign, based on statements Haut had made privately to Schmitt and co-author Tom Carey over a period of years.[102] And further, notes Balthaser, neither he nor Carey were there when Haut signed the affidavit and the witness’ name has not been revealed, casting doubt on the circumstances of the signing.

He had further questions about what he saw as problems with the 2002 account. If the cover-up was decided at a meeting at Roswell, he asked, “why was it necessary for Major Marcel to fly debris from Roswell to General Ramey’s office in Ft Worth, since they had all handled the debris in the meeting and apparently set up the cover-up operation?” He also wondered which Haut statements were true: a 1993 affidavit he signed, the 2000 video interview, or the 2002 affidavit.

Bill Birnes, writing for UFO Magazine, summarizes that whatever disagreements there are about the 2000 video and the 2002 affidavit, “I think Walter Haut’s 2002 affidavit really says it all and agrees, on its material facts, with Walter’s 2000 interview with Dennis Balthaser and Wendy Connors. Dennis said he agrees with me, too, on this point.”[103]

A comparison of the affidavit and interview shows that in both Haut said he saw a craft and at least one body in a base hangar and also attended a Roswell staff meeting where General Ramey was present and where Ramey put a cover-up into place.[104]

Birnes also says that Carey told that while Haut may not have written the affidavit, “his statements were typed, shown to him for his review and agreement, and then affirmed by him in the presence of a witness… The fact that a notary was present and sealed the document should end any doubt as to the reality of its existence.”[105]

Julie Shuster, Haut’s daughter and Director of the International UFO Museum in Roswell, said that Schmitt had written the affidavit based on years of conversations he and Carey had had with him. Writing in the September 2007 MUFON newsletter, she said she and Haut reviewed the document, that “he did not want to make any changes,” and in the presence of two witnesses, a notary public from the museum and a visitor, both unidentified, he signed the affidavit.[106]

UFO FBI document release, 2011

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a8/FlyingSaucersMemorandumMarch22-1950.jpg/165px-FlyingSaucersMemorandumMarch22-1950.jpg

 

Flying saucer memorandum.

In April 2011, the FBI posted a document from 1950 [107] on their website written by agent Guy Hottel which discussed a report forwarded by an investigator from the Air Force of three alien craft and their occupants having been recovered in New Mexico. The memo stated that “three so-called flying saucers” were recovered, each circular in shape with raised centers, each about 50 feet in diameter. Three occupants of “human shape,” each about three feet tall, were found in each craft, and all were dressed “in metallic cloth of a very fine texture.” The memo said that reports were “high-powered radar” had affected the alien crafts’ control systems, causing them to crash. No date was mentioned, though the memo was date-stamped March 22, 1950, and no location more specific than “New Mexico” was mentioned. The memo stated that “no further evaluation was attempted” by the person who supplied the information.

Numerous sources connected the memo [108][109] to the Roswell UFO incident of 1947.

Other sources said the memo had been in the public domain for years and was revealed as a hoax as far back as 1952 in an article in True magazine.[110] They said the hoax was perpetrated by several men who were peddling a device purported to be able to locate gold, oil, gas or anything their victims sought, based on supposed alien technology. The two men, Silas Newton and Leo A. Gebauer, were convicted of fraud in 1953.[111]

Area 51 (2011)

“[They] were not aliens. Nor were they consenting
airmen. They were human guinea pigs.”
Annie Jacobsen, author of Area 51

The book Area 51: An Uncensored History of America’s Top Secret Military Base by Annie Jacobsen, based on interviews with scientists and engineers who worked in Area 51, dismisses the alien story. Instead, it suggests that Josef Mengele was recruited by the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to produce “grotesque, child-size aviators” to be remotely piloted and landed in America to cause hysteria in the likeness of Orson Welles‘ 1938 radio drama War of the Worlds, but that the aircraft crashed and the incident was hushed up by the Americans.

Jacobsen writes that the bodies found at the crash site were children. Grotesquely but similarly deformed, aged around 12, each under five feet tall, with large heads and abnormally shaped oversize eyes. They were neither aliens nor consenting airmen, but human guinea pigs.[112] The book was sharply criticized for extensive errors in an essay by two scientists at the Federation of American Scientists.[113]

References

1.       ^ United States Air Force (Col. Richard L. Weaver, USAF; 1st LT. James MacAndrew, USAFR), The Roswell Report: Fact versus Fiction in the New Mexico Desert (1995)

2.       ^ a b c d e f g h i B.D. Gildenberg. “A Roswell Requiem”. Skeptic 10-1 (2003).

3.       ^ “ufo – UFOS at close sight: Roswell 1947, article, Roswell Daily Record, July 8, 1947”. Archived from the original on 2005-05-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20050512051045/http://ufologie.net/rw/p/rdr8jul1947.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

4.       ^ “Results of a Search for Records Concerning the 1947 Crash Near Roswell, New Mexico (Letter Report, 07/28/95, GAO/NSIAD-95-187)”. General Accounting Office Government Records. Federation of American Scientists (Republished by). http://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/roswell.html. Retrieved 2006-10-01.

5.       ^ “The Roswell Report: Case Closed,” Appendix C, “Transcript of interview with W. Glenn Dennis”, interview with Karl T. Pflock, November 2, 1992, p. 211-226, James McAndrews, Headquarters United States Air Force, 1997 http://web.archive.org/web/20080413203804/http://www.gl.iit.edu/wadc/history/Roswell/roswell.pdf

6.       ^ Physics lecture in which Prof. Richard A. Muller gives a detailed explanation of the science behind the 1947 event (Google Video)

7.       ^ “Pflock now believes that no flying saucer crashed in New Mexico in 1947” (article), “The Klass Files”, from “The Sceptics UFO Newsletter” (SUN) #43, January 1997, http://web.archive.org/web/20110604124016/http://www.csicop.org/klassfiles/SUN-43.html

8.       ^ “Another Major Roswell Crashed-Saucer Proponent ‘Abandons Ship'” (article), “The Klass Files”, from “The Skeptics UFO Newsletter” (SUN) #44,March 1997, http://web.archive.org/web/20110604124029/http://www.csicop.org/klassfiles/SUN-44.html

9.       ^ “STOP THE PRESSES!” (article), “The Klass Files”, from “The Sceptics UFO Newsletter” (SUN) #47, September 1997, http://web.archive.org/web/20110604124049/http://www.csicop.org/klassfiles/SUN-47.html

10.    ^ a b “United Press Teletype Messages”. Roswell Proof (republished by). http://roswellproof.homestead.com/United_Press_Telexes.html. Retrieved 2006-10-01.

11.    ^ “ufo – UFOS at close sight: Roswell 1947, the Press, Roswell Daily Record, July 9”. Web.archive.org. http://web.archive.org/web/20070108010347/http://ufologie.net/rw/p/roswelldailyrecord9jul1947.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

12.    ^ a b c Printy, Timothy (1999). “A mystery on a ranch”. http://home.comcast.net/~tprinty/UFO/discover.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-10.

13.    ^ a b “Associated Press Main Roswell Story”. Roswell Proof (Republished by). 1947-06-09. http://roswellproof.com/AP3_Main_July9.html. Retrieved 2006-10-01.

14.    ^ “Fort Worth Star-Telegram”. Roswell Proof (Republished by). 1947-06-09. http://roswellproof.homestead.com/FortWorthST_July9.html. Retrieved 2006-10-01.

15.    ^ “Harassed Rancher who Located Saucer Sorry He Told About It”. Roswell Daily Record. 1947-07-09. http://www.angelfire.com/indie/anna_jones1/daily_record02.html. Retrieved 2006-10-01.

16.    ^ a b c Printy, Timothy (1999). “A Deflating Experience”. http://home.comcast.net/~tprinty/UFO/FtWorth.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-10.

17.    ^ Printy, Timothy (1999). “Exciting Times for Roswell”. http://home.comcast.net/~tprinty/UFO/RAAF.htm. Retrieved 2006-07-10.

18.    ^ a b Kal K. Korff, “What Really Happened at Roswell“, Skeptical Inquirer (July 1997).

19.    ^ “Majestic 12 and the Roswell UFO Incident Story”. Roswellfiles.com. http://www.roswellfiles.com/FOIA/majestic12.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

20.    ^ Poll: U.S. hiding knowledge of aliens – UFO Evidence

21.    ^ Randle and Schmitt 1991, p. 4.

22.    ^ a b Charles Berlitz/William L. Moore. The Roswell Incident. New York: Grosset & Dunlap (1980). ISBN 0-448-21199-8.

23.    ^ Kal K. Korff. The Roswell UFO Crash: What They Don’t Want You to Know. Prometheus Books (1997). ISBN 1-57392-127-0.

24.    ^ Berlitz/Moore. The Roswell Incident, p. 28.

25.    ^ Berlitz/Moore. The Roswell Incident, p. 33, 67-69.

26.    ^ Berlitz/Moore. The Roswell Incident, p. 42.

27.    ^ Berlitz/Moore. The Roswell Incident, p. 21-22.

28.    ^ Berlitz/Moore. The Roswell Incident, pp. 25-27.

29.    ^ a b Berlitz/Moore. The Roswell Incident, p. 53-62.

30.    ^ Berlitz/Moore. The Roswell Incident, pp 92-103.

31.    ^ Berlitz/Moore The Roswell Incident, p. 63.

32.    ^ Berlitz/Moore. The Roswell Incident, p. 65.

33.    ^ Berlitz/Moore. The Roswell Incident, p. 67.

34.    ^ Berlitz/Moore. The Roswell Incident, p. 40.

35.    ^ Kevin D. Randle, Donald R. Schmitt. UFO Crash at Roswell. Avon Books (1991). ISBN 0-380-76196-3.

36.    ^ Randle/Schmitt. UFO Crash at Roswell, p. 200.

37.    ^ Randle/Schmitt. UFO Crash at Roswell, p. 206.

38.    ^ Randle/Schmitt. UFO Crash at Roswell, p. 231-234.

39.    ^ Kevin Randle. Roswell UFO Crash Update. Roswell UFO Crash Update, Exploring the Military Cover-Up of the Century. New York, Global Communications (1995).[clarification needed], see also http://www.roswellproof.com/exon.html

40.    ^ Stanton T. Friedman, Don Berliner. Crash at Corona: The U.S. Military Retrieval and Cover-up of a UFO. Paragon House (1992). ISBN 1-55778-449-3.

41.    ^ Friedman/Berliner. Crash at Corona, p. ix.

42.    ^ Friedman/Berliner. Crash at Corona, p. 79-90.

43.    ^ Friedman/Berliner. Crash at Corona, p. 90-97.

44.    ^ Friedman/Berliner. Crash at Corona, p. 206.

45.    ^ Friedman/Berliner. Crash at Corona, p. 89.

46.    ^ Friedman/Berliner. Crash at Corona, p. 129.

47.    ^ Kevin D. Randle, Donald R. Schmitt. The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell. M Evans & Co. ISBN 0-87131-761-3.

48.    ^ Randle/Schmitt. The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell, p. 3-11.

49.    ^ Randle/Schmitt. The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell, p. 155.

50.    ^ Randle/Schmitt. The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell, p. 187.

51.    ^ “The Roswell UFO Incident Storytellers Kevin Randle and Donald Schmitt”. Roswellfiles.com. http://www.roswellfiles.com/storytellers/RandleSchmitt.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

52.    ^ Kevin Randle. Roswell UFO Crash Update. Roswell UFO Crash Update, Exploring the Military Cover-Up of the Century. New York, Global Communications (1995).[clarification needed]

53.    ^ a b Benson Saler, Charles A. Ziegler, Charles B. Moore. UFO Crash at Roswell: The Genesis of a Modern Myth. Smithsonian Institution (1997), p. 24-25. ISBN 1-58834-063-5.

54.    ^ Osborn, Michael (April 5, 2006). “Ant and Dec leap into the unknown”. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/4873284.stm.

55.    ^ Horne, Marc (April 16, 2006). “Max Headroom creator made Roswell alien”. The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article706122.ece.

56.    ^ Saler/Ziegler/Moore. UFO Crash at Roswell: The Genesis of a Modern Myth.

57.    ^ Korff. The Roswell UFO Crash, p. 29.

58.    ^ a b Karl T. Pflock. Roswell: Inconvenient Facts and the Will to Believe. Prometheus Books, Amherst, New York (2001), p. 176-177. ISBN 1-57392-894-1.

59.    ^ Korff. The Roswell UFO Crash, pp. 77-81; pp. 86-104; pp. 107-108.

60.    ^ Pflock. Roswell: Inconvenient Facts and the Will to Believe. p. 118.

61.    ^ “The Cowflop Quarterly, Vol.1 No. 3, Fri. December 8, 1995, Robert G. Todd” (PDF). http://www.roswellfiles.com/pdf/KowPflop120895.pdf. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

62.    ^ Gildenberg. “A Roswell Requiem”, p. 66.

63.    ^ Pflock. Roswell: Inconvenient Facts and the Will to Believe. p. 223.

64.    ^ Korff. The Roswell UFO Crash, p. 248.

65.    ^ Printy, Timothy (1999). “The Creatures”. http://home.comcast.net/~tprinty/UFO/Easley.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-10.

66.    ^ Saler/Ziegler/Moore. UFO Crash at Roswell, p. 1, 34-37.

67.    ^ a b “The Klass Files #43, JANUARY 1997”. Web.archive.org. 2011-06-04. http://web.archive.org/web/20110604124016/http://www.csicop.org/klassfiles/SUN-43.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

68.    ^ “The Klass Files #44, MARCH 1997”. Web.archive.org. 2011-06-04. http://web.archive.org/web/20110604124029/http://www.csicop.org/klassfiles/SUN-44.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

69.    ^ “Kent Jeffrey Anatomy of a Myth”. Roswellfiles.com. http://www.roswellfiles.com/storytellers/KentJeffrey1.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

70.    ^ “The Klass Files #47 SEPTEMBER 1997”. Web.archive.org. 2011-06-04. http://web.archive.org/web/20110604124049/http://www.csicop.org/klassfiles/SUN-47.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

71.    ^ a b “Kevin Randle and Donald Schmitt”. Roswellfiles.com. http://www.roswellfiles.com/storytellers/RandleSchmitt.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

72.    ^ ”The Roswell Report: Fact verses Fiction in the New Mexico Desert,” Col. Richard Weaver and 1st Lt. James McAndrew, Headquarters United States Air Force, 1995, https://www.airforcehistory.hq.af.mil/Publications/fulltext/roswell.pdf

73.    ^ “The Missing Nurses of Roswell”. Roswellfiles.com. 1947-07-05. http://www.roswellfiles.com/Articles/MissingNurses.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

74.    ^ CUFOS. “Center for UFO Studies”. Cufos.org. http://www.cufos.org/airforce.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

75.    ^ “Frank Kaufmann Roswell Witness”. Cufos.org. http://www.cufos.org/Roswell_fs1.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

76.    ^ “Kevin Randle on the UK-UFO-NW IRC #UFO Channel”. Roswellfiles.com. 1998-04-11. http://www.roswellfiles.com/storytellers/KevinRandleOnIRC.htm. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

77.    ^ “Roswell Proof: What really happened”. Roswell Proof. http://www.roswellproof.com/reconstruct.html. Retrieved 2006-10-01.

78.    ^ Houran, James (2002). “A Message in a Bottle: Confounds in Deciphering the Ramey Memo from the Roswell UFO Case”. http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_16_1_houran.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-14.

79.    ^ Printy, Timothy (1999). “The Ramey Document: Smoking gun or empty water pistol?”. http://home.comcast.net/~tprinty/UFO/Ramey.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-10.

80.    ^ “Dallas Morning News”. Web.archive.org. 2009-01-22. http://web.archive.org/web/20090122111528/http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/news/texassouthwest/stories/102707dntexrichardson.3164110.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

81.    ^ “Denton (Texas) Record-Chronicle”. Dentonrc.com. 2007-10-27. http://www.dentonrc.com/sharedcontent/dws/news/texassouthwest/stories/102707dntexrichardson.3164110.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

82.    ^ “On Texas stop, Democratic candidate Richardson criticizes government secrecy | WFAA.com | Texas Southwest”. Web.archive.org. 2008-03-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20080309074311/http://www.wfaa.com/sharedcontent/dws/news/texassouthwest/stories/102707dntexrichardson.3164110.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

83.    ^ Richard Stenger. “Clinton aide slams Pentagon’s UFO secrecy“, CNN October 22, 2002.

84.    ^ Stanton T. Friedman. Top Secret/Majic: Operation Majestic-12 and the United States Government’s UFO Cover-up. New York, Marlowe & Company (2005). ISBN 1-56924-741-2.

85.    ^ Thomas J. Carey, Donald R. Schmitt. Witness to Roswell. The Career Press Inc. (2007). ISBN 978-1-56414-943-5.

86.    ^ Carey/Schmitt. Witness to Roswell, p. 38.

87.    ^ Carey/Schmitt. Witness to Roswell, p. 21,127.

88.    ^ Carey/Schmitt. Witness to Roswell, p. 48-49.

89.    ^ Carey/Schmitt. Witness to Roswell, p. 51.

90.    ^ Carey/Schmitt. Witness to Roswell, p. 126-127.

91.    ^ Carey/Schmitt. Witness to Roswell, p. 79-80.

92.    ^ Carey/Schmitt. Witness to Roswell, p. 127-128.

93.    ^ Carey/Schmitt. Witness to Roswell, pp. 215-217.

94.    ^ Carey/Schmitt. Witness to Roswell, pp. 136-140.

95.    ^ Carey/Schmitt. Witness to Roswell, pp. 119-123.

96.    ^ Carey/Schmitt. Witness to Roswell, pp. 83-92.

97.    ^ Carey/Schmitt. Witness to Roswell, p. 135.

98.    ^ “Roswell theory revived by deathbed confession”. The Sunday Telegraph. July 1, 2007. http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,21994224-2,00.html.

99.    ^ Dirk Vander Ploeg, Wainfleet, Ontario, Canada. Telephone 905 834-2177, fax 905 312-9312 e-mail publisher@ufodigest.com. “2002 SEALED AFFIDAVIT OF WALTER G. HAUT”. Ufodigest.com. http://www.ufodigest.com/news/0707/haut.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

100.^ “UFO Breaking News! UFO Articles UFO Opinion Editorial UFO Flying Saucers Flying Disks Aerial Phenomenon Alien Abduction FOIA Requests Declassified Documents UFO History UFO Si”. Frankwarren.blogspot.com. 2007-07-24. http://frankwarren.blogspot.com/2007/07/new-revelations-on-haut-affidavit.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

101.^ Dirk Vander Ploeg, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Telephone 905 834-2177, fax 905 312-9312 e-mail publisher@ufodigest.com.com. “Walter Haut, Roswell and a whole Lotta Questions”. Ufodigest.com. http://www.ufodigest.com/news/1007/walterhaut.html. Retrieved 2011-09-15.

102.^ the Paracast interview with Schmitt and Carey on July 22, 2007

103.^Dennis, Tom, and Jesse …UFO Magazine Daily Edition, August 14, 2007.

104.^ Walter Haut’s 2000 Interview and Lt. Walter G. Haut – Roswell base public information officer “deathbed” affidavit to seeing spacecraft & bodies at roswellproof.com].

105.^ Bill Birnes. “The affidavit, the interview, and the affidavit …“, UFO Magazine – Daily Edition, August 13, 2007.

106.^ Julie Schuster, “Haut’s Daughter tells how affidavit came to be”, MUFON UFO Journal No. 473 (September 2007), p. 15.

107.^ FBI — Guy Hottel Part 1 of 1

108.^ “Aliens landed in Roswell”. The Times Of India. 2011-04-11. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/uk/Aliens-landed-in-Roswell/articleshow/7940717.cms.

109.^ [1]

110.^ http://www.realityuncovered.net/blog/2009/02/play-it-again-scam/

111.^ FBI “Hottel Memo” Reveals UFO Hoax – International Business Times

List Of Ufo-Related Hoaxes By Wiki

List of UFO-related Hoaxes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Many hoaxes related to the pseudoscientific study of unidentified flying objects have been perpetrated.

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Airship hoaxes

[1] The Dallas Morning News reported that the previous evening three boys hoaxed a mystery airship sighting by soaking a cotton ball in kerosene and tying it to the leg of a turkey vulture. When the bird was released, witnesses to its light shouted “Look, it’s the airship!” The hoax was discovered when the bird landed on the roof of the local high school and the burning cotton ball caught fire to the school.[2] Leroy, Kansas supposedly occurred about April 19, 1897, and was published in the Yates Center Farmer’s Advocate of April 23. Hamilton, his son, and a tenant witnessed an airship hovering over his cattle pen. Upon closer examination, the witnesses realized that a red “cable” from the airship had lassoed a heifer, but had also become entangled in the pen’s fence. After trying unsuccessfully to free the heifer, Hamilton cut loose a portion of the fence, then “stood in amazement to see the ship, cow and all rise slowly and sail off.” (Jacobs, 15) Some have suggested this was the earliest report of cattle mutilation (In 1982, however, UFO researcher Jerome Clark debunked this story, and confirmed via interviews and Hamilton’s own affidavit that the story was a successful attempt to win a Liar’s Club competition to create the most outlandish tall tale).

Crashed UFO hoaxes

Alien autopsy

The disclosure of an alien autopsy, related to the Roswell case had a deep impact through the media and all of the world televisions broadcasted pictures representing what appear to be a corpse lying on a bed. It was revealed to be an hoax.[3] The Project Mogul was the official explanation of the case

The French sociolog Pierre Lagrange explain his point of view about the case:[4] A shameless mentalist, Ray Santilli, has decided to take profit of the public credibility. He talk about an old ufo case, the crash of roswell, by selling a B-production film. The media fallowed and gave their approval. But nevertheless, no element has resist to our investigation.

Ray Santilli pretend to have bought the film to Jack Barnett, the man who pretend to be the director of us army. He gave to expertise only cuttings of the film but not the pictures where one can see the latex dummies.[5]

Sighting hoaxes

The Maury Island incident (1947)

The Morristown UFO hoax (2009)

Photographic hoaxes

The photographs of Barra de Tijuca (1952)

On 7 May 1952 the journalist João Martins and the photographer Eduardo Keffel saw a UFO near Barra da Tijuca, Brazil. Keffel took five photos of the object.

In the 1980s, William Spaulding and other investigators came to the conclusion that the photos are faked.[6]

The photograph of “an alien” taken at Ilkley Moor (1987)

It was a photograph of an alien allegedly taken in United Kingdom the 1st December 1987 at Ilkley Moor. This photograph was the origin of a MUFON and MUFORA investigation before to be published in the magazine MAGONIA. The English newspaper the Daily Star exposed the hoax in its edition of 2nd July 1989: the alien on the picture was in fact a insurance broker, unsuspecting he was photographed, when he visit his clientele in the outskirts and has to cut trough the hills.

The Belgian investigators, analysing again the case, have made this commentary:

“But how can we imagine that experimented investigators could have been misleaded by such a casual hoax?”

[7]

The photographs of Gulf Breeze (1987)

In november 1987 Ed Walters, a building contractor, allegedly perpetrated a hoax in Gulf Breeze, Florida. Walters claimed at first having seen a small UFO flying near his home, and then in a second incident seeing the same UFO and a small alien being standing by his back door after being alerted by his dog. Several photographs were taken of the craft, but none of the being. Three years later, in 1990, after the Walters family had moved, the new residents discovered a model of a UFO poorly hidden in the attic that bore an undeniable resemblance to the craft in Walters’ photographs. Various witnesses and detractors came forward after the local Pensacola newspaper printed a story about the discovered model, and some investigators like the forensic photo expert William G. Hyzer[8] now consider the sightings to be a hoax. In addition, a six-figure television miniseries and book deal were nearly struck with Walters. Bruce Maccabee, a naval optical physicist and ufologist, disagrees that the photos which Ed Walters took in Gulf Breeze are hoaxes. Maccabee investigated the incident, analyzed the various photos and deemed them authentic.[9] Maccabee claimed he himself was among independent witnesses of some of the Gulf Breeze sightings.[10]

The photographs of Penthouse (1996)

On September 1996 the magazine Penthouse printed three photos of an alleged alien. Shortly after the appearance of the photos, Paul Davids, co-author of the TV film Roswell, declared that the alien in the photos of Penthouse is a dummy that was used in the TV film. Now the dummy resides in the International UFO Museum in Roswell.[11]

Film and video hoaxes

Mexico City UFO skyline (1997 )

On 8 August 1997 an amateur with a digital camera captured footage of a UFO passing behind and above several buildings in Mexico City. The physicist Bruce Maccabee analyzed the video and came to the conclusion that it is a hoax.[12]

Alien abduction hoaxes

The Cergy-Pontoise case (1979)

Three young Frenchmen pretended to have been abducted by aliens. Three years later, one of the three people named Jean-Pierre Prévot made a statement:[13]

I declare that the Cergy-Pontoise case is a fake story from the beginning to the end. I am responsible for everything. It’s me who have all organized, all created. I can prove it. Franck Fontaine has lived the 8 days of his abduction in the apartment of a friend, at Pontoise; it’s me who have lead him there, and it’s me who have bring him back. How can one imagine that aliens come to abduct such a fool?

Footnotes

1.      ^ Denzler (2001), pages 5-6.

2.      ^ Reece (2007), page 13.

3.      ^ Science et Vie n°959,Août 1997,Roman Ikonicoff, Roswell Cinquante ans de délire

4.      ^ Science et Vie n°935,août 1995,Pierre Lagrange,Extraterrestres La grande arnaque

5.      ^ Science et Vie n°935, août 1995, Pierre Lagrange, Extraterrestres La grande arnaque

6.      ^ UFO photos: Barra de Tijuca, Brazil

7.      ^ Sobeps flash n°1, février 1990, p.8, Patrick Vidal, L’humanoïde d’Ikley Moor, un agent d’assurance ? “mais comment imaginer que des enquêteurs expérimentés aient pu se laisser prendre à un aussi banal canular ou méprise” in french

8.      ^ The Gulf Breeze “UFOs”

9.      ^ Some of Ed Walters’ photos.

10.  ^ Maccabee’s analysis and photos of Gulf Breeze “Bubba” sightings

11.  ^ Penthouse magazine falls for fake alien

12.  ^ Differential motion smear in the Mexico City Video

13.  ^ http://benzemas.zeblog.com/417739-ovni-les-trois-plus-gros-canulars-de-l-39-histoire-de-l-39-ufologie

List Of Ufo Sightings By Wiki

List of UFO Sightings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is a list of alleged UFO sightings, including supposed cases of reported close encounters and abductions.

19th Century

Date

Name

City, State

Country

Description

Sources

1883-08-12

José Bonilla Observation

Zacatecas Observatory

Mexico

On August 12, 1883, the astronomer José Bonilla reported that he saw more than 300 dark, unidentified objects crossing the sun disk while observing sunspot activity at Zacatecas Observatory in Mexico. He was able to take several photographs, exposing wet plates at 1/100 second. It was subsequently determined that the objects were highflying geese.

[1]

1886-10-24

Maracaibo Incidence

Maracaibo

Venezuela

In a letter printed in the December 18, 1886 issue of Scientific American, page 389, the US consul of Venezuela in Maracaibo reported a UFO sighting. A bright object, accompanied with a humming noise, appeared during a thunderstorm over a hut near Maracaibo, causing its occupants to display symptoms similar to radiation poisoning. Nine days later the trees surrounding the hut withered and died.

[2][3][4]

1897-04-17

Aurora Texas UFO Incident

Aurora, Texas

United States

A tale of a UFO crash and a burial of its alien pilot in the local cemetery was sent to newspapers in Dallas and Fort Worth in April 1897 by local correspondent S.E. Hayden

[5][6]

20th Century

Date

Name

City, State

Country

Description

Sources

1908-06-30

Tunguska event

Podkamennaya Tunguska River

Russian Empire

The explosion is believed to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment at an altitude of 5–10 kilometres (3–6 mi) above the Earth’s surface. Different studies have yielded varying estimates of the object’s size, with general agreement that it was a few tens of metres across.The Tunguska event is the largest impact event over land in Earth’s recent history. Impacts of similar size over remote ocean areas would most likely have gone unnoticed before the advent of global satellite monitoring in the 1960s and 1970s. UFO conspiracy theorists however class it as an exploding UFO.

[7]

1909

Mystery Airships

Otago

New Zealand

Strange moving lights and some solid bodies in the sky are seen around Otago and elsewhere in New Zealand, and are reported to newspapers

[8] [9]

1917-08-13
09-13,
10-13

Miracle of the Sun

Fátima

Portugal

Thousands of people observed the sun gyrate and descend. This was later reinterpreted by Jacques Vallée, Joaquim Fernandes and Fina d’Armada as a possible UFO sighting, but not recognized as such due to cultural differences.

[10][11][12]

1940s

Foo fighter

Small metallic spheres and colorful balls of light repeatedly spotted and occasionally photographed worldwide by bomber crews during World War II.

[13][14]

1942

Hopeh Incident

Hopeh

China

A UFO was spotted and photographed.

[15]

1942-02-24

Battle of Los Angeles

Los Angeles, California

United States

Unidentified aerial objects trigger the firing of thousands of anti-aircraft rounds and raise the wartime alert status.

[16]

1946

Ghost rockets

Scandinavia

Objects were sighted repeatedly over Scandinavia; Swedish Defense Staff expressed concern.

[17]

1946-05-18

UFO-Memorial Ängelholm

Ängelholm Municipality

Sweden

Gösta Karlsson reports seeing a UFO and its alien passengers. A model of a flying saucer is now erected at the site.

[18]

1947-06-21

Maury Island incident

Washington

United States

Harold A. Dahl reported that his dog was killed and his son was injured by encounters with UFOs. He also claimed that a witness was threatened by the Men in Black.

[19]

1947-06-24

Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting

Washington

United States

The UFO sighting that sparked the name flying saucers.

[20]

1947-07-08

Roswell UFO incident

Roswell, New Mexico

United States

United States Army Air Forces allegedly captures a flying saucer.

[21]

1948

Green fireballs

United States

Objects reported over several United States military bases; an official investigation followed.

[22]

1948-01-07

Mantell UFO Incident

Kentucky

United States

US Air Force sent a fighter pilot to investigate a UFO sighting over Fort Knox, Kentucky; the pilot was killed while pursuing the UFO.

[23]

1948-07-24

Chiles-Whitted UFO Encounter

Alabama

United States

Chiles and Whitted, American commercial pilots, reported that their aeroplane had nearly collided with a UFO

[24]

1948-10-01

Gorman Dogfight

North Dakota

United States

A US Air Force pilot sighted and pursued a UFO for 27 minutes over Fargo, North Dakota.

[25][26]

1950

Mariana UFO Incident

Great Falls, Montana

United States

The manager of Great Falls’ pro baseball team took color film of two UFOs flying over Great Falls. The film was extensively analyzed by the US Air Force and independent investigators.

[27]

1950-05-11

McMinnville UFO photographs

McMinnville, Oregon

United States

Two farmers took pictures of a purported “flying saucer.” These are among the best known UFO pictures, and continue to be analyzed and debated to this day.

[28]

1951-08-25

Lubbock Lights

Lubbock, Texas

United States

Lights were repeatedly spotted flying over the city. Witnesses included professors from Texas Tech University and photographed by a Texas Tech student.

[29]

1952-07-13

1952 Washington D.C. UFO incident

Washington, D.C.

United States

A series of sightings in July 1952 accompanied radar contacts at three separate airports in the Washington area. The sightings made front page headlines around the nation, and ultimately lead to the formation of the Robertson Panel by the CIA.

[30]

1952-07-24

Carson Sink UFO incident

Nevada

United States

Two pilots saw three unusual Delta-wing aircraft flying in a V-formation over Carson Sink.

[31]

1952-09-12

Flatwoods monster

Flatwoods, West Virginia

United States

6 local boys and a woman report seeing a UFO land, and saw a bizarre-looking creature near the landing site.

[32][33][34]

1953-05-21

Prescott Sightings

Prescott, Arizona

United States

Three Prescott residents sight a total of eight craft at Del Rio Springs Creek, 20 miles north of Prescott.

[35]

1953-08-12

Ellsworth UFO Case

Bismarck, North Dakota

United States

A UFO appearing as a red glowing light is witnessed by 45 people. The sighting takes place over a two night period.

[36]

1953-11-23

Felix Moncla

Lake Superior

United States – Canada

U.S Air Force Pilot disappears while pursuing a UFO.

[37]

1955-08-21

Kelly-Hopkinsville encounter

Kentucky

United States

A group of strange, goblin-like creatures are reported to have attacked a family. The family shot at them several times with little or no effect.

[38]

1957

Antonio Villas Boas

São Francisco de Sales

Brazil

Antonio Villas Boas claimed to have been abducted and examined by aliens. He also claimed to have had sex with an alien woman while aboard the UFO.

[39]

1957-05-03

Edwards Air Force Base UFO

California

United States

Jack Gettys and James Bittick, who were filming base installations on behalf of Gordon Cooper, observed the landing and departure of a flying disk. Their film evidence was sent to Washington.

[40]

1957-05-20

Milton Torres 1957 UFO Encounter

East Anglia

United Kingdom

US Air Force fighter pilot Milton Torres reports that he was ordered to interecept and fire on a UFO displaying “very unusual flight patterns” over East Anglia. Ground radar operators had tracked the object for some time before Torres’ plane was scrambled to intercept.

[41]

1957-11-02

Levelland UFO Case

Levelland, Texas

United States

Numerous motorists reported seeing a glowing, egg-shaped object which caused their vehicle’s engines to shut down. When the object flew away, their vehicles restarted without a problem.

[42]

1957-11-04

Burning on Fort Itaipu Sentinels

Praia Grande, São Paulo

Brazil

UFO attacks sentinels of military unit.

[43]

1958-01-16

The Trindade Island’s UFO

Trindade Island

Brazil

Some members of the crew of the ship Almirante Saldanha saw a UFO. The photographer Almiro Barauna took three photos of the object.

[44]

1959

Dyatlov Pass incident

Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Mysterious deaths of experienced skiers in the Urals is believed to have been caused by “unidentified orange spheres” and an “unknown compelling force”.

[45]

1959-06-26&27

Father William Booth Gill sighting

Boianai

Papua New Guinea

Missionary and 25 witnesses see UFO and occupants.

[46]

1961-09-19

Betty and Barney Hill abduction

New Hampshire

United States

A widely publicized alien abduction experience.

[47]

1964-04-24

Lonnie Zamora

Socorro, New Mexico

United States

Police officer Zamora reports a close encounter.

[48]

1964-09-04

Donald Shrum

Cisco Grove, California

United States

Humanoids and robots allegedly attempted to abduct hunter.

[49]

1965-03-09

Exeter incident

Exeter, New Hampshire

United States

UFO observed by a teenager and two police officers.

[50]

1965-12-09

Kecksburg UFO incident

Kecksburg, Pennsylvania

United States

Mass sighting of a falling UFO, followed by a cordoning-off of the crash site.

[51]

1966

The Mothman Prophecies

Point Pleasant, West Virginia

United States

A wave of sightings of a winged humanoid is reported to be connected to other mysterious events including sightings of UFOs.

[52]

1966-04-06

Westall UFO

Clayton South, Victoria

Australia

A sighting by hundreds of people. Witnesses of “The Clayton Incident” still gather for reunions.

[53]

1966-04-17

Portage County UFO chase

Ohio

United States

Several police officers pursue a UFO for 30 minutes.

[54]

1966-10-11

The Grinning Man

Elizabeth, New Jersey

United States

A tall man with no nose or ears is sighted in a neighborhood shortly after UFO sighting.

[55]

1967-05-20

Falcon Lake Incident

Falcon Lake, Manitoba

Canada

A UFO’s exhaust allegedly burns a man.

[56]

1967-08-29

Close encounter of Cussac

Cussac, Cantal

France

A young brother and sister claim to have witnessed a UFO and its occupants.

[57]

1967-09-01

Snippy the Horse Mutilation

San Luis Valley, Colorado

United States

Alien related animal mutilation – widely considered to be the first claimed and documented unusual animal death case, related to UFOs and Aliens.

[58]

1967-10-04

Shag Harbour incident

Shag Harbour, Nova Scotia

Canada

A UFO was seen crashing into Shag Harbor. A Canadian naval search followed, and officially referred to the incident as a UFO crash.

[59][60]

1967-12-03

Schirmer Abduction

Ashland, Nebraska

United States

Sergeant Herbert Schirmer claimed he was abducted.

[61]

1969

Jimmy Carter UFO incident

Leary, Georgia

United States

Jimmy Carter‘s sighting.

[62]

1973-10-11

Pascagoula Abduction

Mississippi

United States

Alien abduction of victims who were fishing on the Pascagoula River.

[63]

1973-10-17

Eglin Air Force Base Sighting

Florida

United States

An unidentified object was tracked by a Duke Field radar unit during the same time period, and within the same area, that 10 to 15 people observed four strange objects flying in formation between Milton, Florida, and Crestview, Florida, along Interstate 10, according to Eglin officials. Reports from the base indicated that a bright glowing ball of light could be seen travelling parallel with an Air Force C-130 aircraft but at a much higher altitude.

[64]

1974-01-23

Berwyn Mountain UFO incident

Llandrillo, Merionethshire, North Wales

United Kingdom

An alleged UFO crash involving lights in the sky moments before a large impact shock. The cause of the incident was however soon revealed as a 3.5 magnitude earthquake.

[65][66]

1975-11-05

Travis Walton

Arizona

United States

Logger Travis Walton reports being abducted by aliens for five days. Walton’s six workmates claimed to have witnessed the UFO at the start of his abduction. Walton described the event and its aftermath in The Walton Experience, which was dramatized in the film Fire in the Sky.

[63]

1976-06-22

1976 Canary Isles sightings

Canary Islands

Spain

Several lights and a spherical transparent blue craft, piloted by two beings was reported.

[67]

1976-08-20

Allagash Abductions

Maine

United States

Four campers claimed to have been abducted by alien beings in the Allagash wilderness.

[68]

1976-09-19

1976 Tehran UFO incident

Tehran

Iran

A UFO disabled the electronic equipment of two F-4 interceptor aircraft, along with ground control equipment, a event thoroughly documented in the U.S. DIA report. The Iranian generals involved in the incident claimed the object was extraterrestrial.

[69]

1977

Colares UFO flap

Colares

Brazil

A bewildering account of an island attacked by UFOs shooting harmful beams of radioactive light at the residents.

[70]

1978-05-10

Emilcin Abduction

Emilcin

Poland

A man in Emilcin, Poland is said to have been abducted by “grays.” There is now a memorial at the site.

[71]

1978-10-21

Valentich Disappearance

Victoria

Australia

Contacting air traffic control, an Australian pilot reported seeing a UFO before his aircraft vanished.

[72][73]

1978-12-21

Kaikoura lights

South Island

New Zealand

A series of sightings by a Safe Air freight plane; the airplane was escorted by strange lights that changed color and size.

[74]

1979-08-27

Val Johnson Incident

Marshall County, Minnesota

United States

A deputy sheriff spotted a bright light which appeared to have collided with his patrol car and damaged it. The deputy also suffered temporary retinal damage from the “light”.

[75][76]

1979-11-09

Robert Taylor incident

Livingston, Scotland

United Kingdom

A forester, Bob Taylor, was pulled by two spiked globes towards a UFO, which stood on a clearing. He lost consciousness and afterwards had trouble walking and speaking. He was also constantly thirsty for several days.

[77]

1979-11-11

Manises UFO Incident

Valencia

Spain

Three large UFOs forced a commercial flight to make an emergency landing at Manises Airport.

[78]

1980-12-28

Rendlesham Forest Incident

Suffolk, England

United Kingdom

A sighting by military personnel, which at first appeared to be a downed aircraft.

[79]

1980-12-29

Cash-Landrum incident

New Caney, Texas

United States

A huge diamond-shaped UFO irradiates three witnesses, who all required treatment for radiation poisoning. The UFO was escorted by military helicopters. The victims have since sued the US Government.

[80]

1981-01-08

Trans-en-Provence Case

Trans-en-Provence

France

Renato Nicolai, a farmer, saw an object which had the shape of two saucers, one inverted on top of the other. The UFO left physical evidence on the ground, in the form of mechanical pressure and burnt residue on the grass.

[81]

1986-05-19

1986 São Paulo UFO sighting

São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

Brazil

Brazilian Air Force detect and intercept UFOs on southeastern Brazil. As many as twenty UFOs were seen and tracked by ground radar and at least six airplanes during the night of May 19.

[82][83]

1986-11-17

Japan Air Lines flight 1628 incident

Alaska

United States

A group of UFOs flew alongside Japan Air Lines Flight 1628 for 50 minutes above Northeastern Alaska. One of the objects trailing the Boeing 747 was detected by military radar.

[84]

1987-11-11

Gulf Breeze UFO incident

Florida

United States

Ed Walters, a building contractor, saw a UFO and took photos of it. Walters continued to see UFOs for three weeks and he documented the sightings taking photos. Today most investigators think that the Walters’ photos are faked, but other people in Gulf Breeze claimed UFO sightings during the same period.

[85]

1990-03-30

Belgian UFO wave

Ans, Wallonia

Belgium

Mass sighting of large, silent, low-flying black triangles, which were tracked by multiple NATO radar and jet interceptors, and investigated by Belgium’s military. Photographic evidence exists.

[86][87]

1991-09-15

STS-48 incident

Space Shuttle Discovery while in orbit

Outer space

Video taken during mission STS-48 shows a flash of light and several objects, apparently flying in an artificial or controlled fashion. NASA explained them as ice particles reacting to engine jets. Philip C. Plait, in his book Bad Astronomy, agreed with NASA, but Jack Kasher proposed five arguments against them being ice particles. James Oberg disputed these, and Lan Fleming argued that the shuttle’s exhaust plume as not the cause of the flash of light that preceded the objects’ abrupt change of course. Mark J. Carlotto noted that one of the objects apparently had three lobes arranged in a triangular pattern.

[88][89][90][91][92]

1994-06

Meng Zhaoguo Incident

Wuchang

China

Meng claimed to have been abducted and forced to have sexual intercourse with a 10 feet (3.0 m), six fingered, female alien with braided leg fur.

[93]

1995-5-25

America West Airlines Flight 564

Bovina, Texas

United States

A 300-400 foot long cigar-shaped UFO with rotating strobe light followed an America West Boeing 757

[94]

1996-01-20

Varginha UFO incident

Varginha, Minas Gerais

Brazil

Multiple sightings and the alleged capture of an alien by the Brazilian military.

[95]

1996-12-02

STS-80 incidents

Space Shuttle Columbia while in orbit

Outer space

A video taken during mission STS-80 of the Space Shuttle Columbia was analyzed by Mark J. Carlotto. It included three unusual phenomena: two slow-moving circular objects; a strange rapidly moving burst of light near the Earth’s surface; and a number of object traces near the shuttle. The first two may be shuttle debris and an unusual atmospheric phenomenon. An analysis of the object traces near the shuttle suggested they were not shuttle debris or meteors, though James Oberg deemed them to be nearby sunlit debris.

[96][97]

1997-03-13

Phoenix Lights, or “lights over Phoenix”

Phoenix, Arizona

United States

Lights and craft of varying descriptions, most notably a V-shaped pattern, were seen by thousands of people between 19:30 and 22:30 MST, in a space of about 300 miles, from the Nevada line, through Phoenix, to the edge of Tucson.

[98]

21st Century

Date

Name

City, State

Country

Description

Sources

2001-03-19

STS-102 The Washington Sequence

Space Shuttle Discovery while in orbit

Outer space

Video broadcast during mission STS-102, allegedly recorded by Jeff Challender, shows a flash of light and three objects which performed movements which included starting, stopping, accelerating, and making sudden angled turns. Lan Fleming compared the timing of the flash of light and a course change of one of the objects to the timing of shuttle thruster firings and alleged that the flash and movements could not have been caused by thruster firings.

[99][100][101][102]

2001-07-15

NJ Turnpike/Carteret Lights Incident

Carteret, New Jersey

United States

At least 15 people, including 2 police officers, stopped their cars along the New Jersey Turnpike to view light formations in the night sky.

[103][104]

2004-03-05

2004 Mexican UFO Incident

Mexico

A drug-smuggling air patrol recorded on infrared camera what some claimed to be UFOs. The footage was released by Jaime Maussan. The objects were however convincingly correlated with the burn-off flares of oil platforms.

[105]

2004-10-31

The Tinley Park Lights

Tinley Park, Illinois

United States

A sequence of five mass UFO sightings, first on August 21, 2004, two months later on October 31, 2004, again on October 1 of 2005, and once again on October 31, 2006, in Tinley Park and Oak Park, Chicago.

[106][107][108]

2006-11-07

Chicago O’Hare UFO sighting 2006

Chicago, Illinois

United States

United Airlines employees and pilots claimed sightings of a saucer-shaped, unlit craft hovering over a Chicago O’Hare Airport terminal, before shooting up vertically.

[109]

2007-04-23

2007 Alderney UFO sighting

Bailiwick of Guernsey

Crown Dependency

Two airline pilots on separate flights spot UFOs off the coast of Alderney.

[110]

2007-09-25

Kodiak Island UFO incident

Kodiak, Alaska

United States

On September 25, 2007, several Kodiakans saw something fall from the sky Tuesday morning that may have landed in mountainous terrain on Kodiak Island. The incident prompted 911 calls and a helicopter search was launched from U.S. Coast Guard Air Station Kodiak, but no crash site was found.

[111]

2008-01-08 to 2008-02-09

Stephenville, Texas UFO sightings

Stephenville, Texas, Dublin, Texas, Crawford, Texas

United States

UFOs were, and are sometimes still reported from this area. One was an object described as 1 mile (1.6 km) by 1.5 miles (2.4 km) in size, spotted over Bush Ranch in Crawford, Texas. The Air Force has identified the objects as training fighter jets that went unreported due to a “communications problem”.

[112]

2008-05 to 2008-09

2008 Turkey UFO Sightings

Istanbul

Turkey

Over a four month span in 2008, a night guard at the Yeni Kent Compound videotaped one or more UFOs over Turkey at nighttime. Many witnesses confirmed the two and a half hours’ worth of video, leading the Sirius UFO Space Science Research Center to dub it the “most important images of a UFO ever filmed”.

[113]

2008-06-20

Wales UFO sightings

Different cities, Wales

United Kingdom

According to media reports, a police helicopter was almost hit by a UFO, before it tried to pursue it. Hundreds of people reported to have witnessed a UFO on the same or preceding days, from different areas of Wales.

[114]

2008-06-21

Moscow UFO sightings

Moscow

Russian Federation

Different people and media (including state-owned) reported sightings of 11 orange UFOs. Further confirmation came from Saint Petersburg and Novosibirsk. On June 25 a similar report, now with 13 objects, was claimed from the UK.

[115][116][117]

2009-12-09

2009 Norwegian spiral anomaly

Finnmark

Norway and Sweden

A large, circular spinning white light, trailed by a long blue tail over the skies of Norway was spotted by thousands for two minutes around 8:45 am on December 9. The Norwegian media and space center were swamped with calls, and the phenomenon was held to be anything from a UFO to a unique aurora borealis event. The following day Russian authorities confirmed a failed Bulava launch, explaining the anomaly.

[118][119]

2010-01-25

Harbour Mille incident

Harbour Mille, Newfoundland and Labrador

Canada

At least three UFO’s were spotted over Harbour Mille. The objects looked like missiles but emitted no noise.

[120]

2011-01-28

Jerusalem Dome of the Rock UFO incident

Jerusalem

Israel

A single lighted object was spotted and filmed in the middle of the night, apparently by several different tourists, descending over Jerusalem’s Dome of the Rock, hovering briefly, producing a flash of light, and then ascending into the sky.

[121][122]

2011-02-20

Vancouver Washington UFO Sighting

Vancouver, Washington

United States

Stationary green and red blinking lights with limited sideways movements, were recorded on video and still photography. They were witnessed by several residents who live off Southeast 192nd Avenue in Vancouver, Washington.

[123]

[124]

By country

Argentina Australia Belarus Belgium Brazil Canada Canary Islands China France Indonesia Iran Iraq Italy Mexico New Zealand Norway Outer space Philippines Portugal Russia South Africa Spain Sweden United Kingdom United States

References

1.       ^ “A List of UFO Sightings by Astronomers”. Scribd.com. http://www.scribd.com/doc/16805639/A-List-of-UFO-Sightings-by-Astronomers. Retrieved 2010-08-13.

2.       ^ “Letter to Scientific American, Dec 18, 1886”. Nuforc.org. http://www.nuforc.org/GNSciAm.html. Retrieved 2010-08-13.

3.       ^ Copy of Article

4.       ^ “Estimate of the Situation 2009: The Maracaibo Incident, 1886”. Estimateofthesituation.blogspot.com. 2008-07-01. http://estimateofthesituation.blogspot.com/2008/06/maracaibo-incident-1886.html. Retrieved 2010-08-13.

5.       ^ Close Encounters of a Kind Time magazine

6.       ^ Aurora – Can a space alien rest in peace? Houston Chronicle

7.       ^ [1]

8.       ^ http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&cl=search&d=EP19210804.2.74

9.       ^ http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&cl=search&d=WH19090727.2.46

10.    ^ Joaquim Fernandes and Fina d’Armada, Heavenly Lights 2005

11.    ^ Joaquim Fernandes and Fina d’Armada, Celestial Secrets 2007

12.    ^ Joaquim Fernandes, Fernando Fernandes and Raul Berenguel, Fatima Revisited 2008

13.    ^ “Foo-Fighter”. http://www.time.com (TIME). 1945-01-15. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,775433,00.html. Retrieved 2008-07-03.

14.    ^ Hitler’s Flying Saucers: Henry Stevens

15.    ^ 140 Years of UFO sightings Telegraph:

16.    ^ L.A. ‘Battle’ Launched a Golden Age of UFOs Los Angeles Times:

17.    ^ Science in the Early Twentieth Century – Jacob Darwin Hamblin – 2005

18.    ^ The Rough Guide to Sweden: James Proctor & Neil Roland

19.    ^ Is strange rock from UFO or just a piece of poppycock? Seattle p.i.com

20.    ^ Saucers in the sky BBC News Magazine:

21.    ^ Report on Roswell ‘UFO crash’ due soon CNN

22.    ^ Mysterious Green Fireballs, UFOs, And The “Roswell Incident” Committee for Skeptical Inquiry

23.    ^ Captain Thomas Francis Mantell Jr. National Guard History eMuseum

24.    ^ Chiles/Whitted Sighting

25.    ^ Clark, Jerome (2003). Strange Skies: Pilot Encounters with UFOs. Citadel Press. p. 66. ISBN 0806522992.

26.    ^ The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects Edward J. Ruppelt

27.    ^ The Mariana UFO Incident Great Falls Tribune

28.    ^ The Trent Farm Photos Dr. Bruce Maccabee Research Website

29.    ^ Some Lubbock Residents Spot A UFO Traveling Across Texas KCBD News Channel

30.    ^ Something in the air: 50 years ago, UFOs streaked over D.C. The Seattle Times

31.    ^ The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects Edward J. Ruppelt

32.    ^ “The Legend of the Flatwoods Monster”. Wvculture.org. 2002-09-12. http://www.wvculture.org/goldenseal/Fall02/legend.html. Retrieved 2009-07-27.

33.    ^ The Phantom of Flatwoods Braxton Citizens’ News

34.    ^ Flatwoods monster meets with Mothman at UFO extravaganza The Register-Herald

35.    ^ Prescott Evening Courier, Vol. 71 #98-May 22, 1953

36.    ^ The Report on Unidentified Flying Objects Edward J. Ruppelt

37.    ^ Airmen’s disappearance remains a mystery Wisconsin State Journal:

38.    ^ Siege of ‘Little Green Men’ – The 1955 Kelly, Kentucky, Incident Skeptical Inquirer

39.    ^ They came from out’a space The Independent

40.    ^ Astronaut Gordon Cooper Witnesses UFO Landing at Edwards AFB John Cooke, UFO Evidence

41.    ^ U.S. fighter pilot: ‘I was ordered to fire 24 rockets at UFO flying over East Anglia’ Daily Mail

42.    ^ A FRESH LOOK AT FLYING SAUCERS Time magazine

43.    ^ http://www.skeptictank.org/files//ufo1/usafchap.htm

44.    ^ Trindade Island’s UFO

45.    ^ Morford, Mark (2008-02-27). “How creepy to you want it?”. http://www.sfgate.com (SFGate). http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/g/a/2008/02/27/notes022708.DTL. Retrieved 2008-07-05.

46.    ^ “1959-The Papua, New Guinea UFOs”. Ufos.about.com. 1959-04-05. http://ufos.about.com/od/bestufocasefiles/p/papua.htm. Retrieved 2011-08-26.

47.    ^ Testament for Believers Time magazine

48.    ^ City plans to make UFO site into tourist attraction El Defensor Chieftain

49.    ^ B. J. Booth (1964-09-04). “Cisco Grove, California Alien Encounter, 1964”. Ufocasebook.com. http://www.ufocasebook.com/ciscocounty1964.html. Retrieved 2011-08-26.

50.    ^ Norman Muscarello Recalls His UFO Incident at Exeter SeacoastNH

51.    ^ NASA to search files on ’65 UFO incident MSNBC

52.    ^ Mothman and Other Curious Encounters Loren Coleman:

53.    ^ “Academic throws light on 40-year-old UFO mystery”. The Age (Melbourne). 2005-10-02. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2005/10/01/1127804696941.html. Retrieved 2007-02-13.

54.    ^ American Chronicle: More UFOs reported over Ohio

55.    ^ Keel, John. A (2002). “Chapter 14: The Grinning Man”. The Complete Guide To Mysterious Beings. Tor Books. ISBN 0765345862.

56.    ^ Falcon Lake, Manitoba Library and Archives of Canada

57.    ^ French Get a Look at Nation’s UFO Files Washington Post

58.    ^ The mysterious San Luis Valley, part I Cyberwest Magazine

59.    ^ Shag Harbour, Nova Scotia Library and Archives of Canada

60.    ^ Canadian Department of National Defence Memo Library and Archives of Canada

61.    ^ Case 42 Condon Report:

62.    ^ Carter files report on UFO sighting History.com

63.    ^ a b Conspiracy Theories in American History – Peter Knight

64.    ^ Fort Walton Beach, Florida, “Eglin Radar Installation Tracks UFO Over I-10”, Playground News, Friday 19 October 1973, page 1.

65.    ^ R. M. W. Musson, 2006. The enigmatic Bala earthquake of 1974, Astronomy & Geophysics, vol. 47 no 5, pp 11–15.

66.    ^ Berwyn Mountains Incident BBC

67.    ^ “Observation in the Canary Islands in 1976”. http://ufologie.net/htm/canaries.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-31.

68.    ^ Booth, Billy. “1976-The Allagash Alien Abduction”. http://ufos.about.com/od/aliensalienabduction/p/allagash.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-28.

69.    ^ UFOs are not just a case of science fiction, say pilots Irish Independent

70.    ^ Pratt, Bob. “Colares”. http://www.mufon.com/bob_pratt/colares.html. Retrieved 2009-12-22.

71.    ^ Young Polish artist Hubert Czerepok reflects on visit of those Strange Tourists from the cosmos Kraków Post

72.    ^ Pilot spots ‘UFO’ over Guernsey BBC

73.    ^ Victoria’s own X-File unsolved 30 years on Brisbane Times

74.    ^ “We are not alone: lights in the sky”. Waikato Times. July 27, 2007. http://www.stuff.co.nz/waikatotimes/4143125a19807.html. Retrieved October 15, 2011.

75.    ^ Back on the radar Los Angeles Times

76.    ^ The Minnesota Book of Days Tony Greiner

77.    ^ “Obituary: Robert Taylor”. The Economist. 2007-03-29. http://www.economist.com/obituary/displaystory.cfm?story_id=8922229. Retrieved 2007-03-29.

78.    ^ The Anomaly Foundation Solves the “Manises” UFO Case fundacion anomalia

79.    ^ UFOs – Rendlesham, Suffolk BBC

80.    ^ “CASH-LANDRUM CASE” REPORTED TO SHOW SEVERE PHYSICAL EFFECTS CSICOP – The Klass Files

81.    ^ Trans-en-Provence Case

82.    ^ http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread148845/pg1

83.    ^ http://reinep.wordpress.com/2010/09/13/brazil-air-force-ordered-to-record-all-ufo-sightings/

84.    ^ FAA Checking into “UFO” Over Alaska Daily Sitka Sentinel, 5 Jan 1987

85.    ^ B. J. Booth. “The Gulf Breeze, Florida UFOs (Ed Walters), UFO Casebook files”. Ufocasebook.com. http://www.ufocasebook.com/gulfbreeze.html. Retrieved 2011-08-26.

86.    ^ “SUNDAY EXPRESS Newspaper, September 17, 1995”. http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc418.htm. Retrieved March 21, 2008.

87.    ^ “Belgian UFO wave at Ufocasebook”. http://www.ufocasebook.com/Belgium.html. Retrieved March 31, 2008.

88.    ^ Plait, Philip C. (2002). Bad Astronomy. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-40976-6. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=eInnwg77gbkC&pg=PP1&dq=#PPA209,M1.

89.    ^ Kasher, Jack (1995-96). “Anomalous images on videotape from Space Shutle Flight STS-48: Examination of the ice-particle explanation”. Journal of UFO Studies (JUFOS) (Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS)) 6. http://www.cufos.org/jufosnew.html#JUFOS_NS_VOL6.

90.    ^ Oberg, James (March 31, 1999). “The Great STS-48 Zig-Zag UFO”. http://www.jamesoberg.com/99purdue-48-speech.pdf.

91.    ^ Fleming, Lan (c. 2003). “Analysis of the Light Flash in the STS-48 Video”. VGL. http://www.vgl.org/webfiles/STS-48/index/shuttle-index.htm.

92.    ^ Carlotto, Mark J. (1995). “Digital Video Analysis of Anomalous Space Objects”. Journal of Scientific Exploration (JSE) (Society for Scientific Exploration (SSE)) 9 (1): 62. http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_09_1_carlotto.pdf.

93.    ^ Close encounters of an intimate kind : PEKING DAYS The Independent

94.    ^ 1995-America West 564 UFO, Billy Booth, About.com Guide

95.    ^ The Varginha UFO Interview bbsradio:

96.    ^ Carlotto, Mark J. (Summer 2005). “Anomalous Phenomena in Space Shuttle Mission STS-80 Video”. New Frontiers in Science 4 (4). http://www.carlotto.us/newfrontiersinscience/ArchiveIndex/v04n04/index.shtml.

97.    ^ “STS-80 UFO – high quality version”. RealUFOs. April 21, 2008. http://www.realufos.net/2008/04/sts-80-ufo-best-high-quality-version.html.

98.    ^ Price, Richard (1997-06-18). “Arizonans say the truth about UFO is out there” (PDF). USA Today. http://www.ufosnw.com/history_of_ufo/phoenixlights1997/usatodayarticle06181997old.pdf. Retrieved 2010-10-30.

99.    ^ Evans, Will (January 2003). “Jeff Challender Tracked NASA Flights”. The Sacramento Bee (Mutual UFO Network of Indiana (MUFON)). http://indianamufon.homestead.com/jeffchallendar.html.

100.^ Challender, Jeff (2005). “STS-102, The Washington Sequence, Part One”. Project P.R.O.V.E. keyhole publishing company. http://keyholepublishing.com/projectprove/Arts/102Wa1/102Wa1.html.

101.^ Challender, Jeff (2005). “STS-102, The Washington Sequence, Part Two”. Project P.R.O.V.E. keyhole publishing company. http://keyholepublishing.com/projectprove/Arts/102Wa2/102Wa2.html.

102.^ Fleming, Lan (2005). “STS-102 Over Washington State: Comparison of the Timing of a Course Change Made by an Object in a STS-102 Video with Orbiter Thruster Firings”. VGL. http://www.vgl.org/webfiles/STS-48/index/shuttle-index.htm.

103.^ “Flares Or UFO? Jury Still Out.”. http://abcnews.go.com/US/story?id=92798&page=1. Retrieved 2001-07-19.

104.^ “NY-SPI Investigates Carteret UFO Case.”. http://www.ny-spi.com/ny-spi-3_013.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-30.

105.^ Smith, James C. (July 24, 2004). “The Mexican Air Force UFO Affair: Aliens, Ball Lightning, or Flares?”. http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/04-07-24.html#mexiUFO. Retrieved 2007-05-13.

106.^ . “abc7chicago.com: Lights in sky over Tinley Park have UFO believers looking up 10/18/06”. Abclocal.go.com. http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=local&id=4672066. Retrieved 2009-07-27.

107.^ “Do You Believe? – Chicago Magazine – March 2007 – Chicago”. Chicagomag.com. http://www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/March-2007/Do-You-Believe/. Retrieved 2009-07-27.

108.^ 9:04 a.m. ET. “Dateline NBC: News stories about crime, celebrity and health- msnbc.com”. MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3032600/. Retrieved 2009-07-27.

109.^ “‘UFO’ spooks pilots over Chicago”. The Age (Melbourne). 2007-01-02. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2007/01/02/1167500092464.html. Retrieved 2007-02-13.

110.^ de Woolfson, Joel (April 26, 2007). “Pilot’s UFO shock”. This is Guernsey. Archived from the original on May 1, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070501203223/http://www.thisisguernsey.com/code/shownewsarticle.pl?ArticleID=002080. Retrieved 2007-04-26.

111.^ “UFO Mystifies Kodiak Citizens”. Kodiak Daily Mirror. 2007-09-25. http://www.kodiakdailymirror.com/?pid=19&id=5264.

112.^ “UFOs? Nope. They were fighter jets, Air Force says” CNN.com. Retrieved 11 October 2008.

113.^ ‘Flying Saucer’ filmed over Turkey The Sun

114.^ UFO spotted by police helicopter BBC

115.^ “Во время матча России и Голландии над Москвой замечено одиннадцать НЛО”. http://www.rian.ru/society/20080624/111875236.html. Retrieved 2008-06-24.

116.^ “11 НЛО было замечено одновременно в России и США”. http://www.rian.ru/society/20080625/112079131.html. Retrieved 2008-06-25.

117.^ Khan, Urmee (2008-06-25). “Soldier spots 13 UFOs above barracks”. The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/2191612/Soldier-spots-13-UFOs-above-barracks.html. Retrieved 2008-06-25.

118.^ Wheeler, Virginia (2009-12-09). “Spiral UFO puts Norway in a spin”. The Sun (London). http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/2764647/Spiral-UFO-puts-Norway-in-a-spin.html.

119.^ Moskowitz, Clara (2009-12-10). “Russia admits missile caused UFO lights”. msnbc.com. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/34362960/ns/technology_and_science-space/#.T2Fy_BFmJVU.

120.^ “DND, RCMP mum on UFO mystery”. CBC News. 2010-01-27. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/newfoundland-labrador/story/2010/01/27/nl-ufo-military-012710.html.

121.^ http://www.news.com.au/technology/dome-of-the-rock-jerusalem-light-all-proof-ufo-fans-need-that-aliens-exist/story-e6frfro0-1225999530203

122.^ http://news.discovery.com/space/jerusalem-ufo-almost-certainly-a-hoax.html

123.^ “‘UFO’ still puzzling residents and an expert”. The Columbian. February 24, 2011. http://www.columbian.com/news/2011/feb/24/ufo-still-puzzling-residents-and-an-expert/.

124.^ |date=march 27, 2012 | the mission bc lights | a ufo hovered over mission bc and a young boy video taped it for almost ten minutes before it shot up into the sky. |

 

List Of Ufologists.By Wiki

List of Ufologists

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

The following is a worldwide list of ufologists (UFO researchers).

Asia

LocationAsia.png

Indonesia

J. Salatun, pioneer of UFO research in Indonesia.[1]

Europe

LocationEurope.png

Estonia

Hans Raudsik[2][3] Igor Volke[4][5]

Finland

Rauni-Leena Luukanen-Kilde, (b. 1939), has spoken openly about the hiding of UFO evidence.[6] Juhan af Grann, (b. 1948), is a Finnish film director and producer known of his UFO documentaries.[7]

France

Jacques Bergier (1912 – 1978), writer. He co-wrote the best-seller The Morning of the Magicians. Robert Charroux (1909 – 1978), writer. Promoted the Ancient astronauts theory. Rémy Chauvin (1913 – 2009), biologist and entomologist. Aimé Michel (1919 – 1992), writer and ufologist. Jean-Pierre Petit (b. 1937), scientist, senior researcher at National Center for Scientific Research CNRS as an astrophysicist. Promoted the Ummo theory. Created the Ufo-Science Association. Jacques Vallée (b. 1939) Computer scientist. Important figure in the UFO studies in France and in the United States. Promoted the extraterrestrial hypothesis and later the interdimensional hypothesis. Claude Poher (b. 1936), member of the French space agency, CNES, a precursor of GEIPAN, the official French service dedicated to the analysis of the UFO observation reports from the population.

Italy

Monsignor Corrado Balducci, (1923–2008), a Roman Catholic theologian of the Vatican Curia long time exorcist for the Archdiocese of Rome.[8]

Spain

Iker Jiménez Elizari (b. 1973) is a journalist born in the Basque city of Vitoria. He’s licensed in Sciences of the Information by the Complutensian University of Madrid and the European University of Madrid. His wife, Carmen Porter, is also a journalist and investigator on paranormal activity; both work together in the show Cuarto Milenio, in the TV network Cuatro, and its radio version Milenio 3 in Cadena SER, about paranormal activity, Ufology and other mysteries.[9][10]

Switzerland

Erich von Däniken, (b. 1935), is a controversial Swiss author best known for his books which examine possible evidence for extraterrestrial influences on early human culture.[11]

United Kingdom

George King, (1919–1997) regarded himself as “Primary Terrestrial Mental Channel” for great and evolved extraterrestrial Intelligences.[12] Elizabeth Klarer, (1910–1984), South African contactee and UFO photographer.[13]Nick Pope, Former head of the UFO desk, Ministry of Defence; author of Operation Thunder Child.[14]Jenny Randles, (b. 1951), is a British author and former director of investigations with the British UFO Research Association (BUFORA).[15] Brinsley Le Poer Trench, (1911–1995), a ufologist and a firm believer in flying saucers, and in particular, the Hollow Earth theory.[16]

Ukraine

National Technical University of Ukraine (KPI).[17][18][19] Author of over 30 publications, numerous publications in the media and the Internet. Inheriteda lot of public material on UFO activity in sections of the Academy of Sciences. Upstream developer of several innovative methods of identification of atmospheric phenomena, mathematical processing, automatic process of peer review.[which?]

North America

LocationNorthAmerica.png

Canada

Stanton Friedman, (b. 1934), U.S. born Canadian professional ufologist, former nuclear physicist, did early research on Roswell and also MJ-12 documents.[20] Paul Hellyer, (b. 1923) a Canadian politician. Officially inaugurated a UFO landing pad in St. Paul, Alberta; the first in the world.[21] Wilbert Brockhouse Smith (1910–1962) was a Canadian electrical engineer, radio engineer, ufologist and contactee.[22]

Mexico

Jaime Maussan, (b. 1953), is a Mexican journalist and ufologist.[23]

United States

George Adamski (April 17, 1891 – April 23, 1965) – Controversial UFO contactee of the 1950s, wrote several bestselling books about his encounters with friendly “space brothers” from other planets.[24] Orfeo Angelucci (aka Orville Angelucci) (June 25, 1912 – July 24, 1993) – One of the most unusual of the mid-1950s UFO contactees.[25]Art Bell (birth name: Arthur William Bell, III) (b. 1945) – US radio broadcaster and author, known primarily as the founder and longtime host of the paranormal-themed radio program Coast to Coast AM.[26] Paul Bennewitz (September 29, 1927 – June 23, 2003) – US businessman who played a major role in shaping the development of UFO conspiracy theories since the 1980s.[27][verification needed]Greg Bishop – Author of Project Beta and co-founder of the magazine The Excluded Middle. Also, hosts a weekly radio program, Radio Misterioso, and co-writes the blog UFO Mystic with Nick Redfern.[28] Jerome Clark (b. 1946) – UFO historian, author of the UFO Encyclopedia[29] Philip J. Corso (1915–1998) – Army Intel officer, wrote highly-disputed book on Roswell UFO incident.[30] Robert Dean (b. 1929) Ufologist, reportedly read a document called An Assessment (1964), a NATO report on UFOs prompted by an incident on February 2, 1961 during which 50 UFOs allegedly appeared over Europe.[31] Glenn Dennis (b. 1925) – A founder of the International UFO Museum and Research Center in Roswell, New Mexico, which opened in September 1991. Dennis is a self-professed witness to the Roswell UFO incident (1947).[32] Richard M. Dolan (b.1962) – Author of UFOs and the National Security State, Vol. I: Chronology of a Cover-Up 1941–1973, and a frequent speaker at UFO conferences. Also, a co-host of the television series Sci-Fi Investigates.[33]Danielle Egnew (February 28, 1969) – American Psychic / Medium and Paranormal Radio, TV and Film host. Contactee who regularly reports on first-hand communication with extraterrestrial species along with detailed physics / design of extraterrestrial propulsion systems.[34][34] Raymond E. Fowler (b. 1934) long-time UFO investigator, details one of the best multiple witness alien abduction cases on record, author of The Andreasson Affair and The Allagash Abductions.[35][36] Daniel Fry (July 19, 1908 – December 20, 1992) was an American contactee who claimed he had multiple contacts with an alien and took a ride in a remotely piloted alien spacecraft on July 4, 1949.[37] Allen H. Greenfield (b. 1946), is an American occultist, Ufologist, writer, editor.[38] Steven M. Greer (b. 1955), is an American physician known as a proponent of openness in government, media and corporations when it comes to advanced technologies that he and others believe to have been shelved and hidden from public awareness for reasons of profit and influence.[39] Richard H. Hall (December 25, 1930 – July 17, 2009), former assistant director of NICAP in the 1960s, former director of the Fund for UFO Research in the 1980s.[40] Charles I. Halt, retired USAF Colonel who was a key figure in the Rendlesham UFO incident in 1980.[41] Allan Hendry (b. 1950), astronomer, full-time UFO investigator for the Center for UFO Studies in the late 1970s and early 1980s.[42]Budd Hopkins (b. 1931), alien abduction researcher.[43]Linda Moulton Howe (b. 1942), journalist known for cattle mutilation investigations.[44]J. Allen Hynek (May 1, 1910 – April 27, 1986) – Astronomer, consultant to Project Blue Book (USAF). Founded CUFOS (Center for UFO Studies).[45]Morris K. Jessup (March 2 or 20, 1900 – April 20, 1959), a photographer, is probably best remembered for his pioneering ufological writings and his role in uncovering the so-called Philadelphia Experiment.[46] John Keel (birth name: Alva John Kiehle) (March 25, 1930 – July 3, 2009), journalist, investigated the famous Mothman Sightings in West Virginia in 1966 and 1967.[45] Donald Keyhoe (June 20, 1897 – Nov. 29, 1988), aviator and Marine Corps officer, was the leader of NICAP, the largest civilian UFO research group in the US, in the 1950s and 1960s.[47] Philip J. Klass (November 8, 1919 – August 9, 2005), senior editor of Aviation Week and Space Technology, leading UFO skeptic/debunker from mid-1960s until his death in 2005. George Knapp (b. 1952) – American investigative journalist.[48]Bob Lazar (b. 1959) is a physicist and owner of a mail-order scientific supply company who claims to have worked from 1988 until 1989 at an area called S-4 (Sector Four).[49] Bruce Maccabee (b. 1942), retired US Navy optical physicist, has analyzed numerous UFO videos and photos.[50] Jim Marrs (b. 1943), is a conspiracy theorist, news reporter, college professor, and author of books and articles on a wide range of assorted conspiracy theories.[51] Riley Martin (b. 1946), is a self-described alien contactee, author, and radio host.[52] John Edward Mack (1929–2004), Harvard psychiatrist/professor, alien abduction researcher.[53] Donald Howard Menzel (1901–1976), professor of astronomy at Harvard University, leading UFO skeptic of the 1950s and 1960s.[54] James W. Moseley (b. 1931), editor of Saucer Smear, longtime observer and commentator of the UFO field.[55]George Noory (b. 1950), broadcaster of the popular “Coast to Coast” radio broadcast; the program discusses paranormal events.[56] Curtis Peebles, aerospace historian for the Smithsonian Institution, also a leading UFO skeptic.[57] Kevin D. Randle (b. 1949), Captain in the US Air Force Reserves; also a leading investigator of the Roswell UFO Incident in 1947.[58]Nick Redfern (b. 1964), is a British ufologist/Cryptozoologist now living in Dallas, Texas, US.[59] Edward J. Ruppelt (July 17, 1923 – September 15, 1960), Air Force Captain who supervised Project Blue Book, the Air Force’s official study of the UFO phenomenon in the 1950s and 1960s.[60] Harley Rutledge (1926–2006), solid-state physicist, Southeast Missouri State University.[61] Michael Salla (b. 1958) is an international politics scholar who in 2001 became interested in the study of exopolitics.[62] Robert Sheaffer (b. 1949), member of CSICOP‘s UFO subcommittee, a leading UFO skeptic/debunker.[63]Rob Simone Author of “UFOs In The Headlines” and “UFOs Crop Circles and the Mayan Calendar” The Rob Simone Talk Show. Whitley Strieber (b. 1946), author of Communion, UFO researcher and paranormal phenomena expert.[64]Leonard H. Stringfield, (1920–1994) was an American ufologist who took particular interest in crashed flying saucer stories. Michael D. Swords, biophysicist at Western Michigan University, prominent ufologist for the Center for UFO Studies.[65] Jacques Fabrice Vallée (b. 1939), scientist, author.[66]Alfred Webre (b. 1942), is an author, lawyer (member of the District of Columbia Bar), futurist, peace activist, environmental activist, and a space activist who promotes the ban of space weapons.[67] Jason Murphy (b.1970), is writer and 25 year ufo researcher living in Connecticut.[68] Steve Hopkins (b.1978), is a full-time ufologist, Cryptozoologist, North Carolina, U.S.A.[69]

South America & Oceania

LocationSouthAmerica.png

Brazil

Ademar José Gevaerd (b. 1962)

Argentina

Fabio Zerpa, (b. 1928), is a parapsychologist and UFO researcher.[70]

References

1.       ^ “Skeptic Report/ UFO Bibliography: Salatun, J”. Archived from the original on 2007-12-22. http://web.archive.org/web/20071222013723/http://www.skepticreport.com/ufo/ufo-s.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-05.

2.       ^ “Muinasteaduste “kriminalist””. Eesti Ekspress. 1998. http://blog.ekspress.ee/Arhiiv/Vanad/1998/34/inimene2.html.

3.       ^ “Ufoloog kommenteeris “Eesti kummituste” lugusid”. elu24. 2008-08-27. http://www.elu24.ee/29373/ufoloog-kommenteeris-eesti-kummituste-lugusid/.

4.       ^ “Igor Volke: Eesti võidaks ufoloogide kümnevõistluse”. Põhjarannik. 2004-12-31. http://arhiiv.pohjarannik.ee/article.php?sid=7959.

5.       ^ Online-intervjuu: küsi ufoloog Igor Volkelt!”. Õhtuleht. 2009-03-05. http://www.ohtuleht.ee/318837.

6.       ^ “Ufo-Norway: MUFON USES SCANDINAVIAN CONTACTEE ON ITS ADVISORY BOARD OF CONSULTANTS: RAUNI-LEENA LUUKANEN”. http://www.kolumbus.fi/lauri.grohn/yk/skepsis/ufonorja.html. Retrieved 2008-01-01.

7.       ^ “Web: Juhan af Granns Visions”. http://personal.inet.fi/business/grann/www/thejag.com/. Retrieved 2008-01-01.

8.       ^ “Monsignor Corrado Balducci”. Paradigm Research Group. http://www.paradigmresearchgroup.org/Awards/Balducci_Corrado.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-01.

9.       ^ Official web site of Iker Jiménez

10.    ^ Official web site of the program TV Cuarto Milenio

11.    ^ “Official Site: Erich von Däniken”. http://www.daniken.com/. Retrieved 2008-01-01.

12.    ^ “The Aetherius Society: Dr. George King, Our Founder”. http://www.aetherius.org/index.cfm?app=content&SectionID=29. Retrieved 2008-02-05.

13.    ^ “Galactic Diplomacy: Elizabeth Klarer – Contactee with extraterrestrials from Alpha Centauri”. http://www.galacticdiplomacy.com/Klarer-home.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-05.

14.    ^ “Official site: Nick Pope”. http://www.nickpope.net/. Retrieved 2008-02-05.

15.    ^ “UFO EVIDENCE: UFO Researchers & People- Jenny Randles”. http://www.ufoevidence.org/Researchers/Detail40.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-05.

16.    ^ “Brinsley Le Poer Trench: “Legends and the case for Hollow Earth.””. http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/luna/esp_luna_19a.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-05.

17.    ^ Ukrainians to see meteor shower this night, 17 September 2008, Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (UNIAN) “(…) says Artem Bilyk, head of the Center for Abnormal Space Phenomena Studies at the National Technical University of Ukraine (KPI).”

18.    ^ Ukraine in Danger! UFO to Attack Us?, 23 August 2007, Mignews

19.    ^ UFOs attacking Ukraine (video), 5 September 2007, Anna Vernoslova, RIA Novosti correspondent in Kiev, Russian International News Agency (RIA Novosti)

20.    ^ “Statement by Stanton T. Friedman”. National Capital Area Skeptics. January 2001. http://ncas.org/ufosymposium/friedman.html. Retrieved 2011-09-27.

21.    ^ “Former Canadian Minister Of Defence Asks Canadian Parliament Asked To Hold Hearings On Relations With Alien “Et” Civilizations”. UFO Digest. November 24, 2005. http://www.ufodigest.com/parliament.html. Retrieved 2008-01-19.

22.    ^ Clark, Jerome, The UFO Encyclopedia: The Phenomenon from the Beginning, Volume 2, L-Z Detroit: Omnigraphics, 1998 (2nd edition, 2005), ISBN 0-7808-0097-4

23.    ^ “(www.paradigmresearchgroup.org) Jaime Maussan: 2005 PRG Courage in Journalism”. http://www.paradigmresearchgroup.org/Awards/Maussan_Jaime.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-05.

24.    ^ “The Queen & the Saucers”. Time magazine. 1959-06-01. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,811123,00.html. Retrieved 2008-01-01.

25.    ^ “(galactic2.net) “He experienced a cosmic glimpse in the spaceship.”- Orfeo Angelucci”. http://galactic2.net/rune/orfeo.html. Retrieved 2008-02-05.

26.    ^ “SPACE.COM: “Legal Web Heats Up Around Art Bell.””. http://www.space.com/sciencefiction/phenomena/artbell.html. Retrieved 2008-02-05.

27.    ^ “PARA VIEW: “The Story of Paul Bennewitz, National Security, and the Creation of a Modern UFO Myth.””. http://www.paraview.com/bishop/. Retrieved 2008-02-06.

28.    ^ “The Excluded Middle”. http://www.excludedmiddle.com.

29.    ^ Clark, Jerome (1998). The UFO Encyclopedia: The Phenomenon from the Beginning, Volume 2, A-K Detroit: Omnigraphics. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics. ISBN 0-7808-0097-4.

30.    ^ “Philip J. Corso’s Department of the Army Form 66, Officer Qualification Record”. http://www.cufon.org/cufon/corso_da66.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-01.

31.    ^ “Own site (Robert Dean): Beyond Zebra”. Archived from the original on 2007-12-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20071212183930/http://www.beyondzebra.com/bobdean.shtml. Retrieved 2008-01-01.

32.    ^ “Roswell Files: Glenn Dennis”. http://www.roswellfiles.com/Witnesses/glenndennis.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-06.

33.    ^ “Keyhole Publishing, Dolan bio”. http://keyholepublishing.com/richard_dolan-bio.html.

34.    ^ a b “Haunted Playground on LA Talk Radio”. http://latalkradio.com/Haunted.php.

35.    ^ http://www.nicap.org/ray.htm

36.    ^ http://www.cufos.org/books.html

37.    ^My Experience With the Lie Detector“, Daniel Fry, September 1954, “Saucers”, Vol. ii, No. 3, pages 6-8.

38.    ^ “Mysterious America: Interview with Allen H. Greenfield”. Archived from the original on 2007-12-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20071219233334/http://www.mysterious-america.net/allengreenfieldi.html. Retrieved 2008-02-06.

39.    ^ Greer, Steven (1999). “About Steven M. Greer, M.D.”. Extraterrestrial Contact: The Evidence and Implications. Afton, Virginia: Crossing Point. pp. 525–526. ISBN 978-0-96-732380-0. http://www.disclosureproject.org.

40.    ^ “Official site: Richard H. Hall”. http://www.hallrichard.com/. Retrieved 2008-02-06.

41.    ^ “UFO Evidence, Rendlesham case report by L.Col. Charles Halt”. http://www.ufoevidence.org/documents/doc662.htm.

42.    ^ Clark, Jerome (1998). The UFO Encyclopedia: 2nd Edition; Volume 1, A-K. Omnigraphics, Inc. ISBN 0-7808-0097-4. page 481

43.    ^ “Inruders Foundation: Budd Hopkins UFO Abduction Research Foundation”. http://www.intrudersfoundation.org/. Retrieved 2008-02-10.

44.    ^ “Bio: Linda Moulton Howe”. Nexus Magazine. Archived from the original on 2008-03-07. http://web.archive.org/web/20080307045521/http://www.nexusmagazine.com/Conf+2005/Linda+Moulton+Howe.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10.

45.    ^ a b “The J. Allen Hynek for UFO Studies”. http://www.cufos.org/org.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10.

46.    ^ Ronald Story, ed., The Encyclopedia of Extraterrestrial Encounters, (New York: New American Library, 2001), s.v. “Morris K. Jessup,” pp. 276.

47.    ^ Jerome Clark, The UFO Book: Encyclopedia of the Extraterrestrial. Visible Ink, 1998. ISBN 1-57859-029-9

48.    ^ “UFORC.com NEWS SERVICE: KLAS-TV Reporter – George Knapp to Give Keynote Banquet Speech at 4th UFO Crash Retrieval Conference”. http://www.uforc.com/news/KLAS-TV_Knapp_UFOCRC_111006.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-01.

49.    ^ “Official web site: Bob Lazar”. http://www.boblazar.com/. Retrieved 2008-02-10.

50.    ^ “Dr. Bruce Maaccabee Research Website”. http://brumac.8k.com/. Retrieved 2008-08-24.

51.    ^ “The truth is way out there”. Dallas Observer. 2000-07-06. Archived from the original on 2000-08-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20000823222702/http://www.dallasobserver.com/issues/2000-07-06/feature.html/page1.html.

52.    ^ Martin, Riley; Tan. The Coming of Tan. Historicity Productions. http://www.thecomingoftan.com/read~from~the~book/read~from~the~book.html. Retrieved 2008-01-01.

53.    ^ “The John E Mack Institute”. http://www.johnemackinstitute.org/. Retrieved 2008-08-24.

54.    ^ Greenwell, J. Richard, “Menzel, Donald H[oward]” pp. 229–230 in The Encyclopedia of UFOs,” Ronald Story, editor; Garden City: Doubleday & Company, Inc, 1980, ISBN 0-385-13677-3

55.    ^ Moseley, James W.; Pflock, Karl T. (2002). Shockingly Close to the Truth!: Confessions of a Grave-Robbing Ufologist. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-991-3.

56.    ^ Noory; Birnes (2006). Worker in the Light: Unlock Your Five Senses And Liberate Your Limitless Potential. New York: Forge. ISBN 0-7653-1087-2.

57.    ^ Watch the Skies! A Chronicle of the Flying Saucer Myth, 1994. Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-343-4

58.    ^ The Roswell Encyclopedia, 2000, Collins Press, ISBN 0380798530

59.    ^ “Nick Redfern Official site”. http://www.nickredfern.com/. Retrieved 2008-08-24.

60.    ^ Diana Palmer Hoyt, “UFOCRITIQUE: UFOs, Social Intelligence and the Condon Committee”; Master’s Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 2000 read it online

61.    ^ Rutledge, Harley D. Project Identification: The first Scientific Study of UFO Phenomena. Prentice-Hall 1981 ISBN 0-13-730713-6

62.    ^ Carlson, Peter (February 19, 2004). “Ike and the Alien Ambassadors”. Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A53203-2004Feb18&notFound=true. Retrieved 2008-01-01.

63.    ^ “The Debunker’s Domain: Robert Sheaffer- Skeptical to the Max”. http://debunker.com/. Retrieved 2008-08-24.

64.    ^ “Whitley Strieber’s “Unknown Country””. http://www.unknowncountry.com/. Retrieved 2008-01-01.

65.    ^ “The CUFON Inteerview of Michael D. Swords, Ph.D”. http://www.cufon.org/cufon/cir/swords.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-24.

66.    ^ Five Arguments Against the Extraterrestrial Origin of Unidentified Flying Objects – Jacques Vallée, Ph.D.

67.    ^ “Alfred Webre”. Jerry Pippin. http://www.jerrypippin.com/UFO_Files_alfred_webre.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-01.

68.    ^ {http://www.HartfordExaminer.com}

69.    ^ {http://www.uforesearcher.org}

70.    ^ “UFO INFO: “Argentina: Ufologist to Visit Policeman in Disappearance Case.” (Fabio Zerpa)”. http://www.ufoinfo.com/news/argentinapoliceman3.shtml. Retrieved 2008-02-05.